January 1, 1895: The British Niger Company claims a protectorate over Busa, or Middle Niger, and Nikki, near Dahomey.
January 1, 1895: Mily Balakirev (57) resigns as Director of the Imperial Kapella, citing illness.
January 4, 1895: Divertissement for violin and orchestra op.1 by Charles Martin Loeffler (33) is performed for the first time, in the Music Hall, Boston conducted by the composer.
January 5, 1895: Captain Alfred Dreyfus is publicly degraded in the courtyard of the École Militaire, Paris before being sent to Devil’s Island, French Guiana.
January 6, 1895: Gartenlaube-Walzer op. 461 by Johann Strauss (69) is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
January 7, 1895: Hubert Parry (46) delivers his first speech to the students as the newly-appointed director of the Royal College of Music.
January 8, 1895: Sonata for clarinet and piano op.120/2 by Johannes Brahms (61) is performed publicly for the first time, in Bösendorfersaal, Vienna. See 19 September 1894.
January 11, 1895: Sonata for clarinet and piano op.120/1 by Johannes Brahms (61) is performed publicly for the first time, in Bösendorfersaal, Vienna. See 19 September 1894.
January 11, 1895: Camille Saint-Saëns (59) sails from Port Said making for Saigon in French Indochina.
January 11, 1895: Julián Carrillo (19) arrives in Mexico City and enrolls in the National Conservatory of Music.
January 12, 1895: The National Trust is constituted in Great Britain for the preservation of natural spaces and historic buildings.
January 12, 1895: Incidental music to Comyns Carr’s play King Arthur by Arthur Sullivan (52) is performed for the first time, in the Lyceum Theatre, London conducted by the composer. The critics are mixed.
January 14, 1895: Dezsö, Baron Bánffy de Losoncz replaces Sándor Werkele as Prime Minister of Hungary.
January 15, 1895: Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer resigns as President of France over opposition from Socialists and Radicals in the Chamber of Deputies.
January 15, 1895: French forces occupy Majunga, Madagascar.
January 15, 1895: Suite in e minor for piano and violin op.41 by Horatio Parker (31) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
January 17, 1895: Tsar Nikolay II of Russia declares that any hope of popular participation in the central government constitutes “senseless dreams”, thus ending any hope for peaceful change.
January 17, 1895: François Félix Faure replaces Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer as President of France.
January 19, 1895: One movement of a Concerto for piano and orchestra no.3 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†1), also called Allegro de concert or Konzertstück, is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg.
January 20, 1895: Japanese forces begin landing at Yung-cheng in Shantung (Shandong) province.
January 20, 1895: Ruggero Leoncavallo (37) marries Marie Rose Jean (Berthe) Rambaud at the City Hall of Milan. Her background is very sketchy. It is unclear whether Rambaud is her maiden name. (Leoncavallo will claim that he married in 1888 in Paris.)
January 21, 1895: Edvard Grieg (51) is appointed Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav by King Oscar II.
January 21, 1895: String Quartet op.38 by Horatio Parker (31) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
January 22, 1895: Nicholaos Petrou Diligiannis replaces Charilaos Spiridonou Trikoupis as Prime Minister of Greece.
January 24, 1895: Members of the government of the Republic of Hawaii force Queen Liliuokalani, presently imprisoned in her palace, to abdicate her throne.
January 24, 1895: Norwegians Carsten Borchgrevink and Leonard Kristensen become the first humans to set foot on land inside the Antarctic Circle, at South Victoria Land.
January 27, 1895: Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot replaces Charles Alexandre Dupuy, dit Charles-Dupuy as Prime Minister of France.
January 29, 1895: Across the World op.20, a villanelle for voice and piano by Amy Beach (27) to words of Thomas, is performed for the first time, in New York.
January 29, 1895: Nembe forces attack the headquarters of the Royal Niger Company at Akassa (in present Nigeria). 40 people are killed. They take hostages and carry off war materials.
January 30, 1895: The Japanese fleet begins a bombardment of the fortifications at Wei-Hai-Wei (Weihai).
January 30, 1895: The German SS Elbe out of Bremerhaven is struck in heavy seas by the British SS Crathie in the North Sea and goes down in 20 minutes taking 334 passengers and crew with her. Only 20 are saved.
January 30, 1895: Two songs by Amy Beach (27) are performed for the first time, in Boston: Just for This op.26/2 to words of Fabbri, and Wouldn’t That Be Queer op.26/4 to words of Cooley.
