A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1899

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January 1, 1899: A constituent assembly names Emilio Aguinaldo as President of the Republic of the Philippines. United States authorities refuse to recognize this action.
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January 1, 1899: The British government unites Trinidad with Tobago.
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January 1, 1899: Stanislaw Przybyszewski publishes a manifesto entitled Confiteor in his journal Life based in Krakow. His belief in absolute art, without external associations, forms a philosophical underpinning for a group of artists known as Young Poland.
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January 1, 1899: Six Waltzes op.22 for piano-four hands by Max Reger (25) are performed for the first time, in Weiden by the composer.
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January 4, 1899: Two songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (38) are performed for the first time, in the Saal der Sing-Akademie, Berlin: Blindes Schauen, dunkle Leuchte to words of de Cota (tr. Heyse), and Lieber alles to words of Eichendorff.
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January 6, 1899: George Nathaniel Curzon replaces Victor Alexander Bruce, Earl of Elgin as Viceroy of India.
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January 6, 1899: Goal nets are used for the first time in an ice hockey game, in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
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January 7, 1899: Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc is born at 2 place des Saussaies near the Elysée Palace in Paris, Republic of France, one of two children born to Emile Poulenc who, along with his brothers, owns a firm which manufactures industrial chemicals, and Jenny Royer, daughter of a cabinet maker.
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January 9, 1899: The Spanish regent María Cristina confers on Enrique Granados (31) the Cross of Carlos III.
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January 13, 1899: The first movement of the Symphony in d minor by Frederick Shepherd Converse (28) is performed for the first time, in Boston. It is well received by audience and critics.
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January 14, 1899: Briséïs, ou Les amants de Corinthe, an unfinished drame lyrique by Emmanuel Chabrier (†4) to words of Mendès and Mikhaël after Goethe, is staged for the first time, in the Royal Opera House, Berlin, conducted by Richard Strauss (34). See 31 January 1897.
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January 17, 1899: Le Temps publishes a petition from the Comité de l’Appel à Union favoring moderation and reconciliation in the Dreyfus affair. Among others, it is signed by Claude Debussy (36) and Gustave Charpentier (38).
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January 17, 1899: The United States takes formal possession of Wake Island. It is an important station in cross-Pacific cables.
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January 17, 1899: Brigham Roberts is denied his seat in the US House of Representatives because he is a polygamist.
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January 19, 1899: A condominium of Great Britain and Egypt is established over the Sudan.
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January 20, 1899: Three songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (38) are performed for the first time, in the Altes Rathaus, Vienna: Die Nacht to words of Eichendorff, Deine Mutter, süßes Kind to words of Don Luis el Chico (pseud. of Heyse), and Herz, verzage nicht geschwind to anonymous words (tr. Heyse).  Also premiered is Wolf's Aufblick for chorus to words of Eichendorff.
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January 21, 1899: Adam Opel AG begins producing automobiles in Rüsselsheim.
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January 21, 1899: La Vega, the first of a projected suite for piano called The Alhambra by Isaac Albéniz (38), is performed for the first time, at the Société National de Musique, Paris.
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January 23, 1899: The Malolos Constitution goes into effect creating the Philippine Republic.
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January 24, 1899: Julius Vandenpeereboom replaces Paul de Smet de Nayer as Prime Minister of Belgium.
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January 24, 1899: The newly appointed Governor-General of Finland, Nikolay Bobrikov, tells the Finnish Diet that the Finnish army is to be joined with the Russian army.
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January 28, 1899: Dimitur Panayotov Grekov replaces Konstantin Stoilov Konstantinov as Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
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January 29, 1899: Chanson perpétuelle op.37 for voice and orchestra by Ernest Chausson (44) to words of Cros is performed for the first time, in Le Havre, in the presence of the composer.
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January 30, 1899: Ave maris stella for chorus EG150 by Edvard Grieg (55) is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen.
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January 30, 1899: Blancaflor, a lyric drama by Enrique Granados (31) to words of Gual, is performed for the first time, in the Teatre Liric, Barcelona.
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February 1, 1899: Jules Massenet (56) purchases a chateau in Egreville, 30km south of Fontainebleau. It will come to be known as Chateau Massenet.
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February 2, 1899: The Folk-Song Society holds its first general meeting, attended by Cecil Sharp (40).  Hubert Parry (51) addresses the group.
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February 2, 1899: A five-day conference of all six Australian premiers agrees to changes in the draft constitution. They also agree to have a federal capital in New South Wales but more than 100 miles from Sydney.
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February 4, 1899: After United States troops kill three Philippine soldiers in a Manila suburb, Philippine troops under Emilio Aguinaldo begin a war against the United States forces occupying their islands. A battle lasting several days begins at Manila. 550 people are killed, 1,200 wounded and 500 taken prisoner.
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February 4, 1899: British poet Rudyard Kipling welcomes the United States to the brotherhood of imperialists by writing a poem entitled “Take Up the White Man’s Burden.”
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February 4, 1899: Symphonic Dances op.64 for orchestra by Edvard Grieg (55) are performed for the first time, in Copenhagen.
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February 6, 1899: The Treaty of Paris ending war between Spain and the United States is ratified by the United States Senate.
