A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1893 – December 31, 1893

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January 1, 1893: A railway from Cape Elizabeth to Pretoria is inaugurated.
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January 2, 1893: So stehn wir, ich und meine Weide op.32/8, a song by Johannes Brahms (59) to words of Hafis, is performed for the first time, in Vienna, 29 years after it was composed.
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January 2, 1893: Incidental music to Ogilvie’s play Hypatia by Hubert Parry (44) is performed for the first time, in the Haymarket Theatre, London. See 9 March 1893.
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January 2, 1893: Giuseppe Verdi (79) and his wife arrive in Milan to oversee preparations for the premiere of Falstaff.
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January 5, 1893: Serenade in E for string orchestra op.25 by Arthur Foote (40) is performed for the first time, in Baltimore.
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January 6, 1893: The final spike is driven in the Great Northern Railway at Scenic, Washingon, thus linking St. Paul, Minnesota with Seattle.
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January 7, 1893: Bourée fantasque for piano by Emanuel Chabrier (51) is performed for the first time.
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January 9, 1893: Morceaux de fantaisie op.3, five piano pieces by Sergey Rakhmaninov (19), are performed together for the first time, in Kharkov by the composer.
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January 10, 1893: The trial of Ferdinand de Lesseps, his son Charles, and several others on charges of bribery and corruption in the Panama Canal fiasco opens in Paris.
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January 10, 1893: Fürstin Ninetta, an operetta by Johann Strauss (67) to words of Wittmann and Bauer, is performed for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna.
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January 13, 1893: British trade unionists convene in Bradford to create a political party.
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January 14, 1893: Erik Satie (26) meets Suzanne Valadon in Paris. She is a famous model for many of the leading painters in the city. In the evening, Satie proposes marriage. “She had too many things on her mind to get married; so we never brought up the subject again.” She will move in with him and they engage in a tumultuous affair. “...she has a tender little belch which is often inspiring.” See 20 June 1893.
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January 14, 1893: Queen Liliuokalani attempts to replace the constitution foisted upon Hawaii by wealthy American planters.
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January 15, 1893: The last two of the Three Pieces for oboe and piano by Arthur Foote (39) are performed for the first time, at the St. Botolph Club, Boston. See 13 April 1893.
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January 15, 1893: Neue Pizzicato-Polka op.449 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed in a concert setting for the first time, in Etablissement Dreher. It was first heard five days ago as part of Fürstin Ninetta.
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January 16, 1893: A three-day conference of trade unionists ends in Bradford, England with the creation of the Independent Labour Party.
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January 16, 1893: North American and European residents of Hawaii organize a Committee of Public Safety and call on the American minister for aid. Marines are landed from a United States warship and surround the royal palace.
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January 17, 1893: The Committee of Public Safety organized yesterday in Honolulu proclaims the end of the Hawaiian monarchy, the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani, and the establishment of a provisional government. Sanford Ballard Dole is named president. United States Minister John L. Stevens, secretly in conspiracy with the rebels, extends immediate recognition. In order to avoid bloodshed, Queen Liliuokalani accedes to the demands of the provisional government, simultaneously calling on the US government to reinstate her.
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January 18, 1893: Mass in D by Ethel Smyth (34) is performed for the first time, in Albert Hall, London.
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January 19, 1893: The Magic Opal, a comic opera by Isaac Albéniz (32) to words of Law, is performed for the first time, at the Lyric Theatre, London.
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January 21, 1893: The Tati Concessions Land are brought under the jurisdiction of the Resident Commissioner of the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
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January 21, 1893: The second version of the Requiem by Gabriel Fauré (47) is performed for the first time, in the Church of the Madeleine, Paris. See 16 January 1888, 28 January 1892, and 12 July 1900.
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January 22, 1893: Ninetta-Walzer op.445 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Volksgarten, Vienna.
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January 27, 1893: WS Gilbert reads the plot of a new operetta (Utopia, Limited) to Arthur Sullivan (50) at Roquebrune. Both are pleased.
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January 30, 1893: Piano works by Johannes Brahms (59) are performed for the first time: Fantasias op.116/1-3 in Vienna, and the Intermezzi op.117/1-2 in London.
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January 31, 1893: The trademark Coca-Cola is registered by the US Patent Office.
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February 1, 1893: Manon Lescaut, a dramma lirico by Giacomo Puccini (34) to words of Oliva and Illica after Abbé Prévost, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Regio, Turin. Before the performance, the composer muses that if the opera is not a success he will have to change professions. Puccini receives 30 curtain calls. The press is very positive. He does not change professions.
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February 1, 1893: Thomas Edison completes Black Maria, the first movie studio, in West Orange, New Jersey.
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February 1, 1893: The US Minister in Hawaii proclaims a protectorate over the islands. It will not be recognized by the incoming administration.
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February 2, 1893: Thomas Edison films The Sneeze at his studio Black Maria in West Orange, New Jersey. The first movie closeup is a film of comedian Fred Ott sneezing.
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February 3, 1893: Ninetta-Galopp op.450 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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February 4, 1893: Bernard Rogers is born in New York, New York, USA.
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February 4, 1893: The first electric elevated railway opens serving the Liverpool Docks.
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February 5, 1893: Melodrama from Nights of Jealousy for narrator, soprano, and piano trio by Jean Sibelius (27) to words of Runeberg is performed for the first time, at the Helsinki Music Institute.
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February 6, 1893: Herzenskönigen op. 445, a polka française by Johann Strauss (67), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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February 6, 1893: Incidental music to Tennyson’s play Becket by Charles Villiers Stanford (40) is performed for the first time, in the Lyceum, London. The composer is not in attendance as he must travel to Milan to review the premiere of Falstaff for the Daily Graphic and the Fortnightly Review.
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February 7, 1893: Giacomo Puccini (34) is named Cavaliere dell’Ordine della Corona d’Italia.
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February 7, 1893: Lansdown Castle, an operetta by Gustav Holst (18) to words of Cunningham, is performed completely for the first time, at the Corn Exchange, Cheltenham the composer at the piano. See 22 December 1892.
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February 8, 1893: Two of the Six Songs op.4 for voice and piano by Sergey Rakhmaninov (19) are performed for the first time, in Kharkov, the composer at the keyboard: Oh no, I beseech you, do not depart! to words of Merezhkovsky, and In the Silence of the Night to words of Fet.