February 2, 1895: Japanese land forces take the town of Wei-hai-Wei (Weihai), 215 km northeast of Tsingtao (Quingdao).
February 2, 1895: Queen Victoria grants royal assent to a law passed by the South Australian Parliament granting the right to vote to women.
February 2, 1895: Die Braut op.44/11 for female chorus by Johannes Brahms (61) to words of Müller, is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
February 5, 1895: The Chinese cruiser Laiyuan is struck by a Japanese torpedo off Wei-hai-Wei (Weihai). It capsizes, killing 170 of its crew.
February 6, 1895: Otto Mahler, musician younger brother of Gustav (34), puts a bullet through his heart, in the Vienna apartment of his friend Nina Hoffmann. His motivation is unclear.
February 9, 1895: William G. Morgan invents a game called Mintonette at the YMCA in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Next year it will be renamed Volleyball.
February 11, 1895: Idylle de printemps for orchestra by Frederick Delius (33) is performed for the first time, in St. John’s, Smith Square, London.
February 12, 1895: After a battle of two weeks, Chinese naval forces surrender to the Japanese in the harbor of Wei-hai-Wei (Weihai).
February 13, 1895: Auguste and Louis Lumière receive a French patent for a combined motion picture camera, printer, and projector, the cinématograph.
February 13, 1895: Edward Elgar (37) is elected an honorary member of the Herefordshire Philharmonic Society.
February 13, 1895: Camille Saint-Saëns (59) arrives in Saigon, French Indochina, after a month-long voyage from Egypt.
February 14, 1895: The Importance of Being Earnest, a comedy by Oscar Wilde, opens at St. James’ Theatre, London.
February 15, 1895: Three chamber works by Enrique Granados (27) are performed for the first time, in Madrid, the composer at the keyboard in each: Piano Quintet in g, Trio for violin, cello, and piano, and Valses poéticos.
February 16, 1895: Antonín Dvorák (53) is made an honorary member of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna.
February 16, 1895: Guglielmo Ratcliff, a tragedia by Pietro Mascagni (31) to words translated by Maffei after Heine, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan, the composer conducting. Press and public are favorable, although there is much criticism of the drama.
February 18, 1895: String Quintet by Charles Martin Loeffler (34) is performed for the first time, in Union Hall, Boston. Critics are generally, though not universally, pleased.
February 20, 1895: France proclaims a protectorate over Haute-Volta (Burkina Faso).
February 20, 1895: Frederick Douglass dies in Washington, DC at the age of 77.
February 21, 1895: Klosterfräulein op.61/2 for soprano, alto, and piano by Johannes Brahms (61) to words of Kerner is performed for the first time, in Merseburg.
February 22, 1895: Alfred Dreyfus is sent from France to French Guiana to serve his life sentence.
February 22, 1895: In reprisal for the 29 January raid, British forces destroy the city of Nembe, killing 300 people.
February 24, 1895: Cuban revolutionaries issue the Grito de Baire declaring Independence or Death in the struggle against Spain.
March 1, 1895: Oscar Wilde swears out a warrant against the Marquess of Queensbury for libel. The Marquess called Wilde a sodomite.
March 2, 1895: Berthe Morisot dies in Paris at the age of 54.
March 4, 1895: Japanese forces take Newchwang (Yingkou) in fierce fighting.
March 4, 1895: The first three movements of Symphony no.2 by Gustav Mahler (34) are performed for the first time, in Berlin conducted by the composer. The audience, filling only half of the seats, is extremely enthusiastic. See 29 March 1894 and 13 December 1895.
March 6, 1895: Trennung op.14/5, a song by Johannes Brahms (61) to traditional words, is performed for the first time, in Vienna, 37 years after it was composed.
March 9, 1895: The Spanish cruiser Reina Regente disappears without a trace in heavy seas near the Strait of Gibraltar. 420 crewmen are lost.
March 9, 1895: The Wood Nymph for reciter, piano, two horns, and strings by Jean Sibelius (29) to words of Rydberg is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 17 April 1895
March 9, 1895: La jacquerie, an opéra by Edouard Lalo (†2) to words of Blau and Arnaud, is performed for the first time, in Monte Carlo. It was left unfinished at the composer’s death and was completed by Arthur Coquard.
March 10, 1895: The John Philip Sousa (40) band makes its first recording, on cylinders. Sousa, unimpressed by recording technology, is not in attendance.
