January 1, 1894: Heinrich Hertz dies in Bonn at the age of 36.
January 1, 1894: String Quartet no.12 “American” by Antonín Dvorák (52) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
January 1, 1894: The Manchester Ship Canal opens for traffic. It will not be opened officially until 21 May.
January 2, 1894: The new Peters Music Library opens in Leipzig amidst much fanfare.
January 3, 1894: Italian Prime Minister Francesco Crispi declares a state of siege throughout Sicily to deal with the workers’ movement. Troops fire on protesting workers in Marineo, Sicily. 18 people are killed.
January 4, 1894: After an exchange of diplomatic letters, France and Russia announce their ratification of the treaty of alliance of 18 August 1892.
January 5, 1894: Troops fire on protesting workers in Santa Caterina, Sicily. 13 people are killed.
January 6, 1894: “Bid me at least good-bye”, a song by Arthur Sullivan (51) to words of Grundy, is performed for the first time, as part of Grundy’s play An Old Jew in the Garrick Theatre, London.
January 7, 1894: The Sneeze by Thomas Edison becomes the first film to be copyrighted.
January 7, 1894: William Dickson, an associate of Thomas Edison, receives a US patent for motion picture film.
January 7, 1894: Havanaise op.83 for violin and orchestra by Camille Saint-Saëns (58) is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris.
January 8, 1894: The Peristyle, Casino, and Music Hall, and the Moveable Sidewalk of the Chicago World Columbian Exposition are destroyed by fire.
January 8, 1894: Two works by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed for the first time, in the Berlin Philharmonie: Anakreons Grab for solo voice and orchestra to words of Goethe, and Der Feuerreiter for chorus and orchestra to words of Mörike.
January 12, 1894: The String Quintet “American” op.97 by Antonín Dvorák (52) is performed for the first time, in Carnegie Hall, New York.
January 13, 1894: Nadezhda von Meck dies in Nice at the age of 62.
January 15, 1894: King Behanzin of Danhome (known to the French as Dahomey) surrenders to the French at Atcheribé.
January 19, 1894: This is the last day for Frederick S. Converse (23) at his job in a Boston banking firm. He has decided to pursue music as a career.
January 20, 1894: Three of the Five Songs by Vilhelm Krag, a cycle for voice and piano op.60 by Edvard Grieg (50), is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen. Also premiered are Grieg’s songs To the Motherland op.58/2 and Autumn Farewell op.59/1 both to words of Paulsen.
January 20, 1894: Richard Strauss (29) visits his mentor Hans von Bülow for the last time, in Hamburg. Already quite ill, von Bülow is about to travel to Cairo.
January 21, 1894: Abschied, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) to words of Mörike, is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
January 22, 1894: Piano Pieces op.118/3, 5 and op.119/2, 4, 1 or 3 by Johannes Brahms (60) are performed for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London. See 7 March 1894.
January 22, 1894: Le filibustier, a comédie lyrique by Cesar Cui (59) to words of Richepin, is performed for the first time, in Théâtre Favart, Paris.
January 23, 1894: The Mashonaland and Matabeleland protectorates of the British South Africa Company are joined as South Zambesia.
January 23, 1894: Mass in G op.46 for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (41) is performed publicly for the first time, in London. See 26 May 1893.
January 24, 1894: Dorde Simic replaces Sava Grujic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
January 29, 1894: US naval forces break a rebel monarchist blockade of Rio de Janeiro, thus supporting the republican government of Brazil.
January 29, 1894: Tabasco, a burlesque opera by George Whitefield Chadwick (39) to words of Barnet, is performed for the first time, in the Tremont Theatre, Boston by amateurs. See 9 April 1894.
January 29, 1894: Three songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed for the first time, in the Großer Saal des Hotels "Zur Traube" in Darmstadt: Klinge, klinge, mein Pandero to words of Fernandez de Almeida (tr. Geibel), Prometheus (first public) to words of Goethe, and Wie glänzt der helle Mond.
January 31, 1894: The last four of the Seven Pieces op.10 for piano by Sergey Rakhmaninov (20) are performed for the first time, in Moscow.
January 31, 1894: The application of Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (49) to resign as Assistant Director of the Imperial Kapella is formally approved. See 9 December 1893.
February 2, 1894: Morceau fantastique for cello and orchestra by Charles Martin Loeffler (33) is performed for the first time, in the Music Hall, Boston. Audience and critics love it.
February 3, 1894: Six Irish Fantasies op.54 for violin and piano by Charles Villiers Stanford (41) are performed for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London.
February 4, 1894: Adolphe Sax dies in Paris at the age of 79.
February 5, 1894: French anarchist Auguste Vaillant is put to death by guillotine in Paris. He threw a nail bomb into the French Parliament last December.
February 7, 1894: Five songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed for the first time, in the Konzertsaal der Liederhalle, Stuttgart: Du denkst mit einem Fädchen mich zu fangen, Heb' auf dein blondes Haupt, Ihr jungen Leute, and Nun laß uns Frieden schließen, all to anonymous words (tr. Heyse), and Erschaffen und Beleben (first public) to words of Goethe.