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February 10, 1899: The French Court of Appeals rejects the demand of the military to halt a retrial for Alfred Dreyfus.
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February 12, 1899: Germany buys the Mariana, Caroline, and Palau Islands from Spain.
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February 13, 1899: In a state of nervous depression, Sergey Rakhmaninov (25) meets Lev Tolstoy for the first time.
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February 15, 1899: Tsar Nikolay II issues a manifesto which abrogates the Finnish constitution, extends autocracy to Finland, and reduces the Finnish Diet to a recommending body.
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February 16, 1899: President François Félix Faure of France dies suddenly while engaged in sexual activity with his mistress in his office in the Palais de l’Elysée.
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February 18, 1899: Emile François Loubet, a supporter of Alfred Dreyfus, replaces François Félix Faure as President of France.
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February 18, 1899: An expedition led by Carsten Borchgrevink aboard the Southern Cross lands at Cape Adare and builds a camp. They will be the first to endure an entire winter on the Antarctic Continent. It is called the British Antarctic Expedition, but only because it was funded by the British publisher Sir George Newnes. Only three of the members are British.
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February 18, 1899: The February Manifesto of three days ago is made public.
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February 22, 1899: United States forces occupy San Juan del Norte and Bluefields, Nicaragua.
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February 23, 1899: The Patriotic League, strongly nationalist and anti-Dreyfus, attempts a coup during the funeral of French president Félix Faure. It fails.
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February 25, 1899: Brothers Louis, Marcel, and Fernand Renault found Société Renault Frères to build and sell automobiles in Paris.
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February 26, 1899: Kálmán Szell de Duka et Szentgyörgyvölgy replaces Dezsö, Baron Bánffy de Losoncz as Prime Minister of Hungary.
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February 26, 1899: Symphony no.6 by Anton Bruckner (†2) is performed completely for the first time, in Vienna conducted by Gustav Mahler (38). Mahler makes some cuts and changes some of the orchestration. Nevertheless, it is very well received. See 11 February 1883 and 14 March 1901.
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February 27, 1899: Claude Debussy’s (36) piano work Reverie is performed for the first time.
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February 28, 1899: Incidental music to Craigie’s play A Repentance by Hubert Parry (51) is performed for the first time, in St. James’ Theatre, London.
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March 3, 1899: Ein Heldenleben, a tone poem by Richard Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in Frankfurt-am-Main, the composer conducting.
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March 3, 1899: Wanderers Nachtlied, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (38) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time, in the Deutsches Landestheater, Prague.
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March 4, 1899: Cyclone Mahina strikes Bathurst Bay and the Cape York Peninsula killing 400 people. It is considered the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Australia.
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March 4, 1899: Arthur Sullivan (56) draws up his will.
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March 4, 1899: Francisco Silvela y Le Vielleuze replaces Práxedes Mateo-Sagasta Escolar as Prime Minister of Spain.
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March 4, 1899: König Tejas Begräbnis for male chorus and orchestra by Franz Schreker (20) is performed for the first time, in Döbling.
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March 5, 1899: United States forces end their occupation of San Juan del Norte and Bluefields.
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March 6, 1899: Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer und Co. receive a German patent for acetylsalicylic acid which they market under the name Aspirin.
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March 8, 1899: Fantasy and Fugue in c minor op.29 for organ by Max Reger (25) is performed for the first time, in Willibroddom zu Wesel.
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March 11, 1899: US and UK consuls in Samoa decide to back Malietoa Tanu, son of the late King Malietoa, in his power struggle against German-backed Mataafa to be King of Samoa. Marines from both countries are landed and the USS Philadelphia bombards areas held by Mataafa.
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March 12, 1899: Song of the Atheneans for boys chorus, male chorus, winds, and percussion by Jean Sibelius (33) to words of Rydberg, is performed for the first time (unofficially), in Kaivopuisto park, Helsinki.  Although not his best work, it becomes wildly popular due to the theme of protest against the integration of Finland into Russia.  The official premiere will come on 26 April.
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March 13, 1899: Richard Strauss (34) meets Kaiser Wilhelm II for the first time. The Kaiser tells him that he does not care for modern music and prefers Der Freischütz. Strauss tells the monarch that he agrees with him.
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March 14, 1899: After 13 months stuck in ice, and drifting across 17° of longitude, the Belgica is freed to return home.
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March 14, 1899: Hymne à Astarté op.39/1 for voice and piano by Charles Koechlin (31) is performed for the first time, in Théâtre de la Bodinière, Paris. See 29 January 1918.
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March 16, 1899: Adstant angelorum chori op.45, a motet by Horatio Parker (35) to words of Thomas a Kempis, is performed for the first time, in New York. It wins first prize in a contest sponsored by the Musical Art Society of New York.
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March 17, 1899: Radio is used for the first time to save lives at sea when the German ship Elbe runs aground on the Goodwin Sands, Great Britain. The radio is used to summon lifeboats.
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March 17, 1899: Sou bois op.4/2 for voice, female chorus, and piano or orchestra by Charles Koechlin (31) to words of Gille is performed for the first time, in Salle Erard, Paris.
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March 21, 1899: France and Britain agree in London on their competing claims in Africa. British influence shall be the watershed of the Nile and French influence shall be the watershed of the Congo.