March 11, 1895: In an exchange of notes between Russia and Great Britain, the boundary between Russia and Afghanistan is completely defined.
March 12, 1895: Alfred Dreyfus arrives in French Guiana.
March 19, 1895: Chinese and Japanese commissioners meet at Shimoneski to end their conflict.
March 19, 1895: Alyeksandr Skryabin (23) gives his debut professional performance, under the patronage of the millionaire music publisher Mitrofan Belayev, at the Petrov School of Commerce, St. Petersburg. He plays the first performance of the tenth of his 24 Preludes op.11.
March 20, 1895: Symphony no.5 “L’Allegro ed il Pensieroso” by Charles Villiers Stanford (42) is performed for the first time, in London.
March 20, 1895: Prince Woldemar of Lippe dies in Detmold and is succeeded by his brother Alexander under regency.
March 22, 1895: Auguste and Louis Lumière show their film La sortie des ouvriers de l’usine Lumière at 44 Rue de Rennes, Paris to a private audience. It is the first movie to be shown publicly on a screen.
March 23, 1895: Antonio Cánovas del Castillo replaces Práxedes Mateo-Sagasta Escolar as Prime Minister of Spain.
March 23, 1895: Daniel Chennevière (Dane Rudhyar) is born at 83 Boulevard Voltaire in the Sixième Arrondissement, in Paris, Republic of France, the second of two children born to Leon and Lucie Chennevière. The father owns a small factory producing zinc ornaments.
March 24, 1895: Li Hung Chang (Li Hongzhang), who leads the Chinese peace delegation at Shimoneski, is shot and wounded by a Japanese fanatic. The Japanese are so embarrassed that they immediately grant an armistice to China.
March 24, 1895: A second setting of Dem Vaterland for male voices and orchestra by Hugo Wolf (35) to words of Reinick, is performed for the first time, in the Großer Musikvereinssaal, Vienna.
March 25, 1895: Italian forces invade Ethiopia.
March 25, 1895: Silvano, a dramma marinaresco by Pietro Mascagni (31) to words of Targioni-Tozzetti after Karr, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan. The public is positive, and Mascagni is called ten times, but it is not the success of his earlier efforts.
March 26, 1895: Sir William Ramsey in London sends simultaneous communications to the British Royal Society and the French Academy of Science announcing his creation of helium on Earth.
March 28, 1895: Sir Edward Grey of the British Foreign Office declares that any French occupation of the Upper Nile will be viewed as an “unfriendly act” by Her Majesty’s Government.
March 29, 1895: Cáhal Mór of the Wine-red Hand, a rhapsody for baritone and orchestra by Horatio Parker (31) to words of Mangan, is performed for the first time, in the Boston Music Hall.
March 30, 1895: Cuban revolutionary leaders Antonio and José Maceo land on the island near Baracoa, having sailed from the Dominican Republic.
April 2, 1895: Der arme Heinrich, a music drama by Hans Pfitzner (25) to words of Grun and the composer after von Aue, is performed for the first time, in Mainz.
April 5, 1895: Oscar Wilde loses his libel suit against the Marquess of Queensbury. The defense claimed to have male prostitutes who would say they had intercourse with Wilde.
April 5, 1895: To Asali op.4/3, a song by Carl Nielsen (29) to words of Jacobsen, is performed for the first time, in the Koncertpalæet, Copenhagen.
April 6, 1895: Oscar Wilde is arrested in London for homosexual offences.
April 9, 1895: Ruggero Leoncavallo (38) is granted an audience with Queen Margherita of Italy. He hopes to be able to dedicate his opera Chatterton to her. He will not be successful.
April 9, 1895: Voting for the Danish Folketing results in significant gains for the Left Reform Party who now constitute the largest party.
April 11, 1895: José Martí and Máximo Gómez Baez arrive in eastern Cuba from Costa Rica to work for the revolution.
April 13, 1895: Alfred Dreyfus arrives on Devil’s Island to begin a term of life imprisonment in solitary confinement.
April 14, 1895: An earthquake centered just east of Laibach (Ljubljana) causes few deaths but destroys ten percent of the buildings in the city.
April 16, 1895: Antonín Dvorák (53), his wife and son leave New York for Europe aboard the SS Saale never to see America again.