February 8, 1894: The Enforcement Act of 1870, designed to protect the voting rights of African-Americans, is repealed.
February 9, 1894: Salome: a Tragedy by Oscar Wilde is published in English. It was published in French last year.
February 9, 1894: 500 naval mutineers in Rio de Janeiro harbor go ashore to capture the town of Niterói. At first successful, they are forced to retreat.
February 9, 1894: Milton Hershey founds the Hershey Chocolate Company in Hershey, Pennsylvania. He wants to make the chocolate as a coating for his caramels.
February 10, 1894: The Beginning of a Romance, an opera by Leos Janácek (39) to words of Tichy after Preissová, is performed for the first time, in the National Theatre, Brünn (Brno), conducted by the composer. Popular with the audience, the press is strongly divided. This is the only time Janácek conducts one of his operas (or any opera).
February 12, 1894: A bomb explodes in the Café Terminus in Paris killing one person and injuring 20. It was set by anarchist Émile Henry.
February 12, 1894: Trio élégiaque (no.2) op.9 for piano and strings by Sergey Rakhmaninov (20), to the memory of Tchaikovsky (†0), is performed for the first time, in Moscow the composer at the keyboard. After working on it for two months he wrote, “It is a composition on the death of a great artist. How earnestly, intensely, and painstakingly I have worked. However such things only go well for priests and pathologists!” (Scott, 43)
February 12, 1894: String Quartet op.32 by Arthur Foote (40) is performed for the first time, in Chickering Hall, Boston. It is a success with press and public.
February 12, 1894: Hans von Bülow dies of a brain tumor in Cairo at the age of 64.
February 13, 1894: String Quartet no.2 op.45 by Charles Villiers Stanford (41) is performed for the first time, in Prince’s Hall, London.
February 14, 1894: Trio for piano and strings op.2 by Max Reger (20) is performed completely for the first time, in Berlin the composer at the keyboard, in the first concert devoted entirely to the music of Reger.
February 15, 1894: French anarchist Martial Bourdin is killed when explosives he intends to place in the Royal Observatory in Greenwich explode prematurely.
February 17, 1894: Even though he has been living with Gabrielle Dupont for two years, Claude Debussy (31) announces his engagement to Thérèse Roger, a singer. Within a month, the couple will abandon this plan. Today, Roger sings the premiere of the last two of the Proses lyriques by Debussy in the Salle Favart, Paris, the composer at the piano.
February 17, 1894: Two works for strings by Jean Sibelius (28) are performed for the first time, in Turku, directed by the composer: Impromptu and Scherzo.
February 20, 1894: Moses, a sacred opera by Anton Rubinstein (64) to words of Mosenthal, is performed for the first time, in a concert setting in the Neues Deutschestheater, Prague. The work did receive a public dress rehearsal in Riga in June 1892 but the performance was cancelled due to bankruptcy.
February 23, 1894: Piano Sonata op.6 by Alyeksandr Skryabin (22) is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg by the composer.
February 24, 1894: The first performance of the American Symphony Orchestra takes place in Chickering Hall, New York. Made up of native-born musicians, it is a reaction to the domination of the New York musical scene by foreigners. Victor Herbert (35) is the soloist in the premiere of his Légende for cello, harp, and strings.
February 28, 1894: Having resigned his commission, Franz Lehár (23) boards a train in Losoncz, Hungary for Sarajevo. Half the regiment, including his band, turn out for the farewell.
March 1, 1894: The first concert devoted entirely to the works of Claude Debussy (31) takes place in the gallery of La Libre Esthétique in Brussels. The composer is present and is pleased by the performances and the audience reaction.
March 1, 1894: Prudente José de Moraes Barros wins the first presidential elections in Brazil.
March 4, 1894: Fire in Shanghai destroys over a thousand buildings.
March 5, 1894: Queen Victoria grants royal assent to the Local Government Act. It creates rural and urban districts throughout the country (except London) all with elected councils.
March 5, 1894: Regina Diaz, an opera by Umberto Giordano (26) to words of Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci after Lockroy, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Mercadante, Naples. It will enjoy only two performances.
March 6, 1894: Archibald Philip Primrose, Earl of Roseberry replaces William Ewart Gladstone as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
March 7, 1894: The Piano Pieces op.118 and 119 by Johannes Brahms (60) are performed completely for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London. See 22 January 1894.
March 8, 1894: Hulda, an opera by César Franck (†3) to words of Grandmougin after Bjørnson, is performed for the first time, in Monte Carlo.
March 9, 1894: Concerto for cello and orchestra no.2 op.30 by Victor Herbert (35) is performed for the first time, in New York, the composer as soloist. Critics are mixed.
March 10, 1894: Rondo op.2 for viola and piano by Jean Sibelius (28) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
March 11, 1894: Hearing that loyal warships are heading for Rio de Janeiro, the mutineers in the harbor seek asylum on two Portuguese ships. It is granted.