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March 21, 1899: The three houses of the French National Assembly meet as a Supreme Court of Appeals to consider the case of Alfred Dreyfus. The sessions go on until 23 April.
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March 21, 1899: Edward Elgar (41), his wife and daughter move to a new home which they call Craeg Lea, in West Malvern.
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March 21, 1899: Regina, a revolutionary opera by Albert Lortzing (†48) to his own words, is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
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March 23, 1899: British and US officials in Samoa crown Malietoa Tanu as king, at the expense of the German-backed Mataafa. Fighting between the two and their followers comes to an end.
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March 23, 1899: In the Berlin suburb of Pankow, Richard Strauss (34) meets Hugo von Hofmmansthal for the first time at the home of Richard Dehmel.
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March 26, 1899: German archaeologist Robert Koldewey begins the excavation of Babylon in the Ottoman Empire. He will work on it for 18 years.
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March 27, 1899: US forces push back Philippine insurgents at the Marilao River.
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March 27, 1899: Belgica, with a multi-national crew, sails into Punta Arenas, Chile having been the first expedition to winter in the Antarctic.
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March 28, 1899: Guglielmo Marconi sends the first wireless telegraph message between Great Britain and the continent.
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March 29, 1899: Ruggero Leoncavallo (42) plays excerpts from his La Bohème and Pagliacci for Queen Victoria and her companions at the Hotel Regina in Cimiez. She finds his music “charming.”
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March 31, 1899: US forces enter the Philippine capital of Malolos, Luzon with little opposition.
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April 6, 1899: Wo find' ich Trost, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (39) to words of Mörike, is performed for the first time, in the Deutsches Landestheater, Prague.
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April 7, 1899: A Northern Ballad op.46, a tone poem by Horatio Parker (35), is performed for the first time, in New Haven.
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April 14, 1899: Georgios Theotokis replaces Alexandros Thrasivoulou Zaimis as Prime Minister of Greece.
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April 19, 1899: Sergey Rakhmaninov (26) makes his London debut, conducting and playing his music in Queen’s Hall. It is his first significant performance outside Russia.
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April 20, 1899: Fritz (Frederick) Delius (37) arrives in London to begin the massive preparations for his all-Delius concert due to take place on 30 May.
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April 20, 1899: Hymne for orchestra by Alphons Diepenbrock (36) is performed for the first time, in the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam.
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April 21, 1899: The Broken Voice op.18/1 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (33) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 21, 1899: Hands Across the Sea, a march by John Philip Sousa (44), is performed for the first time, at the Philadelphia Academy of Music.
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April 21, 1899: Liebe mir im Busen, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (39), is performed for the first time, in the Konzertsaal der Liederhalle, Stuttgart.
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April 23, 1899: Prince Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino replaces Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza as Prime Minister of Romania.
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April 26, 1899: Two works by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time, in Festival Hall of Imperial Alexander University (University of Helsinki), Helsinki, conducted by the composer: the Symphony no.1, and Song of the Atheneans for boys chorus, male chorus, winds, and percussion to words of Rydberg. The second work is a protest against the February manifesto which denudes the autonomy of the Finnish Parliament.  See 12 March 1899.
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April 29, 1899: A referendum in South Australia favors federation.
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April 29, 1899: Angry that the Bunker Hill Mining Company refuses to recognize their union, members of the Western Federation of Miners blow up the company’s mill in Wardner, Idaho with dynamite.
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April 29, 1899: Edward Kennedy Ellington is born at 2129 Ward Place NW in Washington, DC, USA, the second of three children (and eldest surviving) born to James Edward Ellington, a coachman, later butler for a wealthy society doctor, and Daisy Kennedy, daughter of a policeman.
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May 1, 1899: The String Quartet no.3 op.14 of Carl Nielsen (33) is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen.
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May 2, 1899: Arthur Farwell (27) returns to the United States aboard the steamer Menominee after two years of travel and study in Europe. Farwell spent much time studying with Engelbert Humperdinck (44).
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May 4, 1899: Sent by President McKinley after the events of 29 April, federal troops enter Burke, Idaho and arrest every male inhabitant, transporting them in boxcars to Wardner where 1,000 of them are held in a barn.
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May 4, 1899: Concert Variations upon an English Theme “Down among the dead men” op.71 for piano and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (46) is performed for the first time, in Queen’s Hall, London conducted by the composer.
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May 4, 1899: Inno ad Adelaide Cairoli for voice and piano by Pietro Mascagni (35) is performed for the first time in Teatro Palacorda, Pesaro.
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May 8, 1899: The Irish Literary Theatre opens in Dublin with The Countess Cathleen by William Butler Yeats. Police are present to protect the players.
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May 10, 1899: La véranda op.3 for voice, female chorus, and piano or orchestra by Charles Koechlin (31) to words of Leconte de Lisle is performed for the first time, privately, at the home of Mme. A. Duglé, Paris. See 18 May 1904.
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May 13, 1899: Duet for two pianos by Gustav Holst (24) is performed for the first time, by the composer and his father in the Montpellier Rotunda, Cheltenham.
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May 18, 1899: The practice of exile to Siberia is officially ended by the Tsarist government of Russia.
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May 18, 1899: On the initiative of Tsar Nikolay of Russia, representatives of 26 nations gather at The Hague to discuss ways to promote peace and limit armaments.