April 17, 1895: Three works by Jean Sibelius (29) are performed for the first time, in an all-Sibelius concert in Helsinki: The Wood Nymph, a tone poem, Serenade for baritone and orchestra to words of Stagnelius, these two conducted by the composer, and Sonata for piano op.12. See 10 March 1895.
April 17, 1895: The Treaty of Shimoneski ends war between China and Japan. China cedes the Liaotung (Liaodong) Peninsula, Taiwan, and the Pescadores to Japan, recognizes the independence of Korea and agrees to pay large reparations.
April 18, 1895: Klug Gretelein op.462, a waltz by Johann Strauss (69), is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
April 20, 1895: La bonne chanson, a cycle for voice and piano by Gabriel Fauré (49) to words of Verlaine, is performed publicly for the first time, by the Société National de Musique, Paris, the composer at the keyboard. See 25 April 1894.
April 22, 1895: The first modern political movement in China, Gongche Shangshu, begins with a petition against the Treaty of Shimoneski and reform of the army and government.
April 23, 1895: Russia, Germany, and France prevail upon Japan to abandon the Liaotung (Liaodong) Peninsula.
April 26, 1895: Children’s Songs op.61 for voice and piano by Edvard Grieg (51) is performed completely for the first time, in Copenhagen, by the composer and his wife. See 10 November 1894.
April 27, 1895: British forces occupy Corinto, Nicaragua.
April 27, 1895: Souvenir d’Ismaïlia op.100 for piano by Camille Saint-Saëns (59) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
May 1, 1895: Studies on Hysteria by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud is published this month. It is the first description of psychoanalysis.
May 2, 1895: A protest by thousands against the Treaty of Shimoneski takes place in Peking. They present the petition of 22 April to the government.
May 2, 1895: The North Zambesia (Zambia) and South Zambesia (Zimbabwe) Protectorates of the British South Africa Company are organized as the Rhodesia Protectorate.
May 2, 1895: After acquiring a joint British-Nicaraguan rule over the Mosquito Reserve, British troops evacuate Corinto.
May 4, 1895: Symphonic Suite op.8 for piano and the song cycle Songs and Verses by J.P. Jacobsen op.6 by Carl Nielsen (29) are performed for the first time, in the Odd Fellow Palæet, Copenhagen.
May 4, 1895: The American Flag, a cantata for alto, tenor, bass, chorus, and orchestra by Antonín Dvorák (53) to words of Drake, is performed for the first time, in New York. Critics are not impressed.
May 7, 1895: The Time Machine by HG Wells is published in New York.
May 7, 1895: Alyeksandr Stepanovich Popov demonstrates a radio receiver to the Russian Physiochemical Society in St. Petersburg.
May 8, 1895: In a revision to the Treaty of Shimoneski, Japan gives up the Liaotung (Liaodong) Peninsula and Port Arthur in return for a huge indemnity.
May 8, 1895: Duet for organ and trombone by Gustav Holst (20) is performed for the first time, in Highbury Congregational Church, Cheltenham, the composer at the keyboard.
May 8, 1895: Henry Clifford, an opera by Isaac Albéniz (34) to words of Money-Coutts, is performed for the first time, in Gran Teatre del Liceu, Barcelona, conducted by the composer. Although originally in English, it is performed in Italian, the favored language of the Liceu. It is a critical success, but not with audiences.
May 10, 1895: Claude Monet exhibits 20 of his paintings of Rouen Cathedral in the gallery of his dealer, Durand-Ruel, in Paris.
May 14, 1895: A benefit performance for Percy Grainger (12) takes place at Melbourne Town Hall. He is leaving Victoria at the end of the month for the Hoch Conservatorium in Frankfurt-am-Main.
May 15, 1895: The Czecho-Slavonic Ethnographic Exhibition opens in Prague. It is a celebration of Czech culture. The man in charge of Moravian music is Leos Janácek (40).
May 15, 1895: A French gunboat lands marines and attacks the village of Amapá in disputed territory between Brazil and French Guiana in an attempt to capture the local leader, Francisco Xavier da Veiga Cabral. It is a disaster for the French. Many of the invading force are killed, including the commander.
May 18, 1895: In his last letter, Cuban revolutionary José Martí proclaims that a major reason for the independence of Cuba is “to prevent...the United States from spreading over the West Indies and falling, with that added weight, upon other lands of our America...I have lived inside the monster and know its insides.”
May 19, 1895: Cuban independence leader José Martí Pérez is killed at the Battle of Dos Ríos.