March 14, 1894: Symphony no.1 by Carl Nielsen (28) is performed for the first time, in the Koncertpalæet, Copenhagen. The audience, which includes King Christian IX, Queen Louise, and other members of the royal family, is very appreciative.
March 15, 1894: A convention between France and Germany fixes the border between French Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) and the German Protectorate of Northwest Africa (Cameroon).
March 16, 1894: Thaïs, a comèdie lyrique by Jules Massenet (51) to words of Gallet after France, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. Some critics find it immoral, but it is a hit with the public.
March 17, 1894: Representatives of China and the United States sign a convention in Washington extending for ten years existing agreements and laws which bar the immigration of Chinese workers into the US.
March 20, 1894: Lajos Kossuth dies in Turin at the age of 91.
March 20, 1894: Richard Strauss (29) concludes a contract to conduct at the Munich opera beginning 1 October.
March 21, 1894: Anarchist Émile Henry is executed by guillotine in Paris for the bombing of 12 February.
March 22, 1894: The Dominion Hockey Challenge Cup is awarded to the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team after it defeats the Ottawa Generals in a tournament. In later years, the trophy will be named after the man who donated it, the Governor General of Canada, Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley, Lord of Preston, 16th earl of Derby.
March 22, 1894: Richard Strauss (29) asks the parents of Pauline de Ahna for her hand. They agree and the two are engaged. This will remain secret until May.
March 25, 1894: In the midst of a depression, Jacob S. Coxey begins a march of the unemployed from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, protesting the lack of action by the government in creating jobs.
March 26, 1894: Jules Philippe Marie de Burlet replaces August Marie François Beernaert as head of government for Belgium.
March 29, 1894: Gustav Mahler (39) attends the memorial service for Hans von Bülow in St. Michael’s Church, Hamburg. He hears The Resurrection by Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and from this finds the inspiration for the conclusion of his Symphony no.2
April 1, 1894: The Rock, a symphonic poem by Sergey Rakhmaninov, is performed for the first time, in Moscow on the composer’s 21st birthday.
April 3, 1894: Svetomir Nikolajevic replaces Dorde Simic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
April 3, 1894: Charles Ives (19) pitches a baseball game for Hopkins Grammar School in which they defeat a team of Yale University freshmen.
April 3, 1894: Two-and-a-half years after arriving in America, Ferruccio Busoni (28) and his family depart New York for Europe.
April 3, 1894: Six songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (34) are performed for the first time, in Bösendorfersaal, Vienna: Da nur Leid und Leidenschaft to anonymous words (tr. Heyse), Die Zigeunerin to words of Eichendorff, Tretet ein, hoher Krieger to words of Keller, Erstes Liebeslied eines Mädchens to words of Mörike, Das Köhlerweib ist trunken, and Du milchjunger Knabe.
April 4, 1894: The Münchener Neueste Nachrichten announces that the Bavarian regent Prince Luitpold has approved of the engagement of Richard Strauss (29) by the Munich Opera.
April 8, 1894: The “Schalk” version of Symphony no.5 by Anton Bruckner (69) is performed for the first time, in Graz. The composer is too ill to attend. In fact, he will never hear his Fifth Symphony. See 20 April 1887.
April 8, 1894: Sursum corda op.11 for strings, brass, and organ by Edward Elgar (36) is performed for the first time, in Worcester Cathedral, for a visit by George, Duke of York.
April 9, 1894: After two performances in Connecticut, Tabasco, a burlesque opera by George Whitefield Chadwick (39) to words of Barnet, is performed for the first time in Boston by professionals, at the Boston Museum. See 29 January 1894 and 14 May 1894.
April 10, 1894: Music for Drachmann’s melodrama Snefrid, Carl Nielsen (28) is performed for the first time, in the Koncertpalæet, Copenhagen. Only the music is performed.
April 11, 1894: Great Britain officially extends a protectorate over Buganda, to take effect on 18 June.
April 12, 1894: Ferruccio Busoni (28) and his family arrive in Berlin from America. Except for the interval of World War I, this will be his home for the rest of his life.
April 12, 1894: Hymne à Apollon for voice, harp, flute, and two clarinets by Gabriel Fauré (48) to an ancient Greek text, is performed for the first time, in the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris.
April 13, 1894: Grand Duke Carl Alexander of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach grants leave to Richard Strauss (29) to resign his position.
April 14, 1894: The first “peep show” (where the film is viewed through a vending machine) is put on exhibit at 1155 Broadway, New York. George Eastman created the film, Thomas Edison the viewer, the kinetoscope.
April 18, 1894: Antonín Dvorák (52) is elected an honorary member of the New York Philharmonic Society.
April 21, 1894: The United Mine Workers begin a nationwide strike in the US for higher wages. Although the UMW numbers only 20,000, 125,000 miners go on strike.