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May 19, 1899: Dans le ciel clair op.4/1 for three solo voices, female chorus, and piano or orchestra by Charles Koechlin (31) to words of Leconte de Lisle, is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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May 23, 1899: Si tu le veux op.5/5 for voice and piano or orchestra by Charles Koechlin (31) to words of Marsan is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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May 23, 1899: After conducting the overture to Die Fledermaus last night, Johann Strauss (73) awakes with a fever.
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May 24, 1899: Cendrillon, a conte de fées by Jules Massenet (57) to words of Cain after Perault, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris. It is an overwhelming success.
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May 24, 1899: WT McCullough opens the Back Bay Cycle and Motor Company in Boston. It is the first public car repair shop in the United States.
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May 24, 1899: Edward Elgar’s (41) part-song To Her Beneath Whose Steadfast Star to words of Myers is performed for the first time, at Windsor Castle as one of a group of songs dedicated to Queen Victoria on her 80th birthday.
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May 27, 1899: Shéhérazade, ouverture de féerie for orchestra by Maurice Ravel (24) is performed for the first time, in the Salle du nouveau Théâtre, Paris conducted by the composer. The public is mixed, the critics hostile.
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May 27, 1899: After catching a severe cold at a soiree, Johann Strauss, Jr. (73) takes to his bed suffering from shivering, vomiting, and a fever.
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May 28, 1899: Catalonia, part of an unfinished suite for orchestra by Isaac Albéniz, is performed for the first time, by the Société National de Musique in Paris, on the eve of the composer’s 39th birthday.
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May 30, 1899: At the annual general meeting of the Vienna Philharmonic, it is voted 54-41 to postpone the election of the chief conductor for a time sufficient to ask Hans Richter if he will take the post back from Gustav Mahler (38).
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May 30, 1899: Several works by Fritz (Frederick) Delius (37) are performed for the first time, in an all-Delius night at St. James’ Hall, London: La ronde se déroule, a symphonic poem, Mitternachtslied Zarathustras for solo voice, male chorus, and orchestra to words of Nietzsche, Légende for violin and orchestra, excerpts from the lyric drama Koanga, and five of the Seven Danish Songs for voice and orchestra to words of Jacobsen and Drachmann. Reviews are mixed. See 16 March 1901 and 30 March 1904.
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June 1, 1899: Suffering from double pneumonia, Johann Strauss (73) exhibits periods of delirium.
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June 3, 1899: The Cour de cassation annuls the 1894 Dreyfus conviction and orders a new trial to take place in Rennes.
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June 3, 1899: 16:15 Johann Strauss dies of pneumonia in the arms of his wife Adèle, in his home at Igelgaße 4, Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire, aged 73 years, seven months, and nine days. In the Vienna Volksgarten, Eduard Kremser is conducting an open-air concert. When the news reaches him, he makes a brief announcement to the audience, turns and conducts An der schönen, blauen Donau.
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June 4, 1899: Primera Suite bagatelas for orchestra by Julián Carrillo (24) is performed for the first time, at the National Conservatory, Mexico City.
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June 5, 1899: Emile Zola returns to France from England and challenges the libel verdict against him. Lieutenant Colonel Georges Picquart is released from prison.
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June 6, 1899: The cortege carrying the body of Johann Strauss travels from his house in Ingelgaße, past the Theater an der Wien, the Musikverein, and the court opera. His mortal remains are laid to rest in the Zentralfriedhof near those of Beethoven (†72), Schubert (†70) and Brahms (†2). Among the mourners is Gustav Mahler (38).
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June 7, 1899: Camille Saint-Saëns (63) arrives in Rio de Janeiro aboard The Duchess of Genoa. He will give two concerts in the capital and two in São Paulo. While in Rio, his String Quartet op.112 will be premiered.
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June 8, 1899: Marcha “Mexico” for orchestra by Julián Carrillo (24) is performed for the first time, in a farewell concert before his trip to Europe.
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June 9, 1899: After over four years of imprisonment on Devil’s Island, Alfred Dreyfus departs for France and retrial.
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June 10, 1899: Hans Pfitzner (30) marries Maria (Mimi) Kwast, the daughter of James Kwast, Pfitzner’s former piano teacher at the Hoch Conservatory, in a civil ceremony in Canterbury. They have eloped to England.
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June 10, 1899: Ernest Amédée Chausson, while traveling near his rented villa at Limay near Mantes, Seine-et-Oise, Republic of France, loses control of his bicycle and crashes into a wall, dying instantly. He is aged 44 years, four months, and 21 days.
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June 12, 1899: A tornado strikes New Richmond, Wisconsin a virtually destroys it, killing 117 people.
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June 13, 1899: Carlos Antonio de Padua Chávez y Ramírez is born in Casa no.2, de la Calle Real in Popotla, near Mexico City, Mexico, seventh of seven children born to Agustín Chávez, an inventor, and Juvencia Ramírez, who directs a normal school for young women in Popotla.
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June 14, 1899: Organ Sonata no.1 op.33 by Max Reger (26) is performed for the first time, in the Kreuzeskirche, Essen.
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June 15, 1899: 210 people are killed in a coal mine disaster at Hokoku on Kyushu, Japan.