May 21, 1895: Franz von Suppé dies in Vienna at the age of 76.
May 21, 1895: Sommerabend op.84/1, a song by Johannes Brahms (62) to words of Schmidt, is performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
May 23, 1895: In opposition to the Treaty of Shimoneski, leaders in central Taiwan proclaim an independent republic.
May 23, 1895: The Lenox and Astor libraries combine with a $2,400,000 trust bequeathed to New York City by former Governor Samuel Tilden to form the New York Public Library.
May 25, 1895: Oscar Wilde and Alfred Taylor are convicted in a London court of gross indecency and sentenced to two years at hard labor, the maximum allowed under the law.
May 25, 1895: Christus, a sacred opera by Anton Rubinstein (†0) to words of Bulthaupt, is staged for the first time, in Bremen. See 2 June 1894.
May 27, 1895: Piano Concerto no.1 by Charles Villiers Stanford (42) is performed for the first time, in London.
May 29, 1895: Japanese forces land on Taiwan.
May 29, 1895: Percy Grainger (12), accompanied by his mother, departs Adelaide aboard the German ship Gera, bound for Europe. They will disembark in Genoa and travel to Frankfurt by train.
June 2, 1895: Pursuant to the Treaty of Shimoneski, Taiwan is formally handed over to Japan. Resistance to the annexation continues on the island.
June 4, 1895: The Light That is Felt for bass, chorus, and organ by Charles Ives (20) to words of Whittier is performed for the first time, in Center Church on the Green, New Haven.
June 9, 1895: Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha replaces Ahmed Cevad Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
June 11, 1895: The first long distance automobile race begins in Paris heading for Bordeaux.
June 12, 1895: Theodoros Pangaiou Diligiannis replaces Nicholaos Petrou Diligiannis as Prime Minister of Greece.
June 12, 1895: President Grover Cleveland calls on United States citizens to refrain from aiding Cuban rebels and declares neutrality in the Cuban uprising.
June 13, 1895: The first long distance automobile race ends when Emile Levassor drives his Panhard et Levassor over the finish line at Bordeaux. The 1,178 km race took over 49 hours to complete, the winner clocking an average speed of 24 km per hour. Contestant André Michelin used pneumatic tires for the first time.
June 16, 1895: The Colonies of Côte d’Ivoire, Sudan (Mali), Senegal, and Guinea become part of French West Africa.
June 19, 1895: The Kiel Canal is opened.
June 19, 1895: Eric, Count Kielmansegg replaces Alfred August, Prince Windisch-Grätz as acting Chancellor of Austria.
June 28, 1895: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury replaces Archibald Philip Primrose, Earl of Roseberry as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
July 1, 1895: The British East Africa Company is dissolved as a British protectorate is established over East Africa (Kenya).
July 4, 1895: Anton Bruckner (70) moves into the custodian’s house of the Belvedere Palace, Vienna, the apartments having been made available by Emperor Franz Joseph II through the intercession of Archduchess Marie Valerie. Bruckner’s doctor has advised him to find ground floor living space.
July 4, 1895: A poem by Katherine Lee Bates entitled America the Beautiful appears in print for the first time, in The Congregationalist.
July 7, 1895: Stojan Novakovic replaces Nikola Hristic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
July 8, 1895: Organ Sonata in G by Edward Elgar (38) is performed for the first time, in Worcester Cathedral. It was composed for the visit of a group of American organists.
July 10, 1895: Carl Heinrich Maria Orff is born at Maillinger Straße 30 in Munich, German Empire, the son of Heinrich Orff, an army officer with strong musical interests, and Paula Koestler, a pianist of prodigious abilities, the daughter of a general.
July 11, 1895: In three places in the Caucasus, Doukhobors refuse military service and burn their weapons in protest.
July 13, 1895: Julián Carrillo (20), a student at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, discovers what he calls the 13th tone. He finds 16 identifiable pitches on a violin string between G and A. By breaking each of the six whole tones of the octave into 16 equal parts, creating 96 different pitches. He proposes a complete change in the musical system.
July 15, 1895: Former Bulgarian Prime Minister Stephan Stambulov is severely beaten by unknown assailants on a Sofiya street. He will die from his wounds three days from now.
July 20, 1895: US Secretary of State Richard Olney informs the British government that any use of force in their border dispute with Venezuela will constitute a violation of the Monroe Doctrine.