April 21, 1894: Arms and the Man, a play by George Bernard Shaw, opens in London. After the performance, the playwright is called forth to near unanimous applause. Only one dissenter vocally registers his disdain. Shaw bows to the man saying, “I quite agree with you, sir, but what can two do against so many?”
April 22, 1894: Ferruccio Busoni (28) attends the Berlin premiere of Falstaff. He will write to his parents that it is “undoubtedly the best comic opera since the Barbiere.”
April 25, 1894: La bonne chanson, a song cycle for voice and piano by Gabriel Fauré (48) to words of Verlaine, is performed for the first time, at the home of Madeleine Lamaire, Paris the composer at the keyboard. See 20 April 1895.
April 25, 1894: Mit vierzig Jahren ist der Berg ersteigen op.94/1, a song by Johannes Brahms (60) to words of Rückert, is performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
April 28, 1894: The Lover for male choir by Jean Sibelius (28) to words of Kanteletar is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. It has won second prize in a choral composition competition.
April 28, 1894: After a period of reticence due to Mrs. Thurber’s failure to pay his salary, Antonín Dvorák (52) signs a contract for a further two years as director of the National Conservatory, New York.
April 29, 1894: Charles Ives (19) plays his last service as organist of St. Thomas’ Episcopal Church in Danbury, Connecticut.
April 30, 1894: After marching for five weeks from Massillon, Ohio, and growing considerably in numbers, Coxey’s Army reaches Washington to lobby the federal government to create jobs in the depression.
May 1, 1894: Jacob Coxey and other leaders of Coxey’s Army of unemployed are arrested for trespassing on the grounds of the Capitol in Washington. Their followers disperse.
May 1, 1894: Rioting occurs throughout Cleveland, Ohio as thousands of workingmen protest unemployment and the lack of government relief.
May 5, 1894: Great Britain and Italy reach agreement in Rome on their competing imperial designs in East Africa.
May 7, 1894: For the first time, Amy Beach (26) gives a recital which includes only her own music, at Wellesley College.
May 8, 1894: Le portrait de Manon, an opéra comique by Jules Massenet (51) to words of Boyer, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Lyrique, Paris. It is a moderate success.
May 8, 1894: Three Cavalier Songs op.17 for baritone, male chorus, and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (41) to words of Browning is performed for the first time. See 22 March 1882.
May 9, 1894: Joan Roëll replaces Cijsbert van Tienhoven as chief minister of the Netherlands.
May 9, 1894: At the dress rehearsal of his opera Guntram, Richard Strauss (29) criticizes all the singers except the lead soprano Pauline de Ahna. She becomes incensed at this, demands equal criticism and throws her score at him from the stage. The composer follows her to her dressing room where are heard loud noises from within. Several musicians who come to lend him support, enter the room finding the pair smiling. Strauss announces that they are engaged.
May 10, 1894: Edvard Grieg (50) receives his honorary doctorate from Cambridge University. He was awarded it last year but was too ill to attend the ceremony.
May 10, 1894: Hear My Words, Ye People, an anthem for vocal soloists, chorus, brass, and organ by Hubert Parry (46) to words from the Bible, is performed for the first time, in Salisbury Cathedral.
May 10, 1894: Guntram, an opera by Richard Strauss (29) to his own words, is performed for the first time, in the Weimar Hoftheater conducted by the composer. The critical response is tepid.
May 11, 1894: Workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company, Chicago, begin what will become a violent strike.
May 12, 1894: Great Britain and Belgium reach agreement in Brussels on Bahr-el-Ghazal. King Leopold is granted territory on the left bank of the Upper Nile.
May 13, 1894: The Sun has Risen Above that Hill for baritone, chorus and piano by Leos Janácek (39) is performed for the first time, in Brünn (Brno), the composer conducting.
May 14, 1894: Tabasco, a burlesque opera by George Whitefield Chadwick (39) to words of Barnet, opens at the Broadway Theatre, New York. It is not a success and will see 48 performances. See 9 April 1894.
May 17, 1894: Having been ignored by the jury choosing a successor to Charles Gounod (†0) for the Academy of Fine Arts of the Institut de France, Erik Satie, on his 28th birthday, fires off a letter to Le Ménestrel addressed to Camille Saint-Saëns (58), the jury president. “Your aberration can only be due to your refusal to accept the ideas of the Century and to your ignorance of God, which is the direct cause of Esthetic decline. I forgive you in Jesus Christ and embrace you in the grace of God.”
May 18, 1894: The Prelude from L’épopée de l’Ecole Polytechnique op.2, a cantata by Charles Koechlin (26), is performed for the first time, in Trocadéro, Paris.
May 21, 1894: The Manchester Ship Canal is opened by Queen Victoria giving the city direct access to the sea. It has actually been in use since New Years Day.
May 21, 1894: French anarchist Émile Henry is put to death by guillotine in Paris. He exploded a bomb in the Gare Saint-Lazare last 12 February which killed one person.