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June 15, 1899: A funeral service in memory of Ernest Chausson held in St. François-de-Sales, Paris is attended by hundreds of artists, among them Gabriel Fauré (54), Henri Duparc (51), Isaac Albéniz (39), Claude Debussy (36), Paul Dukas (33), Charles Koechlin (31), Edgar Degas, and Auguste Rodin. His mortal remains are laid to rest in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris.
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June 19, 1899: Variations on an Original Theme “Enigma” for orchestra by Edward Elgar (42) is performed for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London. Both critics and public give the work an “almost unreserved success.” Hubert Parry (51) records that they are “Quite brilliantly clever...”
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June 20, 1899: A referendum in New South Wales favors federation
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June 20, 1899: Oxford University confers an honorary doctorate on Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (51).
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June 21, 1899: Dry Those Fair, Those Crystal Eyes, a song for voice and piano by Edward Elgar (42) to words of King is performed for the first time, in Royal Albert Hall.
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June 22, 1899: Pierre Marie Waldeck-Rousseau replaces Charles Alexandre Dupuy, dit Charles-Dupuy as Prime Minister of France.
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June 26, 1899: The International Conference of the International Council of Women convenes in London.
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June 30, 1899: Our Enemies Have Fallen op.68 for chorus and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (46) to words of Tennyson is performed for the first time, in Buckingham Palace.
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July 1, 1899: Alfred Dreyfus arrives in France from French Guiana and is imprisoned at Rennes.
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July 5, 1899: The International Cultural Address called Pro Finlandia is published in Stockholm.  It is signed by 1,050 non-Finns in support of Finland against its integration into Russia.  Signers included Henrik Ibsen, Florence Nightingale, and Thomas Hardy.
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July 8, 1899: Suite for string orchestra by Gustav Holst (24) is performed for the first time, in Princess’ Hall, Ladies College, Cheltenham.
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July 9, 1899: The North Wind for voice and orchestra by Hubert Parry (51) is performed for the first time, in New Brighton.
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July 11, 1899: While bicycling near Gosaumühle, Austria, Gustav Mahler (39) encounters the musician Gustav Geiringer and a small party including Alma Schindler. He asks directions but then ends up following them and overtaking them four or five times. Although Geiringer wants to introduce Alma to Mahler, Alma rides away. “I feel absolutely no urge to meet him. I love and honor him as an artist, but as a man he doesn’t interest me at all. I wouldn’t want to lose my illusions either.”
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July 11, 1899: A group of investors in Turin sign a charter for Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino (FIAT) to build and sell automobiles. One of the investors, Giovanni Agnelli, will become managing director in 1902.
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July 13, 1899: Piano Trio no.2 op.73 by Charles Villiers Stanford (46) is performed for the first time, in London.
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July 14, 1899: Romanza para violonchelo y piano by Manuel de Falla (22) is performed for the first time, privately, at the home of the cellist Salvador Viniegra in Cádiz.
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July 16, 1899: Two works for small orchestra by Edward Elgar (42) are performed for the first time, in an all-Elgar concert in New Brighton, conducted by the composer: Minuet op.21 and Three Characteristic Pieces op.10. This concert, organized by Granville Bantock (30), begins a lifelong friendship between Elgar and Bantock.
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July 17, 1899: Nippon Electric Company is organized. It is the first Japanese company to be founded partly with foreign investment.
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July 17, 1899: Soldiers of the warlord Rabih az-Zubayr annihilate a combined force of 450 French and Baguirmians at Togbao (in present Chad). Only three survive and are taken prisoner.
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July 18, 1899: Micronesia is placed under the domain of German New Guinea.
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July 18, 1899: Le Matin publishes the admission of Major Esterhazy that he wrote the original letter in the Dreyfus case, but that he did so under orders.
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July 18, 1899: The South African Republic allows naturalization of immigrants after five years and voting rights after seven years.
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July 20, 1899: Alfredo Casella (16) wins the piano competition at the Paris Conservatoire. Ecstatic, he runs to a nearby church where his mother has been praying for her son’s success.
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July 26, 1899: General Ulises Heureaux, dictator of the Dominican Republic, is shot to death in Moca by Ramón Cáceres and Jacobito Lara. The assassins escape. General Horacio Vásquez proclaims a revolution.
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July 27, 1899: Referenda in Victoria and Tasmania favor federation.
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July 28, 1899: After declining coffee prices cause bankruptcy and widespread unrest in Colombia, President Manuel Antonio Sanclemente declares martial law.
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July 29, 1899: The first Hague Peace Conference closes. Signatories agree to a Permanent Court of International Arbitration and ban new types of weapons such as Dum Dum bullets and chemical weapons.
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August 1, 1899: Writing from Bayreuth, Hans Richter informs the Vienna Philharmonic that he will be unable to return to his former post as chief conductor of the orchestra concerts. This leaves the path open for its current director, Gustav Mahler (39).
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August 5, 1899: Paul de Smet de Nayer replaces Julius Vandenpeereboom as Prime Minister of Belgium.
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August 7, 1899: The second trial of Alfred Dreyfus begins at Rennes.
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August 8, 1899: A very strong hurricane makes landfall on Puerto Rico, killing over 3,000 people and leaving 250,000 homeless.