August 5, 1895: Friedrich Engels dies in London at the age of 74.
August 8, 1895: WS Gilbert reads the plot of The Grand Duke to Arthur Sullivan (53) at Walton-on-Thames where Sullivan is staying while his apartment is redecorated. The composer is pleased.
August 8, 1895: Alphons Diepenbrock (32) marries Elisabeth de Jong van Beek en Donk in the Town Hall of Rosmalen, The Netherlands. Diepenbrock advertises himself as a tutor of classical languages.
August 10, 1895: The Queen’s Hall Promenade Concerts begin under Sir Henry Wood.
August 14, 1895: A simultaneous housewarming and coming out party for his daughter is staged by Cornelius Vanderbilt II at his new palatial “cottage” called The Breakers at Newport, Rhode Island. It was designed by Richard Morris Hunt.
August 15, 1895: Today through 18 August are “Moravian Days” at the Czecho-Slavonic Ethonographic Exhibition in Prague. The array of orchestral, choral, and folk performers are all organized by Leos Janácek (41).
August 17, 1895: Antonín Dvorák (53) resigns his post as head of the National Conservatory of New York.
August 17, 1895: A month of voting in the British general election comes to an end. The Conservatives and Liberal Unionists, led by the Marquess of Salisbury, gain almost 100 seats and a clear majority.
August 26, 1895: The first large scale alternating current hydroelectric plant goes into operation at Niagara Falls.
August 28, 1895: Suite of Ancient Dances op.58 for orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (42) is performed for the first time, in London.
August 30, 1895: A compulsory Roman Catholic education is established in Belgian state schools.
August 31, 1895: Joseph Moiseyevich Schillinger is born in Kharkov, Russian Empire (Kharkiv, Ukraine), the only child of Moses Schillinger and Anna Gielgur.
September 13, 1895: A government for the Republic of Cuba is organized in Jimaguayú, Camagüey. Salvador Cisneros Betancourt is named President.
September 18, 1895: Booker T. Washington, President of Tuskegee Institute, gives a speech in Atlanta laying out the Atlanta Compromise. Blacks will not agitate against white domination or seek social equality in return for basic education and due process.
September 19, 1895: The Bard op.50, an ode for bass, chorus, and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (42) to words of Gray, is performed for the first time, in Cardiff, conducted by the composer.
September 21, 1895: The Duryea Motor Wagon Company of Springfield, Massachusetts becomes the first automobile company to incorporate in the United States.
September 23, 1895: The Confédération générale du travail is founded in Limoges.
September 26, 1895: The Wizard of the Nile, an operetta by Victor Herbert (36) to words of Smith, is performed for the first time, at the Grand Opera House in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. See 4 November 1895.
September 26, 1895: William Grant Still, Sr., dies in Woodville, Mississippi, leaving his wife and four-month-old son. He was probably poisoned, either by local whites or a rejected lover.
September 28, 1895: Louis Pasteur dies in Marnes-la-Coquette at the age of 72.
September 30, 1895: Kazimierz Felix, Count Badeni replaces Eric, Count Kielmansegg as Chancellor of Austria.
October 1, 1895: Protesting widespread massacres in eastern Turkey, 4,000 Armenians march to the seat of government in Constantinople with petitions. They are set upon by police, many killed on the spot. Thus begins ten days of looting, burning, and killing in the city’s Armenian Quarter, orchestrated by the Turkish authorities. Most victims are beaten to death with clubs.
October 1, 1895: After a march inland over the last ten months in which thousands of soldiers died from disease, French forces capture Tana, the capital of Madagascar. A treaty is signed by Queen Ranavalona granting France a protectorate.
October 2, 1895: Invocation to Music, an ode for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Hubert Parry (47) to words of Bridges, is performed for the first time, in Leeds, the composer conducting.
October 3, 1895: Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha replaces Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
October 5, 1895: The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane is published in book form by D. Appleton & Co. of New York.
October 8, 1895: About two dozen assassins, probably hired by the Japanese minister, Viscount Miura, enter Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul and kill Queen Min of Korea. The Japanese see her as an anti-Japanese influence on King Gojong.
October 8, 1895: The Turkish government implements a planned attack against the Armenian population of the country, beginning today with a massacre at Trebizond (Trabzon) and Akhisar.
October 10, 1895: Classes begin at the London School of Economics.
October 11, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Gümüshane.