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February 8, 1893: Bugle Song for chorus and piano by Arthur Foote (39) to words of Tennyson is performed for the first time, in New York.
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February 9, 1893: Ferdinand de Lesseps and Charles de Lesseps are sentenced to five years in prison and a fine of FF3,000 for fraud by the Paris Court of Appeal.
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February 9, 1893: Falstaff, a commedia lirica by Giuseppe Verdi (79) to words of Boito (50) after Shakespeare, is performed for the first time, at Teatro alla Scala, Milan. Numerous state and musical luminaries are present including Giacomo Puccini (34), Pietro Mascagni (29) and Teresa Stolz. Unlike the premiere of Otello, Verdi, his wife, and Boito manage to make it out of the theatre unscathed, but when they reach the Grand Hôtel de Milan the mob of admirers and well wishers awaits. The three make it into the lobby to be greeted by dignitaries and then appear to the crowds on the balcony. See 5 February 1887.
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February 15, 1893: Lawrence Hargrave flies the first box kite (which he called a cellular kite) in Sydney, Australia. He invented it as a design for lifting objects as heavy as a man to be used in aircraft design.
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February 15, 1893: Telefon Hirmondó begins broadcasting news, music, and other content to subscribers in Budapest over telephone lines. It is the first broadcasting service in the world.
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February 15, 1893: United States President Benjamin Harrison presents the annexation of Hawaii to the Senate. The treaty, however, will remain unratified because the incoming president, Grover Cleveland, opposed to Harrison’s imperialistic schemes, withdraws it.
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February 16, 1893: Unter den Linden, a song for voice and orchestra by Ferruccio Busoni (26) to words of Walther von der Vogelweide, is performed for the first time, in Mechanics’ Hall, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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February 16, 1893: En Saga, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (27), is performed for the first time, in Helsinki conducted by the composer.
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February 18, 1893: Fantasia op.116/7 for piano by Johannes Brahms (59) is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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February 19, 1893: Ninetta-Quadrille op.446 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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February 20, 1893: The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad goes bankrupt, causing widespread uncertainty in the markets.
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February 21, 1893: Poème de l’amour et de la mer for voice and orchestra by Ernest Chausson (38) to words of Bouchor is performed for the first time, in Brussels. The premiere is heard in a two-piano version with the composer at one keyboard.
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February 22, 1893: Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro replaces José Dias Ferreira as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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February 23, 1893: Rudolf Diesel receives a German patent for his new engine.
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February 23, 1893: Great Britain creates the British Central Africa Protectorate (Malawi) and places it in the hands of the British South Africa Company.
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February 23, 1893: Receivers are appointed for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, continuing uneasiness over the state of the economy.
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February 26, 1893: Symphonic Rhapsody by Carl Nielsen (27) is performed for the first time, in the Koncertpalæet, Copenhagen.
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February 26, 1893: Diplomaten-Polka op.448 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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February 27, 1893: String Sextet by Charles Martin Loeffler (32) is performed for the first time, in Chickering Hall, Boston.
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February 28, 1893: Impromptu op.1/2 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (52) is performed for the first time, 30 years after it was composed.
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March 2, 1893: A Corsican Dirge for voice and piano by Charles Villiers Stanford (40) to traditional Corsican words translated by Strettell, is performed for the first time, at Cambridge University, the composer at the keyboard.
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March 3, 1893: Dances from the unperformed opera Aleko by Sergey Rakhmaninov (19) are performed for the first time, in Moscow. See 9 May 1893.
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March 3, 1893: Suite for piano, violin, and cello op.35 by Horatio Parker (29) is performed for the first time, in New York.
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March 4, 1893: Congo Free State forces capture the Arab slave trading center of Nyangwe on the Lualaba River.
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March 4, 1893: Grover Cleveland replaces Benjamin Harrison as President of the United States.
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March 5, 1893: Ninetta-Marsch op.447 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the “Goldene Rose”, Vienna
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March 6, 1893: The first section of the Liverpool Overhead Railway opens to the public.
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March 7, 1893: Franz Wilhelm Nokk replaces Friedrich Turban as Prime Minister of Baden.
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March 9, 1893: New United States President Grover Cleveland withdraws the treaty annexing Hawaii from Senate consideration.
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March 9, 1893: A suite from the incidental music to Hypatia by Hubert Parry (45) is performed for the first time, in London. See 2 January 1893.
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March 10, 1893: French colonies are formally established in Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire.
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March 11, 1893: Freiwillige her! op.41/2 for chorus by Johannes Brahms (59) to words of Lemcke is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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March 11, 1893: Tafellied for male chorus by Anton Bruckner (68) to words of Ptak, is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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March 11, 1893: Mass in D op.86 by Antonín Dvorák (51) is performed publicly for the first time, in London.
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March 15, 1893: Fantasia op.116/6 for piano by Johannes Brahms (59) is performed for the first time, in St. James’ Hall, London.
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March 17, 1893: Les drames sacrés, incidental music to eleven tableaux of Silvestre and Morand by Charles Gounod (74), is performed for the first time at the Vaudeville, Paris.
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March 19, 1893: Elfenlied for solo voice, women's chorus, and orchestra by Hugo Wolf (33) to words of Shakespeare (tr. Schlegel) is performed for the first time, in the Stephaniensaal, Graz.
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March 21, 1893: Ferdinand de Lesseps, his son, and two others are convicted in a Paris court for their part in the corruption and mismanagement of the Panama Canal venture. Seven others are acquitted. Those convicted are given jail time and heavy fines.
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March 22, 1893: Die Liebende schreibt op.47/5, a song by Johannes Brahms (59) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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March 22, 1893: George Whitefield Chadwick (38) resigns his position at South Congregational Church, Boston, as does the entire choir. The reasons are unclear, but it may be that church politics are involved.
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March 24, 1893: Kassya, a drame lyrique by Léo Delibes (†2) to words of Meilhac and Gille, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris. It has been orchestrated by Jules Massenet (50).
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March 27, 1893: Edward MacDowell (32) plays the first complete performance of his Sonata tragica for piano op.45 in Boston. See 18 March 1892.