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August 9, 1899: Great Britain buys the assets of the Niger Company.
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August 11, 1899: Kaiser Wilhelm II presides at ceremonies at Dortmund opening the 255 km Dortmund-Ems Canal.
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August 12, 1899: In the midst of arrests of right-wing demonstrators, anti-Semitic leader Jules Guérin barricades himself in the headquarters of the Patriotic League in Paris. He will remain there until 20 September.
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August 14, 1899: At the trial of Alfred Dreyfus in Rennes, Dreyfus’ lawyer, Fernand Labori, is shot and critically injured. He will survive. The shooter makes his escape without being identified.
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August 14, 1899: A presidential commission on the future of the Philippines recommends that the United States retain colonial control over the islands.
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August 14, 1899: The hurricane which hit Puerto Rico completes its run through the Bahamas leaving over 100 people dead.
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August 16, 1899: Several works by Manuel de Falla (22) are performed for the first time, in Salón Quirell, Cádiz, the composer at the keyboard: Nocturno for piano, Melodía for cello and piano, Cuarteto en sol for piano quartet, and Serenata andaluza for violin and piano. It is the first public performance of any of Falla’s music.
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August 24, 1899: The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra votes on a conductor, as it does every year at this time. Gustav Mahler (39) receives 61 votes, 19 are for Josef Hellmesberger, one for Felix Mottl and three are invalid. Mahler declines to lead an orchestra so divided.
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August 28, 1899: After heavy rain, a debris hill from a copper mine collapses at Niihama on Shikoku, Japan. Over 500 people are killed.
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September 2, 1899: A referendum in Queensland favors federation.
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September 6, 1899: RMS Oceanic departs Liverpool on its maiden voyage, heading for New York. With a length of 215 meters and over 17,000 gross tonnes, it is the largest ship in the world.
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September 6, 1899: United States Secretary of State John Hay pronounces the “Open Door Policy.” The American government believes that those nations extorting concessions from China should not set up monopolies in their concessions but should allow all nations equal trading rights.
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September 8, 1899: In view of looming hostilities, the British government decides to send 10,000 additional troops to South Africa.
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September 9, 1899: A second trial of Alfred Dreyfus once again finds him guilty of espionage, but this time notes “extenuating circumstances.” He is sentenced to ten years in prison.
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September 10, 1899: Mireya for violin, viola, cello, flute, and piano by Manuel de Falla (22) is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Comico, Cádiz, the composer at the keyboard.
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September 11, 1899: Cyrano de Bergerac, an operetta by Victor Herbert (40) to words of Smith and Reed after Rostand, is performed for the first time, at the Academy of Music, Montreal. See 18 September 1899.
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September 13, 1899: Variations on an Original Theme “Enigma” op.36 for orchestra by Edward Elgar (42) is performed for the first time with the extended ending, in Public Hall, Worcester, the composer conducting.
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September 16, 1899: The Vienna Philharmonic takes a second vote on a conductor. Of the 96 musicians present, 90 vote for Gustav Mahler (39). Later, the orchestra announces that Mahler has accepted the position.
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September 18, 1899: Cyrano de Bergerac, an operetta by Victor Herbert (40) to words of Smith and Reed after Rostand, is performed for the first time in New York, at the Knickerbocker Theatre. See 11 September 1899.
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September 19, 1899: After repeated public protest, Alfred Dreyfus is pardoned by President Emile Loubet. Dreyfus accepts the pardon, provided he may continue to work for his exoneration.
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September 21, 1899: English painter Mark Henry Barraud sells a painting of his dog Nipper (listening to a gramophone) to the Gramophone Company of London. It will become their trademark in Great Britain.
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September 21, 1899: The British chemist James Dewar reports in Nature that he has achieved solid hydrogen, at 16° K.
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September 21, 1899: Two works for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time: Black Roses op.36/1 to words of Josephson, and But My Bird is Long in Homing op.36/2 to words of Runeberg.
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September 30, 1899: A victory parade for Admiral George Dewey takes place in New York. Taking part is the band led by John Philip Sousa (44) who play the El Capitan march.
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October 1, 1899: An arbitration commission on the UK-Venezuela border dispute issues its report. It grants most of the disputed territory to British Guiana, although Venezuela retains the mouth of the Orinoco.
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October 2, 1899: Manfred, Count Clary und Aldringen replaces Franz, Count Thun und Hohenstein as Chancellor of Austria.
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October 2, 1899: The Singing Girl, an operetta by Victor Herbert (40) to words of Smith and Strange, is performed for the first time, at Her Majesty’s Theatre, Montreal. See 23 October 1899.
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October 3, 1899: Representatives of Venezuela and Great Britain agree to the arbitration finding of 1 October and sign documents in Paris.
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October 5, 1899: Sea Pictures op.37 for alto and orchestra by Edward Elgar (42) to words of various writers is performed for the first time, in St. Andrew’s Hall, Norwich conducted by the composer. The work is a success.
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October 9, 1899: In an ultimatum, the government of the Transvaal demands that British troops be removed from their border.
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October 9, 1899: The Ameer, an extravaganza by Victor Herbert (40) to words of La Shelle and Ranken, is performed for the first time, at the Lyceum Theatre, Scranton, Pennsylvania. See 4 December 1899.