May 23, 1894: Two works by Claude Debussy (31) are performed for the first time: the second of the Deux Arabesques for piano, and the Petite Suite for piano-four hands. For the suite, it is the first public performance. See 1 March 1889.
May 24, 1894: The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling is published in book form by Macmillan in London.
May 27, 1894: Eldorado, a march for band by Victor Herbert (35), is performed for the first time, in New York, directed by the composer.
May 28, 1894: Däm’rung senkte sich von oben op.59/1, a song by Johannes Brahms (61) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time, in Hamburg, 24 years after it was composed.
May 29, 1894: La porte héroïque du ciel, a drame ésotérique by Erik Satie (28) to words of Bois, is performed for the first time, in Paris.
May 30, 1894: Charles Alexandre Dupuy, dit Charles-Dupuy replaces Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer as Prime Minister of France. A Minister of Colonies is appointed for the first time in the new government.
May 30, 1894: Giuseppe de Felice Giuffrida, leader of the Sicilian workers revolt, is sentenced by a Palermo court to 18 years in prison. Three other leaders receive sentences of twelve years.
May 30, 1894: Choral Song of the Burghers for chorus by Alphons Diepenbrock (31) to words of van den Vondel, is performed for the first time, in the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam.
May 31, 1894: Konstantin Stoilov Konstantinov replaces Stefan Nikolov Stambolov as Prime Minister of Bulgaria.
May 31, 1894: Cantata for the University Ceremonies of 1894 for chorus and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (28) to words of Leino is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
June 2, 1894: Selections from Christus, a sacred opera by Anton Rubinstein (64) to words of Bulthaupt, are performed for the first time, in a concert setting in Stuttgart, the composer directing. This turns out to be his last conducting performance. See 25 May 1895.
June 4, 1894: Anton Rubinstein (64) gives a concert of his piano music for the students of Stuttgart Conservatory. It is his last performance.
June 6, 1894: Frederick Shepherd Converse (23) marries Emma Cecile Tudor of Boston in St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, Brookline.
June 7, 1894: At the request of the Korean royal family, who feel their safety threatened by the Tonghak insurrection, China sends troops into Korea, simultaneously informing Japan as required by treaty. The Japanese respond by sending troops as well.
June 9, 1894: Sultan Hasan I of Morocco dies in Marrakech and is succeeded by his son, Abd al-Aziz.
June 10, 1894: Japanese troops arrive in Seoul.
June 11, 1894: Chinese troops arrive in Korea at Asan.
June 11, 1894: The first United States patent for a gasoline driven automobile is granted to Karl Benz.
June 14, 1894: Albert Roussel (25) resigns from the French Navy. He has decided to become a musician.
June 20, 1894: French (originally Swiss) bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin announces in Hong Kong that he has discovered the bacillus for bubonic plague.
June 20, 1894: La Navarraise, an épisode lyrique by Jules Massenet (52) to words of Claretie and Cain, is performed for the first time, at Covent Garden, London. It is so successful, at the curtain, the audience begins standing and screaming for more. They call for the composer, but as is his custom, he refuses to appear before them.
June 21, 1894: Song of Spring, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (28), is performed for the first time, as Impromptu for Orchestra, in Vaasa, conducted by the composer.
June 22, 1894: The French government joins its protectorate over Dahomey with its colony in Porto Novo to create the Colony of Dahomey (Benin).
June 23, 1894: At a conference at the Sorbonne, Domenikos Vikelas of Greece becomes the first President of the Olympic Movement. An International Olympic Committee of 14 members is formed.
June 23, 1894: The French Navy accepts the resignation of Albert Roussel (25). He plans to pursue a career in composition.
June 24, 1894: After giving a speech in Lyon, President Marie François Sadi-Carnot of France is stabbed to death by Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio.
June 26, 1894: Eugene V. Debs, leader of the American Railway Union, orders a strike in sympathy with the Pullman workers.
June 27, 1894: Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer replaces Marie Farnçois Sadi-Carnot as President of France.
June 29, 1894: Lady Radnor Suite for strings by Hubert Parry (46) is performed for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London.
June 30, 1894: Tower Bridge, over the Thames in London, is opened by the Prince of Wales.
June 30, 1894: In the last twelve months, 125 US railroads have gone into receivership. 63% of railroad stock pays no dividends.
July 1, 1894: On a sightseeing trip in Malta, Giacomo Puccini (35) is arrested for photographing a military installation. He is released after a few hours having convinced the British authorities of his ignorance of military matters.
July 2, 1894: A federal court in Illinois orders the American Railway Union to call off their strike.
July 3, 1894: President Grover Cleveland orders federal troops to Chicago claiming the railway strike has interrupted the mail and interstate commerce.
July 4, 1894: Unable to interest the Cleveland administration in annexation, the Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by the whites who took over the government last year. Acting President Sanford Ballard Dole becomes permanent President of Hawaii.
July 5, 1894: A fire at the site of the Chicago World Columbian Exposition destroys the Great Buildings on the Court of Honor and the Terminal Station.