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March 29, 1893: Congressman James H. Blount, his wife, and clerk arrive in Honolulu, to assess the situation and report to US President Cleveland.
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March 30, 1893: Winners in a competition for young American composers by the National Conservatory of Music are performed in Madison Square Garden, New York. Dream-King and his Love op.31, a cantata by Horatio Parker (29) to words of Geibel translated by Whitney, is performed for the first time. It wins the prize in cantata. Others are for symphony, piano concerto, and string orchestra suite. The critics are pleased with Parker’s efforts, but not the concert as a whole.
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April 1, 1893: At Mengo, the seat of the King of Buganda, Gerald Portal, British Special Commissioner to Uganda, lowers the flag of the British East Africa Company and raises the Union Jack, thus creating a provisional British protectorate.
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April 1, 1893: Special Commissioner James Blount orders the US flag lowered in Honolulu and all American troops returned to their ships.
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April 4, 1893: Charles Alexandre Dupuy, dit Charles-Dupuy replaces Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot as Prime Minister of France.
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April 6, 1893: The Mormon Temple is dedicated in Salt Lake City.
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April 6, 1893: The Boat Journey op.18/3 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (27) to words of the Kalevala, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 7, 1893: Spanish Serenade for chorus and small orchestra by Edward Elgar (35) to words of Longfellow is performed for the first time, in Hereford. On the same program is the premiere of the second movement of Elgar’s Serenade in e minor op.20 for string orchestra.
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April 8, 1893: Claude Debussy’s (30) poème lyrique La damoiselle élue for soprano, female chorus, and orchestra to words of Rossetti translated by Sarrazin is performed for the first time, by the Société National de Musique in the Salle Erard, Paris. It is the first orchestral composition by Debussy to be publicly performed. The work receives a good response, including this review in Le Figaro : It has, all by itself, more life than the compositions preceded...It is so good, a breath of youth...Here is new blood...
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April 11, 1893: The first railway in Siam opens between Bangkok and Paknan.
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April 12, 1893: A general strike begins in Belgium after the Parliament rejects a bill for universal male suffrage.
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April 12, 1893: Antonín Dvorák (51) is elected a full member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
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April 13, 1893: 17-year-old King Aleksandar of Serbia declares himself of age and fit to rule. Lazar Dokic replaces Jovan Avakumovic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
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April 13, 1893: The new US administration of Grover Cleveland rejects the protectorate over Hawaii declared 1 February.
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April 13, 1893: The Second Suite in c minor for piano op.30 by Arthur Foote (40) is performed for the first time, in Boston by the composer. Also heard is the first complete performance of Foote’s Three Pieces for oboe and piano, the composer at the piano. See 15 January 1893.
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April 14, 1893: Giuseppe Verdi (79) is made an honorary citizen of the City of Rome by the mayor.
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April 15, 1893: Symphonic Tone Poem for orchestra by Ferruccio Busoni (27) is performed for the first time, in Boston. There was an open dress rehearsal of the work yesterday in Boston.
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April 16, 1893: Music for Club Swinging for piano by Leos Janácek (38) is performed for the first time, at the annual display by the gymnastics organization Sokol in Brno.
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April 17, 1893: During a general strike in favor of universal male suffrage, Belgian troops charge a crowd in Mons wounding many. After the strikers respond with bricks and other projectiles, the troops fire into the crowd killing five and wounding many others.
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April 18, 1893: In the wake of a week of general strikes, the Belgian parliament approves constitutional changes to increase suffrage. Though not the universal male suffrage demanded by the strikers, it is enough to call off the strike.
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April 18, 1893: The Black Knight op.25, a cantata by Edward Elgar (35) to words of Uhland translated by Longfellow is performed for the first time, in Worcester Public Hall conducted by the composer. The press, although local only, is “respectable.”
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April 19, 1893: A Woman of No Importance by Oscar Wilde premieres at the Haymarket Theatre, London.
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April 22, 1893: Forces from the Congo Free State take the Arab slave-trading center of Kasongo, northwest of the Lualaba River.
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April 22, 1893: Emil Stang replaces Johannes Wilhelm Christian Steen as Prime Minister of Norway.
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April 22, 1893: The gold reserves of the US Treasury fall below the required minimum of $100,000,000.
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April 24, 1893: Die Rebe, a ballet by Anton Rubinstein (63), is performed for the first time, in the Königliches Theater, Berlin.
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April 30, 1893: Rock of Ages, a song by Charles Ives (18) to words of Toplady, is performed for the first time, in Danbury, Connecticut. It is his last Sunday service at the Baptist Church.
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May 1, 1893: The Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago. In the evening, President Cleveland, with one act, lights 100,000 incandescent light bulbs, made possible through the 1,000 horsepower polyphase alternating current generators invented by Nikola Tesla.
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May 1, 1893: Festival Jubilate op.17 by Amy Cheney Beach (25) is performed for the first time, at the dedication of the Women’s Building of the World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago.
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May 3, 1893: The New York Stock Exchange drops its greatest amount in nine years. Many see this as the beginning of the “Panic of ’93.”
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May 3, 1893: Hora novissima op.30, an oratorio by Horatio Parker (29) to words of de Morlaix, is performed for the first time, in New York, the composer conducting. It is an unbounded success and secures Parker’s reputation.
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May 4, 1893: The National Cordage Company and three Wall Street brokerage houses fail. It is the first of many commercial failures through the summer.
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May 4, 1893: The first all-Pfitzner concert takes place in Berlin on the eve of the composer’s 24th birthday. Herr Oluf op.12, a ballade for baritone and orchestra to words of Herder, is performed for the first time. The press is universally positive about the entire concert and the future of the young composer.
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May 6, 1893: Fantaisie for harp op.95 by Camille Saint-Saëns (57) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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May 6, 1893: Two songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed publicly for the first time, in the Kleiner Musikvereinssaal, Vienna:  Der König bei der Krönung to words of Mörike, and Biterolf to words of von Scheffel.
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May 7, 1893: Charles Ives (18) is appointed organist at St. Thomas Episcopal Church, New Haven, Connecticut.
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May 8, 1893: Prince Adolf I of Schaumburg-Lippe dies in Bückeburg and is succeeded by his son Georg.