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October 10, 1899: After a sleepless night, Giulio Ricordi writes to Giacomo Puccini (40) the longest letter he will ever write to him. “The third act of Tosca, as it stands, is a grave error of conception and craftsmanship...” He goes into detail about his misgivings. Puccini will not make any changes.
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October 10, 1899: Edward MacDowell (38) writes to Edvard Grieg (56) asking that he dedicate his Third Piano Sonata to him. Grieg will graciously accept and the two initiate a warm correspondence of several years.
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October 11, 1899: Second Boer War: The Transvaal declares war on Great Britain. 10,000 Boers march into British territory.
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October 12, 1899: Todor Ivanchov replaces Dimitur Panayotov Grekov as Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
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October 12, 1899: Second Boer War: In the first action of the war, Boers attack a British armored train.
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October 13, 1899: Second Boer War: Boers attack the British garrison at Mafeking. Outnumbered four to one, the British fend off the attack and the Boers settle in for a siege.
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October 14, 1899: Second Boer War: Boers lay siege to Kimberley. It will last four months.
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October 17, 1899: Laws in Bohemia enacted in 1897 making Czech equal to German are repealed.
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October 17, 1899: Second Boer War: British forces defeat the Boers at Glencoe, Natal.
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October 18, 1899: Liberals in Santander department rise against the conservative government of Colombian President Manuel Antonio Sanclemente.
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October 19, 1899: Claude Debussy (37) marries Rosalie “Lily” Texier in a civil ceremony in Paris. She is a model in a dressmaker’s firm, the daughter of a telegraph inspector for the French Railroad. Among the witnesses is Erik Satie (33). Debussy teaches a lesson in the morning so he can afford dinner with his new wife after the ceremony.
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October 20, 1899: Second Boer War: Boers attack the British at Talana Hill in northern Natal. They are beaten back with heavy losses.
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October 21, 1899: The Breaking of the Ice on the Oulu River for reciter, male chorus, and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (33) to words of Topelius is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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October 23, 1899: Chris and the Wonderful Lamp, an operetta by John Philip Sousa (44) to words of MacDonough, is performed for the first time, in the Hyperion Theatre, New Haven, Connecticut.
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October 23, 1899: The Singing Girl, an operetta by Victor Herbert (40) to words of Smith and Strange, is performed for the first time in New York, at the Casino. See 2 October 1899.
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October 24, 1899: Chorale Fantasias on Wie schön leucht’t uns der Morgenstern and Straf’ mich nicht in deinem Zorn op.40 for organ by Max Reger (26) are performed for the first time, in the Willibrordi-Dom, Wesel.
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October 26, 1899: Wiener Blut, an operetta by Johann Strauss (†0) to words of Léon and Stein, is performed for the first time, at the Carltheater, Vienna a day after what would have been the composer’s 74th birthday. Despite the love that the Viennese feel towards the late composer, the work is a flop.
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October 30, 1899: Second Boer War: Boer forces defeat the British at Nicholson’s Neck.
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October 30, 1899: Second Boer War: The first 1,000 Canadian troops sail from Quebec for South Africa.
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October 31, 1899: Two works for orchestra by Enrique Granados (32) are performed for the first time, in Barcelona: Marcha de los vencidos and Suite on Gallician Themes.
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November 1, 1899: Franz Lehár (29) arrives in Vienna “to make a name for myself.”
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November 1, 1899: Second Boer War: British forces in Ladysmith attack out against the Boers.  The attack fails and 800 British are captured.
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November 2, 1899: The Mountain Maid op.67, a cycle for voice and piano by Edvard Grieg (56) to words of Garborg, is performed completely for the first time, in Christiania (Oslo). See 22 October 1898.
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November 2, 1899: Second Boer War: Boers lay siege to Ladysmith in northern Natal. It will last almost four months.
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November 2, 1899: Second Boer War: The first Australian troops arrive in South Africa.
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November 3, 1899: The Tsar’s Bride, an opera by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (55) to words of Tyumenev after Mey, is performed for the first time, in the Solodovnikov Theatre, Moscow.
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November 4, 1899: The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud is published in Vienna.
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November 4, 1899: Scènes historiques I including Finlandia by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time, in the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki. Both are from a larger collection of incidental music to accompany a set of historical tableaux on Finnish themes. These are the “Press Pension Celebrations”, to raise money ostensibly for pension funds for newspapermen but in reality they give support to the Finnish press who are battling Tsarist censorship.
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November 8, 1899: Federal Mexican troops crush La Angostura Uprising of Yaqui Indians in Sonora. The survivors are sent to the Yucatán.
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November 13, 1899: The Absent Minded Beggar, a song for voice and piano by Arthur Sullivan (57) to words of Kipling, is performed for the first time, at the Alhambra Theatre, London. All proceeds from the song, including singing rights and direct sale (the printing is donated), go to the wives and children of those on active service. It is an enormous success and becomes the 19th century equivalent of a number one hit.
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November 14, 1899: By a treaty concluded in London between Great Britain and Germany, the border between Togoland and the Gold Coast is settled and Britain annexes the Tonga and Savage Islands. Britain gives up its rights in Samoa, allowing Germany to make an agreement to partition the islands with the US.