July 6, 1894: United States deputy marshals fire on strikers at Kensington, Illinois, killing two people and wounding several others.
July 6, 1894: United States forces occupy Bluefields, Nicaragua.
July 11, 1894: Legislation is enacted in Italy designed to suppress socialist and anarchist organizations.
July 11, 1894: Anton Bruckner (69) is made an honorary citizen of Linz and receives the freedom of the city.
July 13, 1894: The Haut-Oubangui colony (Central African Republic) is created by France in central Africa.
July 13, 1894: Concert Waltz no.2 op.51 for orchestra by Alyeksandr Glazunov (28) is performed for the first time, at the Pavlovsky Station, St. Petersburg.
July 15, 1894: Italian forces capture Kassala from Mahdists.
July 16, 1894: A treaty is signed in London by the Earl of Kimberley for Great Britain and Aoki Shuzo for Japan. It brings British citizens in Japan under Japanese law instead of British law. It is the first of several such treaties Japan will sign with other countries and will come into force exactly five years hence.
July 17, 1894: Union leader Eugene V. Debs is indicted for criminal conspiracy and contempt of court.
July 20, 1894: Federal troops are withdrawn from Chicago.
July 21, 1894: Alice Elgar, wife of the composer (37), is received into the Roman Catholic faith of her husband in St. George’s Church, Worcester.
July 23, 1894: On his way to see King Kojong of Korea in Seoul, Japanese minister Otori is fired on by Korean troops. Japanese forces in Korea respond by taking control of the capital.
July 25, 1894: Japanese and Chinese naval forces engage in Korean waters near Phung Do Island. Two Chinese ships are destroyed and others captured, thus preventing a Chinese troop ship from reaching Korea.
July 28, 1894: At the invitation of Cosima Wagner, Gustav Mahler (34) visits Wahnfried through 4 August. He will see productions of Parsifal, Tannhäuser, and Lohengrin from the family box.
July 29, 1894: The Japanese regent in Korea requests that the Japanese drive away all Chinese troops present in the country. Japanese forces defeat Chinese east of Asan and the Chinese withdraw.
August 1, 1894: Japan formally declares war on China over Korea.
August 3, 1894: The Pullman strike is ended with no resolution.
August 7, 1894: Tage, Baron Reedtz-Thott replaces Jakob Brønnum Scavenius Estrup as Prime Minister of Denmark.
August 7, 1894: United States forces end their occupation of Bluefields, Nicaragua.
August 8, 1894: The United States recognizes the Republic of Hawaii.
August 13, 1894: Physicist Lord Rayleigh and chemist William Ramsay announce to the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford that they have discovered Argon.
August 14, 1894: By a treaty with France, King Leopold of the Congo Free State gives up his claims to the Upper Nile.
August 14, 1894: Oliver Joseph Lodge transmits radio signals before a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford University.
August 16, 1894: Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio is put to death by guillotine in Lyon for the murder of President Marie François Sadi Carnot.
August 18, 1894: Today begins 24 days of killing of Armenians by Turkish troops. It is the first systematic killing of Armenians by Turks in peacetime.
August 18, 1894: The Bureau of Immigration is created by an act of the US Congress.
August 25, 1894: Balinese forces fall on invading Dutch at Mayura Palace in Cakranegara on Lombok. They kill over 500 Dutch and colonial supporters, including the Dutch commander.
September 1, 1894: A forest fire large enough to create a firestorm destroys the town of Hinckley, Minnesota and five nearby villages, halfway between Minneapolis and Duluth. Covering 1,000 sq km, it kills 418 people.
September 4, 1894: 12,000 tailors strike in New York for a ten-hour day, a weekly minimum wage, and a weekly payday. They will be largely successful.
September 8, 1894: Willem Frederik Johannes Pijper is born in Zeist, Kingdom of the Netherlands, the only child of Johannes Willem Pijper, a paper hanger, and Willemina Andrea Frederika Beeftink.
September 10, 1894: The massacre of Armenians by Turks in the Sassoun (Sason, northeast of Batman) area ends today. The exact number of dead is unknown but the majority of the people living in 25 villages are killed. Most are bayoneted by troops. Some are burned alive. The Turkish government denies any atrocities by Turks but fabricates stories of Armenian attacks on Muslims.
September 10, 1894: Richard Strauss (30) marries Pauline de Ahna, an opera singer and his voice student, the daughter of a general, in Schlosskapelle St. Veit in Marquartstein, Bavaria near Salzburg, where her family has a summer home. As a wedding present, he dedicates his songs op.27 to her.
September 15, 1894: Japanese forces capture Ping-yang (Pyongyang) from the Chinese. 2,100 people are killed.
September 15, 1894: Governor David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow grants royal assent to the New Zealand Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act. For the first time, it mandates a minimum wage.
September 17, 1894: Chinese and Japanese naval forces engage near the mouth of the Yalu River. Four Chinese ships are sunk, including the cruiser the Ching-Yuen (Zhiyuen) which took down 245 of her 252 men. All others engaged are damaged and withdraw. The Japanese lose no vessels but six of their ships are damaged, four severely.