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May 9, 1893: Igor Stravinsky (10) passes an entrance examination to the Second St. Petersburg Gymnasium.
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May 9, 1893: Aleko, an opera by Sergey Rakhmaninov (20) to words of Nemirovich-Danchenko after Pushkin, is performed publicly for the first time, at the Bolshoy Theatre, Moscow. See 19 May 1892.
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May 9, 1893: Thomas Edison presents the first motion picture film exhibition. A blacksmith and two helpers are shown passing a bottle and forging a piece of iron. The work is displayed on a kinetograph, Edison’s invention. 400 people attend at the Department of Physics, Brooklyn Institute.
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May 10, 1893: A democratic government is established in Natal.
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May 10, 1893: 25,000 people attend the formal opening of the Imperial Institute in London by Queen Victoria. Arthur Sullivan (50) conducts the premiere of his Imperial March for the occasion.
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May 10, 1893: East to West op.52, an ode for chorus and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (40) to words of Swinburne, is performed for the first time, in Royal Albert Hall, London. It is dedicated to “The President and People of the United States.”
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May 12, 1893: Prince Georg Viktor of Waldeck and Pyrmont dies in Marienbad and is succeeded by his son Friedrich II.
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May 13, 1893: Great Britain establishes the Niger Coast Protectorate.
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May 13, 1893: Johannes Brahms (60) receives the gold medal of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. He tells them, “Thirty years ago I would have found the joy and responsibility to make myself worthy of such a distinction. But now it is too late.”
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May 15, 1893: Sotirios Sotiropoulos replaces Charilaos Spiridonou Trikoupis as Prime Minister of Greece.
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May 15, 1893: In deciding three cases, the US Supreme Court rules that the Chinese Exclusion Act is allowed under the constitution.
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May 16, 1893: Ivan Alyeksandrovich Vishnegradsky is born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, first of two children born to Alyeksandr Vishnegradsky, a bank director and amateur composer, and Sophie Savitch, an author.
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May 17, 1893: Song of the Flag EG 172 for male chorus by Edvard Grieg (49) to words of Brun is performed for the first time, in Trondheim and Christiania (Oslo).
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May 17, 1893: Maurice Maeterlinck’s play Pelléas et Melisande is premiered at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris to a chorus of hostile reviews. In the audience is an interested composer named Claude Debussy (30).
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May 21, 1893: Our Birch Tree for male chorus by Leos Janácek (38) to words of Krásnohorská is performed for the first time, in Brünn (Brno).
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May 21, 1893: Antonín Dvorák (51) is quoted in the New York Herald as saying “I am now satisfied that the future of music in this country must be founded on what are called the negro melodies.”
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May 24, 1893: Phryné, an opéra comique by Camille Saint-Saëns (57) to words of Augé de Lassus, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Lyrique, Paris.
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May 26, 1893: Mass in G op.46 for solo voices, chorus and orchestra by Charles Villiers Stanford (40) is performed for the first time, in Brompton Oratory, London. See 23 January 1894.
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May 29, 1893: Arthur Farwell (21) graduates from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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May 30, 1893: Claude Debussy (30) visits the home of Ernest Chausson (38) in Luzancy on the Marne. He will stay until 3 June and will be invited back in mid-June. The two are becoming close friends. Here, Debussy will become more familiar with the music of Modest Musorgsky (†12).
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May 31, 1893: The four children Antonín Dvorák (51) left at home in Bohemia in the care of relatives arrive in New York to join the rest of the family.
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June 3, 1893: Land to the Leeward for unison chorus and piano by Arthur Foote (40) is performed for the first time, at the Columbian Exhibition, Chicago.
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June 4, 1893: Fest-Marsch op.452 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Prater, Vienna.
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June 5, 1893: French Inspector Grosgurin, leading colonial Vietnamese militia, is ambushed by Siamese troops at Kien Ket (in present Laos). Grosgurin and 17 Vietnamese are killed. This will be used as a pretext for a French invasion of Laos.
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June 5, 1893: After a two-day trip from New York, Antonín Dvorák (51) and his family arrive in Spillville, Iowa, where there is a large Czech expatriate community. Here he will spend the summer and compose the String Quartet op.96 and the String Quintet op.97.
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June 7, 1893: A young Indian lawyer named Mohandas K. Gandhi is thrown off a train in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, when he refuses to move from first class to an area reserved for non-whites.
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June 12, 1893: Sergius Winogradsky presents evidence to the French Academy of Sciences that bacteria are the critical agents in processing nitrogen into a form usable by living creatures.
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June 12, 1893: Sonata for violin and piano op.2 by Frederick Shepherd Converse (22) is performed for the first time, at a concert for the Harvard University commencement. See 28 June 1893.
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June 12, 1893: A concert celebrating tomorrow’s degree recipients takes place in Cambridge. Max Bruch conducts a scene from his choral work Odysseus, Camille Saint-Saëns (57) conducts his Fantasy L’afrique, Arrigo Boito (51) conducts the prologue from his Mefistofele, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) conducts his Francesca da Rimini, and Charles Villiers Stanford (40), the musical organizer of the festivities, conducts Edvard Grieg’s (49) Peer Gynt Suite no.1. Stanford finishes the concert by conducting his own East to West.
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June 13, 1893: Cambridge University confers honorary Doctor of Music degrees on Camille Saint-Saëns (57), Arrigo Boito (51), Max Bruch, Edvard Grieg (49), and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53). Grieg is unable to attend due to illness.
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June 15, 1893: The French Court of Cassation rules that the convictions of Ferdinand de Lesseps and others for the corruption and mismanagement of the Panama Canal venture are void because they came outside the statute of limitations.
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June 15, 1893: Voting for the ninth Reichstag of the German Empire leaves the Center Party with the most seats, followed by the Conservative Party.
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June 15, 1893: Poor Jonathan, an operetta with 16 numbers by Isaac Albéniz (33) to words of Wittmann, Bauer, and Greenbank, is performed for the first time, at the Prince of Wales Theatre, London, conducted by the composer.
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June 17, 1893: Crackerjack is sold for the first time, at the Chicago Columbian Exposition.
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June 20, 1893: Elizabeth (Lizzie) Borden is acquitted in a Fall River, Massachusetts court of hacking her parents to death with an axe.