October 12, 1895: In Frankfurt on an extended tour of central Europe, Pietro Mascagni (31) receives word that he is offered the position of director of the Liceo Rossini in Pesaro. He enthusiastically accepts.
October 12, 1895: In Folk Style op.63/1 for string orchestra by Edvard Grieg (52) is performed for the first time, in Christiania (Oslo), directed by the composer.
October 13, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Bayburt.
October 14, 1895: Francis Hagerup replaces Emil Stang as Prime Minister of Norway.
October 15, 1895: Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza replaces Lascar Catargiu as Prime Minister of Romania.
October 15, 1895: Henry Perky of Denver receives a US patent for shredded wheat.
October 17, 1895: Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid agrees to the demands of the European powers to implement reforms in dealing with Armenians.
October 19, 1895: A new concert hall opens in Munich, the Kaim-Saal.
October 21, 1895: Japanese forces take Tainan, essentially ending the Republic of Taiwan.
October 21, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Erzincan.
October 22, 1895: After its brakes fail, an express train crashes through a wall of the Gare Montparnasse in Paris and falls to the street below. One person is killed.
October 24, 1895: Armenians in Zeitoun (Süleymanli), 65 km northwest of Maras, begin an uprising against Turkish oppression.
October 25, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Diyarbekir (Diyarbakır), Palu.
October 25, 1895: Charles Hallé dies in Manchester at the age of 76.
October 28, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Tomarza and Sanliurfa (Urfa).
October 28, 1895: The Czecho-Slavonic Ethnographic Exhibition closes in Prague. The celebration of Czech culture has seen 2,000,000 visitors over the last five months. The Moravian music section was the charge of Leos Janácek (41).
October 30, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Erzurum, Khnus (Hinis) and Mus.
October 30, 1895: Percy Grainger (13) gives his first performance outside of Australia, playing a movement from a Mozart (†103) piano sonata at the Hoch Conservatorium, Frankfurt.
November 1, 1895: After resigning his position in New York, Antonín Dvorák (54) resumes his composition classes at Prague Conservatory.
November 1, 1895: Léon Bourgeois replaces Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot as Prime Minister of France.
November 1, 1895: Jude the Obscure by Thomas Hardy is published in book form.
November 4, 1895: The Wizard of the Nile, an operetta by Victor Herbert (36) to words of Smith, is performed for the first time in New York, at the Casino, conducted by the composer. It is his first great success. See 26 November 1895.
November 5, 1895: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche, a tone poem by Richard Strauss (31) is performed for the first time, in Cologne. It is a hit with critics and the public.
November 6, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Arabkir (Arapgir, Turkey).
November 8, 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, by accident, at the University of Würzburg.
November 8, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Tomarza.
November 10, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Gürün.
November 11, 1895: Bechuanaland is annexed to the Cape Colony.
November 11, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Harput (Elâzig).
November 12, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Sivas.
November 15, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Mus and Ayintab (Gaziantep).
November 15, 1895: Sleep, Little Darling op.29/2, a song by Amy Beach (28) to words of Spofford, is performed for the first time, in Chicago.
November 16, 1895: Paul Hindemith is born in Hanau, near Frankfurt-am-Main, German Empire, eldest of three children born to Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith, a house painter, and Marie Sophie Warnecke, daughter of sheepherders.
November 20, 1895: Dutch paleontologist Dr. Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois reads his paper, “On Pithecanthropus erectus: a Transitional Form Between Man and the Apes” before the Royal Dublin Society. He explains his discovery of “Java Man” over the last few years in the Dutch East Indies.
November 20, 1895: As part of the bicentennial of the death of Henry Purcell, the Royal College of Music presents, at the Lyceum Theatre, the first performance of Dido and Aeneas since the composer’s life. The work is directed by Charles Villiers Stanford (43) and the student participants include Ralph Vaughan Williams (23) and Gustav Holst (21).
November 26, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Zela (Zile).
November 28, 1895: Incidental music to Ibsen’s play Das Fest auf Solhaug by Hans Pfitzner (26) is performed for the first time, in Mainz.
November 28, 1895: An automobile race, staged by the Chicago Times-Herald, is run from Chicago to Evanston, Illinois, a distance of some 87 km. Of the six contestants the winning vehicle was built by Charles and Frank Duryea, and piloted by Frank Duryea. The race took ten hours at an average speed of eleven kph.