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November 14, 1899: The Saracen, an opera by Cesar Cui (64) to words after Dumas, père, is performed for the first time, in Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg.
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November 14, 1899: Geistliches Lied “Wenn ich ihn nur habe” for voice and piano by Alphons Diepenbrock (37) is performed for the first time, in the Pieterskerk, Utrecht.
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November 15, 1899: Guglielmo Marconi, aboard the SS St. Paul, signals his station at the Needles from 100 km out of Southampton. It is the first time an ocean liner announces its imminent arrival.
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November 20, 1899: Selbstgeständnis, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (39) to words of Mörike, is performed for the first time, in the Altes Rathaus, Vienna.
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November 21, 1899: Melody for violin and piano op.44 by Arthur Foote (46) is performed for the first time, in Fall River, Massachusetts.
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November 23, 1899: Kate and the Devil, a comic opera by Antonín Dvorák (58) to words of Wenig, is performed for the first time, at the National Theatre, Prague.
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November 24, 1899: British and Egyptian forces wipe out the last group of Mahdist warriors at Umm Diwaykarat, Sudan.
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November 26, 1899: La lampe du ciel op.12, a cantata for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Charles Koechlin to words of Leconte de Lisle, is performed for the first time, privately at the home of Jules Griset, Paris, on the eve of the composer’s 32nd birthday. See 13 February 1903.
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November 28, 1899: Second Boer War: British forces defeat the Boers at Modder River.
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November 29, 1899: The Rose of Persia, or The Story-teller and the Slave, an operetta by Arthur Sullivan (57) to words of Hood is performed for the first time, in the Savoy Theatre, London, conducted by the composer. The work is fairly successful.
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November 29, 1899: Second Boer War: The first contingent of Canadian troops arrive in Cape Town.
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November 30, 1899: Hubert Parry (51) receives a telegram telling him that he has been elected Heather Professor at Oxford University.
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December 2, 1899: A rear guard of the Philippine insurgency fights a delaying action against the Americans at Tirad Pass in northern Luzon. Outnumbered 5-1, the 60 Filipinos are wiped out, but they allow for the escape of President Aguinaldo.
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December 2, 1899: By the Treaty of Berlin, the United States is granted sovereignty over the Samoan Islands east of 171° W. Germany is given sovereignty over Samoa west of 171° W.
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December 4, 1899: The 56th Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Republicans increase their majority in the Senate but lose ground in the House of Representatives, although still maintaining control.
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December 4, 1899: The Ameer, an extravaganza by Victor Herbert (40) to words of La Shelle and Ranken, is performed for the first time in New York, at Wallack’s Theatre.
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December 8, 1899: Zwei Männerchöre by Richard Strauss (35) to folk poems are performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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December 10, 1899: Second Boer War: Boers defeat British troops at Stromberg, killing 3,000 in the process.
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December 11, 1899: Second Boer War: A British attack on Boer positions at Magersfontein, Orange Free State is repulsed.
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December 12, 1899: The first cases of bubonic plague are confirmed in Honolulu. City officials quarantine the Chinese section of the city where the cases originated.
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December 15, 1899: Liberal and Conservative armies engage at the Peralonso River, west of Cúcuta, Colombia. The day’s action is indecisive.
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December 15, 1899: Second Boer War: A British attack on Boer positions in Colenso, Natal is repulsed.
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December 16, 1899: Giuseppe Verdi (86) signs a document establishing the foundation of the Casa di Riposo in Milan.
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December 16, 1899: Liberal forces defeat Conservatives at the Peralonso River, Colombia sending them into headlong flight.
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December 21, 1899: Heinrich von Wittek replaces Manfred, Count Clary und Aldringen as Chancellor of Austria.
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December 23, 1899: Germany secures a concession from the Ottoman Empire to build a railway to Baghdad.
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December 24, 1899: The Netherlands adopts proportional representation.
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December 26, 1899: At Sandfield Cottage, Headington, just east of Oxford, Cecil Sharp (40) witnesses Morris Dancing for the first time.
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December 27, 1899: From the concertina player who accompanied the Morris Dance he saw yesterday, Cecil Sharp (40) notes down his first five folk tunes.
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December 30, 1899: Song of Oleg the Wise for tenor, bass, male chorus, and orchestra by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (55) to words of AK Tolstoy is performed for the first time, by the Russian Musical Society, St. Petersburg, conducted by the composer.
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December 31, 1899: The Casa di Riposo per Musicisti in Milan, funded completely by Giuseppe Verdi (86), is founded by royal decree in Rome.
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December 31, 1899: Silvestre Revueltas Sánchez is born in Santiago Papasquiaro, Durango, Mexico, 875 km northwest of Mexico City. He is the oldest of twelve children born to José Revueltas Gutiérrez, a bookkeeper, and Romana Sánchez Arias, daughter of miners.
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December 31, 1899: Officials in Honolulu begin a program of burning houses where bubonic plague has been detected. Today, 85 residents are made homeless.
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December 31, 1899: Boxer Rebellion: An English Protestant minister is captured by about 30 Chinese near Ping Yin in Shantung (Shandong) Province. They take him away to the town.  He escapes but is hunted down and killed. It is the first casualty of the Boxer Rebellion.