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June 20, 1893: US President Grover Cleveland calls a special session of Congress to deal with the current economic crisis. He wants them to repeal the Sherman Silver Act.
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June 20, 1893: Suzanne Valadon moves out of Erik Satie’s (27) apartment in Paris and back in with her former lover Paul Mousis, a wealthy lawyer. The composer responds by placing large posters in the street outside his door, questioning her virtue. See 14 January 1893.
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June 21, 1893: Alois Hába is born in Vizovice, Kingdom of Bohemia, first of four children born to Frantisek Hába, a shoemaker and musician, and Terezie Trcková.
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June 22, 1893: France converts its protectorate over Porto Novo (Benin) into a colony.
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June 22, 1893: During maneuvers off Tripoli, Lebanon, HMS Camperdown collides with the flagship of the Mediterranean fleet, HMS Victoria. Victoria goes down in less than 15 minutes with the loss of over 350 crewmen. An almost equal number are saved.
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June 24, 1893: Fridtjof Nansen sets sail from Christiania (Oslo) aboard the Fram for the arctic, with the intent of getting frozen into the pack ice.
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June 27, 1893: The New York Stock Exchange crashes for the second time this year, exacerbating the Panic of ’93.
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June 28, 1893: Frederick Shepherd Converse (22) graduates from Harvard University.
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July 6, 1893: Guy de Maupassant dies in Paris at the age of 42.
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July 6, 1893: Romance for violin and piano op.23 by Amy Beach (25) is performed for the first time at the Chicago Columbian Exposition, the composer at the keyboard. The audience requires that the piece be repeated.
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July 8, 1893: A protocol is signed by Germany and Great Britain defining borders between their respective colonial possessions in equatorial Africa.
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July 10, 1893: Daniel Hale Williams becomes the first physician to accomplish heart surgery, at Provident Hospital in Chicago, America’s first interracial hospital, which he founded. Williams opens a patient’s chest, without modern anesthetics or blood transfusion, and repairs the sac that surrounds the heart.
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July 11, 1893: Mikimoto Kokichi succeeds in creating the first marketable cultured pearls at his farm in Mie prefecture, Japan.
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July 12, 1893: Great Britain and France agree on the borders of their colonial possessions on the Gold Coast.
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July 13, 1893: Two French warships force their way up the Chao Phraya and are fired upon by the Siamese fort at Paknam. The ships succeed in reaching Bangkok.
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July 15, 1893: Richard Strauss (29) arrives in Munich after spending nine months in Greece, Egypt, and Sicily.
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July 17, 1893: Special Commissioner James H. Blount submits his report on Hawaii to President Cleveland. Blount concludes that US Minister Stevens exceeded his authority in granting recognition to the republican government. In fact, the January coup occurred because of the US diplomats.
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July 20, 1893: With two gunboats off Bangkok, France delivers an ultimatum to Siam to withdraw their troops and allow French annexation of Laos, as well as pay FF2,000,000. When the Siamese do not reply, the French institute a blockade.
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July 26, 1893: As part of a summer of bank and other commercial failures, the Erie Railroad goes into receivership, prompting a further sharp drop in the stock market.
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July 31, 1893: Great Britain and France agree on the borders of their colonial possessions in the area of the upper Mekong River.
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August 1, 1893: Henry Perky of Denver and William H. Ford of Watertown, New York receive a US patent for a machine to produce shredded wheat.
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August 3, 1893: A Waltz-Caprice for piano-four hands op.9 by Max Reger (20) is performed for the first time, at Wiesbaden Conservatory, by the composer.
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August 6, 1893: The Corinth Canal opens, connecting the Aegean and Ionian Seas.
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August 7, 1893: Alfredo Catalani dies in Milan at the age of 39.
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August 7, 1893: The 53rd Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. The Democratic Party holds majorities in both houses.
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August 12, 1893: At a special “Bohemian Day” at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Antonín Dvorák (51) conducts his Symphony no.8. He is one of 30,000 Czechs and Moravians present and has come over from his stay in Spillville, Iowa.
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August 14, 1893: The first driving licenses are issued in France. A test is required to receive the license.
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August 15, 1893: Fijabi, Baale of Ibadan and George C. Denton, acting Governor of Lagos sign a treaty making the Ibadan area a protectorate of Great Britain.
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August 18, 1893: Ernest Alexander Campbell MacMillan is born in Ebticoke (now Mimico), Ontario, Dominion of Canada, the first of four children born to Alexander MacMillan, a Presbyterian minister and musician, and Wilhelmina Catherine Ross, the daughter of a Presbyterian minister.
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August 21, 1893: Marie-Juliette Olga (Lili) Boulanger is born at 30 rue La Bruyère in the Ninth Arrondissement of Paris, Republic of France, the third of four children born to Ernest-Henri-Alexandre Boulanger, composer and professor of violin at the Paris Conservatoire, and Princess Raisa Ivanovna Myschetsky Shuvalov, daughter of Russian nobility.
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August 22, 1893: Duke Ernst II of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dies in Reinhardsbrunn Castle and is succeeded by his nephew Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
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August 22, 1893: In his visit to the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Charles Ives (18) attends the first of the “largely popular” orchestral concerts.
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August 22, 1893: Cecil Sharp (33) marries Constance Dorothea Birch in All Saints Parish Clevedon, Somerset.
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August 27, 1893: A hurricane makes landfall at Savannah, Georgia and turns north. Between 1,000 and 2,000 people are killed, mostly from storm surge on the Georgia Sea Islands.
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August 29, 1893: Whitcomb L. Judson receives two US patents for a “clasp locker or unlocker” for shoes. It will not be called the “zipper” until the 1920s.
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September 1, 1893: The Second Irish Home Rule Bill passes the House of Commons. It will fail in the House of Lords.
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September 2, 1893: Charles Ives (18) attends a recital by the organist Alexandre Guilmant at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Guilmant is the first organist of his level to visit America and will be highly influential to American organists. Ives’ experience in Chicago inspires him to compose more and to seek publishers for his music.
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September 3, 1893: A second round of voting in the French general election leaves the Moderate Republicans with a majority of seats in the legislature.
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September 4, 1893: In a letter to five-year-old Noel Moore (which she illustrates), London resident Beatrix Potter first tells a tale of Peter Rabbit.