November 29, 1895: In Hamburg, Gustav Mahler (35) writes an impassioned letter to the singer Anna von Mildenburg, indicative of the relationship they have entered into.
November 30, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Kayseri.
December 2, 1895: The 54th Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Due to the Panic of 1893 and the economic depression, the Democrats have lost control of both houses. Republicans gained over 100 seats in the House of Representatives.
December 3, 1895: Cuban rebels defeat Spanish forces at Iguará.
December 4, 1895: Caprice bohémien op.12 for orchestra by Sergey Rakhmaninov (22) is performed for the first time, in Moscow the composer conducting.
December 4, 1895: Waldmeister, an operetta by Johann Strauss (70) to words of Davis, is performed for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna.
December 7, 1895: Ethiopian forces defeat the Italians at Amba Alagi.
December 7, 1895: Cuban independence leader General Antonio Maceo Grajales is killed at the Battle of Punta Brava.
December 7, 1895: The Lily Nymph, a dramatic cantata by George Whitefield Chadwick (41) to words of Bates, is performed for the first time, in Carnegie Hall, New York.
December 7, 1895: Two works for male chorus by Jean Sibelius are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Fire on the Island op.18/4 and The Power of the Song, on the eve of the composer’s 30th birthday.
December 10, 1895: Christmas Eve, an opera by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (51) to his own words after Gogol, is performed for the first time, in the Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg. After the royal family enforced changes in the work, the composer boycotts the premiere.
December 13, 1895: Symphony no.2 “Resurrection” for soprano, alto, chorus, and orchestra by Gustav Mahler (35) is performed completely for the first time, in Berlin conducted by the composer. The work marks Mahler’s first great success as a composer. Bruno Walter will remember it as the true beginning of Mahler’s career as a composer and he resolves to devote himself to Mahler’s music. See 4 March 1894.
December 15, 1895: Trau, schau wem! op.463, a waltz by Johann Strauss (70), is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
December 17, 1895: Jurists’ March for orchestra by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†2) is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg.
December 18, 1895: US President Cleveland issues a statement siding his country strongly with Venezuela in its border dispute with Great Britain. He threatens war, and US military forces are put on alert.
December 18, 1895: Frédégonde, a drame lyrique by Camille Saint-Saëns (60) to words of Gallet, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
December 18, 1895: Within Thy Heart op.29/1, a song by Amy Beach (28) to her own words, is performed for the first time, in Newark. The same day sees the premiere of Beach’s cantata The Rose of Avon-Town op.30 for solo voices, female chorus, and orchestra to words of Mischka, in New York.
December 19, 1895: Die sieben Geisslein, a Märchenspiel by Engelbert Humperdinck (41) to words of Wette after Grimm, is performed for the first time, in the Schillertheater, Berlin.
December 20, 1895: The ninth and 16th of the 24 Preludes op.11 for piano by Alyeksandr Skryabin (23) are performed for the first time, in Moscow by the composer.
December 21, 1895: As a result of the bellicose statements by President Cleveland three days ago, the stock market undergoes a panic selloff. This also produces fears of another round of bank runs and failures.
December 22, 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen takes his first X-ray photographs on a human, his wife’s hand, in Würzburg.
December 26, 1895: Maison de l’Art Nouveau is opened in Paris by Siegfried Bing.
December 26, 1895: Herrjemineh op.464, a polka française by Johann Strauss (70), is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
December 28, 1895: German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen publishes a scientific paper in Würzburg entitled “A New Kind of Ray, a Preliminary Communication.” He admits he does not fully understand what he has discovered and so calls it an X-Ray. Within a year, 49 books and over 1,000 articles will be written about X-rays.
December 28, 1895: The first movie shown to a paying audience, La sortie des ouvriers de l’usine Lumière, is seen today in the Grand Café, Paris. It is 50 seconds long and is only the first of a number of films shown today by the Lumière Brothers.
December 29, 1895: British settlers under the Administrator of Rhodesia, Dr. Leander Starr Jameson, invade the Transvaal in an attempt to foment an uprising by English speaking residents against the Boer government.
December 29, 1895: Turkish government massacres of Armenians continue with an attack on Sanliurfa (Urfa).
December 30, 1895: Hugo Wolf (35) calls on Wilhelm Jahn, the director of the Vienna Opera, to personally present the score of his recently completed work, Der Corregidor. He is told by a bureaucrat that he may not see Jahn and must submit his score in the usual way.