September 19, 1894: The two Sonatas for clarinet and piano op.120 by Johannes Brahms (61) are performed for the first time, privately in Berchtesgaden. See 8 January 1895 and 11 January 1895.
September 20, 1894: A hurricane hits the Lesser Antilles and goes on to strike the Greater Antilles and Florida. About 200 deaths are attributed to the storm.
September 25, 1894: Great Britain annexes Pondoland, connecting the Cape Colony with Natal.
September 30, 1894: Charles Ives (19) enters duties as organist at Center Church on the Green, New Haven, Connecticut.
October 3, 1894: King Saul, an oratorio by Hubert Parry (46), is performed for the first time, in Birmingham. Like previous Parry oratorios, this is a triumph.
October 4, 1894: Friedrich Engels dates his preface to the third part of Capital by Karl Marx.
October 6, 1894: The Schola Cantorum opens in Paris, led by Vincent d’Indy (43), Charles Bordes, and Alexandre Guilmant.
October 6, 1894: Richard Strauss (30) and his new wife Pauline de Anha return from their Italian honeymoon to their new home in Munich. He enters into duties as assistant conductor of the Munich Hofoper.
October 11, 1894: Victor Alexander Bruce, Earl of Elgin replaces Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marquess of Lansdowne as Viceroy of India.
October 12, 1894: At the premiere of the French version of Otello, Giuseppe Verdi (81) receives the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor from President Jean Casimir-Périer.
October 12, 1894: Jabuka, an operetta by Johann Strauss (68) to words of Kalbeck and Davis, is performed for the first time, in Theater an der Wien, Vienna.
October 14, 1894: Two works by Johann Strauss (68) are performed for the first time, at the Musikverein, Vienna: the waltz Ich bin Dir gut! op.455, and the march Zivio! op.456.
October 15, 1894: Captain Alfred Dreyfus is arrested on a charge of treason. French Intelligence believes that he is the officer responsible for sending classified information to the German Military attache in Paris.
October 17, 1894: Mily Balakirev (57) makes his last public appearance as pianist, in Chopin’s birthplace, Zelazowa Wola, on the 45th anniversary of Chopin’s death.
October 18, 1894: Giuseppe Verdi (81) and his wife eat dinner with President Jean Casimir-Périer at the Elysée Place, France.
October 19, 1894: Symphony no.3 by George Whitefield Chadwick (39) is performed for the first time, in the Music Hall, Boston, conducted by the composer. Reviews are mixed.
October 23, 1894: A Menuett for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (28) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
October 25, 1894: Japanese troops cross the Yalu River and, despite Chinese resistance, establish an effective bridgehead inside China.
October 26, 1894: Antonín Dvorák (52), his wife and son, arrive in New York for the autumn term at the National Conservatory.
October 26, 1894: San Antonio de la Florida, a zarzuela by Isaac Albéniz (34) to word of Sierra, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Apolo, Madrid, conducted by the composer. It is strongly applauded but will receive only 20 performances.
October 27, 1894: Nikola Hristic replaces Svetomir Nikolajevic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
October 29, 1894: The New Zealand passenger ship SS Wairarapa goes aground on Great Barrier Island off Auckland. About 140 people are lost with 90 saved.
October 29, 1894: Chlodwig, Prince zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst replaces Georg Leo, Count Caprivi as Chancellor of Germany and Botho, Count Eulenburg as Prime Minister of Prussia.
October 30, 1894: Richard Strauss (30) is appointed conductor of the Musical Academy concerts in Munich.
October 31, 1894: Tipped off by leaks from army headquarters, the French anti-Semitic daily Le Soir publishes the information that Captain Alfred Dreyfus has been indicted for funneling secret military information to the Germans.
November 1, 1894: Dr. Pierre-Paul-Émile Roux announces a vaccine for diphtheria in Paris.
November 1, 1894: Antonín Dvorák (53) resumes his duties as director of the National Conservatory, New York.
November 1, 1894: Tsar Alyeksandr III of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, King of Poland dies in Livadiya in the Crimea and is succeeded by his son, Nikolay II.
November 1, 1894: The French newspaper La Libre Parole begins a campaign to label Capt. Alfred Dreyfus as a traitor.
November 3, 1894: Ferruccio Busoni (28) plays the first of three concerts in Berlin. The critics are effusive in their praise.
November 3, 1894: The Virgin’s Cradle Song for voice and piano by Ralph Vaughan Williams (22) to words of Coleridge is performed for the first time, in the Cambridge University Musical Club the composer at the keyboard.
November 4, 1894: Just before midnight. Charles Ives’ (20) father George suffers a stroke and dies instantly in Danbury, Connecticut.
November 7, 1894: The revised version of Antonín Dvorák’s (53) opera Dimitrij to words of Cervinková-Riegrová is performed for the first time, in Prague.