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September 6, 1893: Rear Admiral Custódio José de Melo, aboard the cruiser Aquidabã in Rio de Janeiro harbor, along with his staff and some deputies, raises the white flag of rebellion. The 33 ships and crews in the Niterói naval base join him. No sympathetic uprisings occur, however, and foreign warships in the port join together to protect their interests.
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September 7, 1893: The Russian warship Rusalka is lost in bad weather between Reval (Tallinn) and Helsinki. All 177 crewmen are lost.
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September 7, 1893: The constitution of Belgium is amended to create universal male suffrage.
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September 10, 1893: Gunfire begins between naval mutineers in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro and loyal shore batteries. It will cease tomorrow.
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September 11, 1893: At the World Parliament of Religions, part of the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Shaku Soen becomes the first Zen master to speak in the United States.
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September 13, 1893: More shooting begins in Rio de Janeiro harbor.
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September 13, 1893: Overture to an Unwritten Tragedy by Hubert Parry (45) is performed for the first time, in Worcester, conducted by the composer. The critics are mixed.
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September 17, 1893: The naval mutineers get two ships out of Rio de Janeiro harbor and send them south to foment rebellion.
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September 17, 1893: After a stay of three months, Antonín Dvorák (52) and his family depart Spillville, Iowa for New York. While in the Czech community there, he composed his “American” Quartet and his “American” Quintet.
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September 19, 1893: Governor David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow signs the Electoral Bill giving women the right to vote in New Zealand.
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September 20, 1893: The first automobile commercially produced in the United States is test driven by its manufacturer, Charles E. Duryea of Springfield, Massachusetts.
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September 27, 1893: The first of numerous foreign warships arrives in Rio de Janeiro harbor, the USS Charleston. Shortly, 16 foreign warships from eight countries will arrive.
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September 28, 1893: John Ireland (14) enrolls at the Royal College of Music, London.
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September 29, 1893: A hurricane strikes Cancún and moves across the Yucatán Peninsula.
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September 30, 1893: Early morning. Arthur Sullivan (51) completes the composition of Utopia Limited.
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October 2, 1893: The hurricane from Mexico strikes the Louisiana coast and moves across to Mississippi. 779 people are killed in Chenière Caminada, Louisiana. A total of 2,000 deaths are attributed to this storm.
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October 3, 1893: The Bangkok Conference sets out the spheres of influence of Great Britain and France in the Far East. A French protectorate is established over Laos, which is added to the Colony of Indochina.
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October 5, 1893: Lyric Pieces op.57 for piano by Edvard Grieg (50) is performed for the first time, in Christiania (Oslo).
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October 7, 1893: Utopia Limited, or the Flowers of Progress, an operetta by Arthur Sullivan (51) to words of Gilbert, is performed for the first time, in the Savoy Theatre, London. The line for tickets began to form at 10:00. The first-night audience is enthusiastic and the show will run well, but the critics are lukewarm. It goes for 245 performances.
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October 7, 1893: Incidental music to Cottinet’s play Vercingétorix by Camille Saint-Saëns (57) is performed for the first time, in Théâtre de l’Odéon, Paris.
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October 8, 1893: Helgoland for male chorus and orchestra by Anton Bruckner (69) to words of Silberstein is performed for the first time, in the Winterreitschule, Vienna.
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October 13, 1893: A Russian naval squadron visits the French naval base at Toulon in a show of friendship between the two countries.
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October 15, 1893: Charles Gounod (75) collapses into a coma in his home at St. Cloud, just west of Paris.
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October 15, 1893: Erik Satie (27) founds the Église Métropolitaine d’Art de Jésus Conducteur. He appoints himself Parcier et Maître de Chapelle.
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October 16, 1893: For Me the Jasmine Buds Unfold, a song for voice and piano by Amy Beach (26) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
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October 17, 1893: Sonata for cello and piano op.5 by Max Reger (20) is performed for the first time, in Wiesbaden, the composer at the piano.
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October 18, 1893: 06:25 Charles François Gounod dies of hardening of the arteries, at St. Cloud, Seine-et-Oise, Republic of France, aged 75 years, four months, and one day.
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October 21, 1893: Night for chorus and piano by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) is performed for the first time, in Moscow Conservatory.
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October 22, 1893: Auf dem Tanzboden, musikalische Illustration zu dem gleichnamigen Gemälde von Franz Defregger op.454 by Johann Strauss (67) is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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October 22, 1893: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) arrives in St. Petersburg for the premiere of his Sixth Symphony.
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October 25, 1893: Matabeles attack a column of British South Africa Company Police near the Shangani River (in present Zimbabwe). Though heavily outnumbered, the British defeat their attackers inflicting heavy losses through the use of Maxim guns.
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October 27, 1893: After a state funeral in the Church of the Madeleine, where the organ is played by Gabriel Fauré (48) the earthly remains of Charles Gounod are laid to rest in the family vault in Auteuil Cemetery.
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October 27, 1893: Three songs from the cycle Des knaben Wunderhorn by Gustav Mahler (33) to words of Brentano and von Arnim are performed for the first time, in Hamburg: Trost im Unglück, Wer hat dies Liedlein erdacht?, and Rheinlegendchen, along with the song Das himmlische Leben.
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October 28, 1893: Symphony no.6 “Pathetique” by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg conducted by the composer. The audience loves the composer, but they are confused by the music. During the intermission, Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (49) asks Tchaikovsky if there is any program to the work. Tchaikovsky says there is, but he will not tell him what it is.
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October 28, 1893: Two days before the closing of the Chicago exposition, Chicago Mayor Carter Harrison is murdered in his home by a disappointed office seeker.
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October 29, 1893: When his coalition splits over universal suffrage, Edvard, Count von Taaffe, resigns as Chancellor of Austria.
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October 30, 1893: The World Columbian Exposition closes in Chicago. In six months there were almost 26,000,000 admissions to see 250,000 displays by 70,000 exhibitors from 46 countries.