November 10, 1894: Captain Frederick Lugard of the Royal Niger Company signs a treaty with the King of Borgu at Nikki (in present Benin) which places Borgu under British protection. (There is serious doubt as to just who Lugard spoke to and who actually signed the treaty)
November 10, 1894: Fatherland Hymn op.61/7 for voice and piano by Edvard Grieg (51), to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, in Christiania (Oslo). See 26 April 1895.
November 14, 1894: Romance for cello and piano op.69 by Gabriel Fauré (49) is performed for the first time, in Geneva.
November 15, 1894: Prudente José de Moraes Barros replaces Floriano Vieira de Araújo Peixoto as President of Brazil.
November 16, 1894: Richard Strauss (30) conducts his first concert as director of the Munich Hofkapelle.
November 18, 1894: Dutch forces bombard Balinese at Cakranegara, Lombok, killing 2,000 people and destroying Mayura Palace. They go on to plunder the remains of the palace.
November 20, 1894: Prince Ananias, an operetta by Victor Herbert (35) to words of Neilson, is performed for the first time, at the Broadway Theatre, New York.
November 20, 1894: Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein dies of heart disease in his villa on Zamenskaya Street, Peterhof (Petrovonets), aged 64 years, eleven months, and 23 days.
November 21, 1894: Japanese troops assault and capture Port Arthur (Lüshun), and carry out a massacre of Chinese inhabitants who have not fled. The Japanese soldiers are incensed by the display of mutilated bodies of their comrades by the Chinese. 4,000 people are killed.
November 26, 1894: The King of Borgu makes a treaty with Captain Henri Decoeur at Nikki (in present Benin) giving France sovereignty over Borgu. (without mentioning the treaty of 10 November)
November 28, 1894: The earthly remains of Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein are laid to rest in Tikhvin Cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky monastery, St. Petersburg, on the 65th anniversary of his birth.
November 29, 1894: The first movement of the Symphony no.6 by Anton Bruckner (55) is performed for the first time, in a four-hand piano arrangement, in Vienna. See 26 February 1899.
November 30, 1894: Cello Concerto op.33 by Arthur Foote (41) is performed for the first time, in Chicago.
December 3, 1894: Robert Louis Stevenson dies in Vailima, Samoa at the age of 44.
December 5, 1894: The new German Reichstag building, designed by Paul Wallot, opens with ceremonies in Berlin.
December 10, 1894: The Independent Territory of Amapá is established in lands disputed by France and Brazil. The new government favors Brazil.
December 10, 1894: Wie lange schon war immer mein Verlangen, a song for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (34) to anonymous words (tr. Heyse), is performed for the first time, in Graz.
December 11, 1894: The Congo Free State extends a protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio in central Africa (Central African Republic).
December 12, 1894: French forces land and take the city of Tamatave (Toamasina), Madagascar.
December 12, 1894: Prime Minister John Sparrow David Thompson of Canada dies minutes after being sworn in to the Privy Council by Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle.
December 12, 1894: The Chieftan, an operetta by Arthur Sullivan (52) to words of Burnand, is performed for the first time, in the Savoy Theatre, London, conducted by the composer. The piece is a reworking of The Contrabandista. See 18 December 1867.
December 14, 1894: The sentence of Eugene V. Debs, leader of the Pullman Strike, to six months in jail for criminal conspiracy and contempt of court is upheld by a federal appeals court in Chicago.
December 16, 1894: Two works for cello and orchestra by Antonín Dvorák (53) are performed for the first time, in Basel: Rondo op.94 and Silent Woods op.68/5.
December 17, 1894: Alyeksandr Glazunov (29) conducts the premiere of his Scènes de Ballet op.52 for orchestra in the Hall of the Nobility, St. Petersburg.
December 18, 1894: Japanese troops take Kang-Wa-Seh, Manchuria in the midst of a general advance into China.
December 18, 1894: Minuet for orchestra by John Alden Carpenter (18) is performed for the first time, at Harvard University, where the composer is in his second year.
December 19, 1894: The court martial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus begins in Paris, in secret.
December 21, 1894: Mackenzie Bowell replaces John Sparrow David Thompson as Prime Minister of Canada.
December 22, 1894: The lowest and highest natures of the French character are exhibited on the same day. After a four-day secret court martial, Captain Alfred Dreyfus is found guilty of betraying military secrets and is sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island, French Guiana. In the evening, Prélude a l’après-midi d’un faune, a tone poem by Claude Debussy (32) after Mallarmé, is performed for the first time, by the Société National de Musique, Paris. The work is cheered by audience and orchestra and is encored. The poet, who is in attendance, is pleased. The critics are mixed.
December 28, 1894: Three songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (34) are performed for the first time, in Hannover: Ein Stündlein wohl vor Tag and Heimweh, both to words of Mörike, and Auch kleine Dinge können uns entzücken to anonymous words (tr. Heyse).
December 31, 1894: The petition for appeal by Capt. Alfred Dreyfus is refused.