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October 31, 1893: Today is the date of the alleged “court of honor” organized by Nikolay Jacoby, to “try” Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53). A letter from Prince Stenbock-Fermor has been handed to the Procurator of the Appeals Court to be given to the Tsar accusing Tchaikovsky of homosexual acts with his nephew. The “court” includes Jacoby and six other former students of the School of Jurisprudence who decide that their fellow alumnus must kill himself to avoid bringing dishonor on the school and all its alumni. According to the story, Tchaikovsky agrees.
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October 31, 1893: Four songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) to words of Goethe are performed for the first time, in the Oberer Museumsaal, Tübingen: Blumengruß, Der Sänger, Kophtisches Lied II (first public), and Ob der Koran von Ewigkeit sei? (first public).
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November 1, 1893: About 700 British South Africa Company Police engaged in an invasion of Matabeleland (Zimbabwe) are set upon by thousands of Ndebele warriors near the Bembesi River. They beat off the attack with heavy losses through the use of Maxim guns.
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November 2, 1893: British South Africa Company Police enter Bulawayo, which has been set alight by fleeing King Lobengula.
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November 2, 1893: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) sets out from his brother's home in St. Petersburg to visit Eduard Napravnik. He suffers an acute stomach attack in the cab and immediately returns. Through the day his condition grows worse. At about 17:00 he is visited by Alyeksandr Glazunov (28). In the evening he is seen by Dr. Lev Bertenson who diagnoses cholera, now present in the city.
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November 3, 1893: The condition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) improves considerably. It is believed that he has survived the illness.
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November 3, 1893: British forces take Bulawayo in Matabeleland (Zimbabwe).
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November 3, 1893: The SS Cabo Machichaco, carrying tons of dynamite, explodes in the harbor of Santander, Spain. Somewhere between 600 and 2,000 people are killed with many hundreds wounded.
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November 4, 1893: A crowd begins to assemble outside the St. Petersburg apartment of Modest Tchaikovsky, where his brother, Pyotr Ilyich (53) lies ill. They have been told he has cholera, now present in the city.
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November 5, 1893: The condition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (53) takes a turn for the worse. He starts to become delirious. A notice appears on the door outside reading, “The dangerous symptoms are still present, and are not responding to treatment. There is complete retention of the urine, together with drowsiness and a marked general weakness.” He is given a hot bath to increase blood circulation and his condition seems to improve slightly. But in the evening he becomes comatose. A priest is summoned.
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November 5, 1893: Some of the Six Impromptus op.5 for piano by Jean Sibelius (27) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 6, 1893: Five months after graduating from Harvard University, Frederick S. Converse (22) is hired by Price & Co., a Boston banking firm.
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November 6, 1893: 03:00 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky dies in the apartment of his brother Modest on Malaya Morskaya, St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, possibly of cholera, possibly of self-administered aresenic poisoning, aged 53 years, five months, and 30 days. The body is placed in an open coffin in the apartment. Through the next two days, five requiem services are sung. Thousands of people stream up to the apartment to view the body, in contravention of rules governing cholera deaths. Already there are rumors that the composer's death was not due to cholera. Tsar Alyeksandr III agrees to fund the funeral.
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November 7, 1893: Anarchist Santiago Salvador explodes a bomb in the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Barcelona during a performance of Guillaume Tell of Gioachino Rossini (†25). Dozens of people are killed or injured. The bomber will be executed next year.
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November 7, 1893: The right to vote is granted to women in the American state of Colorado.
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November 9, 1893: Ruggero Leoncavallo’s (36) poema epico in forma di trilogia storica Crepusculum: I medici to his own words is performed for the first time, in Teatro dal Verme, Milan. The public responds very well. The critics find it interesting but derivative. Parts two and three will never be composed.
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November 9, 1893: The mortal remains of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky are carried in procession from the apartment of his brother Modest to the Mariinsky Theatre where a requiem is sung. At noon they reach the Kazan Cathedral. This is the main requiem of the day, on the order of Tsar Alyeksandr III, the first time that a civilian has been given this honor. At 14:00 they proceed down Nevsky Prospect to the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky monastery, St. Petersburg. After another requiem and several orations and poems, the body is laid to rest not far from those of Modest Musorgsky (†12), Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (†36), and Alyeksandr Borodin (†6).
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November 10, 1893: Anton Bruckner (69) signs his will in Vienna.
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November 10, 1893: Die Spinnerin for women's voices by Hugo Wolf (33) to words of Rückert is performed for the first time, in Bösendorfersaal, Vienna.
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November 11, 1893: Alfred August, Prince Windischgrätz replaces Edvard, Count von Taaffe as Chancellor of Austria.
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November 11, 1893: Charilaos Spiridonou Trikoupis replaces Sotirios Sotiropoulos as Prime Minister of Greece.
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November 12, 1893: An agreement is signed in Kabul by Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, representing British India, and Amir Abdur Rahman Khan of Afghanistan, setting out their spheres of influence and creating a delineated border between the two. (The line is the present border between Afghanistan and Pakistan)
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November 12, 1893: Hochzeitsreigen op.453, a waltz by Johann Strauss (68), is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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November 13, 1893: By the Pretoria Convention, Great Britain allows the annexation of Swaziland by the Transvaal.
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November 13, 1893: Music to accompany a set of historical tableaux by Jean Sibelius (27) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 17 November 1893.
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November 13, 1893: Two songs from op.21 of Amy Beach (26) are performed for the first time, in New York: Elle et moi to words of Boret, and Extase to words of Hugo.
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November 15, 1893: Great Britain and Germany reach agreement over the Shari district, defining boundaries between Nigeria and the German Protectorate of Northwest Africa (Cameroon).
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November 17, 1893: An earthquake centered near Quchan, Persia kills 18,000 people.
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November 17, 1893: France extends a protectorate over Dahomey (Benin).
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November 18, 1893: The Symphony no.6 of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†0) is performed again, in the Hall of the Nobility, St. Petersburg. Unlike its premiere, three weeks ago before the composer’s death, it is received tumultuously. In the audience is Igor Stravinsky (11), brought to the occasion by his mother.
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November 18, 1893: Music, When Soft Voices Die for male chorus by Ralph Vaughan Williams (21) to words of Shelley, is performed for the first time, at the Cambridge University Musical Club by a solo quartet.
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November 19, 1893: An overture and six numbers from the historical tableaux by Jean Sibelius (27), presented on 13 November, are performed for the first time as the Karelia Suite, in Helsinki, conducted by the composer.
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November 21, 1893: Incidental music to Antigone, a play by Meurice and Vacquerie after Sophocles, by Camille Saint-Saëns (59), is performed for the first time, in the Comédie-Française, Paris.
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November 26, 1893: A newly reconstituted Pat Gilmore Band gives its first performance under its new director, Victor Herbert (34) at the Broadway Theatre in New York.
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November 27, 1893: Intermezzo op.117/3 for piano by Johannes Brahms (60) is performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
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November 28, 1893: Voting for the New Zealand Parliament returns a Liberal majority. Women are allowed to vote for the first time in a New Zealand general election.
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November 29, 1893: Chang Chih-tung (Zhang Zhidong), Governor of Hupei (Hubei) and Hunan Provinces, founds Tzu-ch’iang (Ziquian) Institute (now Wuhan University) in Wuhan.
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December 1, 1893: The rebel Admiral de Melo breaks out of Rio de Janeiro harbor aboard his flagship. He proceeds to Santa Catarina Province to organize rebellion.
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December 1, 1893: Five songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed publicly for the first time, in the Stephaniensaal, Graz:  Als ich auf dem Euphrat schiffte, Dies zu deuten bin erbötig, and Nicht Gelegenheit macht Diebe, all to words of Goethe, Seltsam ist Juanas Weise to anonymous words (tr. Geibel), and Die ihr schwebet to words of de Vega Carpio (tr. Geibel).
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December 3, 1893: Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer replaces Charles Alexandre Dupuy, dit Charles-Dupuy as Prime Minister of France.
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December 4, 1893: Great Britain and France reach agreement over Siam.
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December 5, 1893: Sava Grujic replaces Lazar Dokic as Prime Minister of Serbia.
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December 9, 1893: Anarchist Auguste Vaillant throws a bomb full of nails into the French Chamber of Deputies sending plaster and other parts of the building on to the sitting members. No one is killed. Vaillant is arrested.
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December 9, 1893: Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (49) resigns as Assistant Director of the Imperial Kapella, citing ill health.  He will later write, "I felt ill and run down; I have thirty three years of service behind me...I want to free myself from the excessive duties of service in order to have free time for composition..service with Balakirev in the devout, sanctimonious Kapella...is unbearable...My relations with Balakirev are not good...so naturally I always feel irritated, which is both unpleasant and harmful for me."  (Dunlop, 44)
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December 10, 1893: Francesco Crispi replaces Giovanni Giolitti as Prime Minister of Italy. Giolitti’s government fell over bank scandals.
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December 10, 1893: A workers rally in Giardinello, Sicily asking for lower taxes on food is fired on by Italian troops. Eleven people are killed, twelve injured.
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December 11, 1893: On the Way to Kew for voice and piano by Arthur Foote (40) to words of Henley is performed for the first time, the composer at the keyboard.
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December 12, 1893: Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (49) conducts an evening of the music of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†0) as one of the Russian Symphony Concerts in honor of the late composer in St. Petersburg. Tchaikovsky’s song We Sat Together op.73/1, to words of Ratgauz, is performed for the first time.
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December 12, 1893: Fantasia for two pianos op.5 by Sergey Rakhmaninov (20) is performed for the first time, in Moscow. The composer plays one part.
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December 12, 1893: Bal masque op.22 for orchestra by Amy Cheney Beach (26) is performed for the first time, in New York.
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December 13, 1893: The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle is published.
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December 15, 1893: Lt. Gaston Boiteux, leading seven Europeans and twelve Senegalese, claims Timbuktu for France.
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December 15, 1893: Prince Edmond de Polignac marries the American heiress Winnaretta Eugénie Singer. She is, and will continue to be, a very important patron of the arts in Paris for years to come.
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December 15, 1893: Critic Henry Krehbiel publishes an article in the New York Daily Tribune of 2,500 words explaining and trumpeting the New World Symphony of Antonín Dvoarák (52), complete with musical examples.
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December 15, 1893: Symphony no.9 “from the New World” by Antonín Dvorák (52) is given a public rehearsal in New York.
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December 16, 1893: Two songs by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†0) to words of Ratgauz, are performed for the first time, in Kiev: Amid Sombre Days op.73/5 and Again, As Before, Alone op.73/6.
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December 16, 1893: Symphony no.9 “from the New World” by Antonín Dvorák (52) is performed for the first time, in Carnegie Hall, New York. “The success of the symphony was tremendous; the papers write that no composer has ever had such success. I was in a box; the hall was filled with the best New York audience, the people clapped so much that I had to thank them from the box like a king!? alla Mascagni in Vienna (don’t laugh!...).” At the insistence of the composer, the cello section is led by Victor Herbert (34).
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December 18, 1893: In a special message to Congress, US President Grover Cleveland calls American actions in Hawaii last January “an act of war…without authority of Congress.” He calls for the monarchy to be restored in Hawaii.
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December 18, 1893: Carnaval Overture op.40 and Concert Waltz no.1 op.47, both for orchestra by Ayeksandr Glazunov (28), are performed for the first time, in the Hall of the Nobility, St. Petersburg, conducted by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (49).
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December 21, 1893: Italian forces defeat an invading Mahdist army over twice their size at Agordat, Eritrea.
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December 23, 1893: Hänsel und Gretel, a Märchenoper by Engelbert Humperdinck (39) to words of A. Wette, H. Wette, and the composer after Grimm, is performed for the first time, in the Weimar Court Theatre, conducted by Richard Strauss (29). It is an instant success.
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December 24, 1893: Our Father for chorus by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (†0) is performed for the first time, in Moscow.
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December 24, 1893: O Mother of God, Vigilantly Praying for chorus by Sergey Rakhmaninov (20) is performed for the first time, in Moscow.
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December 25, 1893: Troops fire on a workers rally in Lercara Friddi, Sicily. Eleven people are killed.
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December 28, 1893: Two songs for voice and piano by Hugo Wolf (33) are performed for the first time, in the Kleiner Musikvereinssaal, Vienna: Mignon III to words of Goethe, and Wächterlied auf der Wartburg (first public) to words of von Scheffel.
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December 29, 1893: The String Quartet by Claude Debussy (31) is performed for the first time, by the Société National de Musique, Paris.