A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1866 – December 31, 1866

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January 1, 1866: The last issue of The Liberator is published by William Lloyd Garrison, 35 years to the day after the first issue. The purpose of the paper, the abolition of slavery, has been achieved.
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January 1, 1866: This month, the first of twelve monthly installments of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky is published in the Russian literary journal Russian Messenger.
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January 1, 1866: A combined force of British troops, colonial militia, and allied Maoris march out of Wanganui. They spend the next few weeks destroying the villages of enemy Maoris and killing all who resist. The march then turns into one of hardship and starvation until they are relieved by forces from New Plymouth.
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January 4, 1866: Stabat mater preciosa from Franz Liszt’s unperformed oratorio Christus is performed for the first time, in the Church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, Rome. Edvard Grieg (22) is there. He is not impressed.
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January 5, 1866: The Moscow branch of the Russian Musical Society receives permission to found a conservatory.
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January 5, 1866: The Brandenburgers in Bohemia, an opera by Bedrich Smetana (41) to words of Sabina, is performed for the first time, in the Prague Provisional Theatre, to great success. Among the violists is Antonín Dvorák (24).
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January 6, 1866: The Club Nacional de Lima presents Louis Moreau Gottschalk (36) with a medal, in the Peruvian capital.
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January 7, 1866: Sérénade op.15 for piano, organ, violin, and viola or cello by Camille Saint-Saëns (30) is performed for the first time time, at the salon of Princesse Mathilde in Paris with the composer at the organ. Among the listeners is Daniel Auber (83).
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January 9, 1866: Minna Wagner, in Dresden, signs a statement in support of her husband Richard Wagner (52). This is the plan of Cosima von Bülow to answer public criticisms that Wagner abandoned Minna.
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January 10, 1866: Ode to Joy, a cantata by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (25) to words of Schiller (tr. Axakov, et. al.), is performed for the first time, conducted by Anton Rubinstein (36), as part of the graduation exercise from St. Petersburg Conservatory. Unable to face public scrutiny, the composer is absent.
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January 11, 1866: The last of the scaffolding used by Constantino Brumidi to paint frescoes is removed from the rotunda of the Capitol Building in Washington. The dome is now officially complete.
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January 12, 1866: The SS London, out of Plymouth making for Australia, goes down in heavy seas in the Bay of Biscay carrying 244 passengers and crew with her. Only 19 are saved.
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January 12, 1866: The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain is founded at the home of the Duke of Argyll in London. (Later called the Royal Aeronautical Society)
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January 14, 1866: All residency restrictions of the Jews of Switzerland are removed.
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January 14, 1866: Pursuant to the alliance of last 5 December, Peru declares war on Spain.
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January 14, 1866: The National Conservatory of Mexico is founded by Augustín Caballero with the support of Emperor Maximilian.
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January 17, 1866: Violin Sonata no.1 by Edvard Grieg (22) is performed for the first time, in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, the composer at the piano.
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January 17, 1866: Flugschriften op.300, a waltz by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Hofburg, Vienna.
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January 18, 1866: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (25) arrives in Moscow to take up his position at the Conservatory.
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January 22, 1866: With growing anti-war sentiment at home, Emperor Napoléon III declares his Mexico adventure a success and sends emissaries to Emperor Maximilian to discuss the withdrawal of French troops.
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January 24, 1866: Bürgerweisen op.306, a waltz by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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January 25, 1866: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (25) delivers his first lecture, in somewhat halting fashion, at the Russian Musical Society. Its successor, the Moscow Conservatory, will not officially open until September.
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January 25, 1866: Minna Wagner dies unexpectedly, of a heart attack, in Dresden.
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January 27, 1866: Zaide, a singspiel by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (†74) to words of Schachtner after Sebastiani, is performed for the first time, in Frankfurt, on the 110th anniversary of the composer’s birth.
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January 28, 1866: David Livingstone arrives in Zanzibar on his last expedition to Africa. He is searching for the source of the Nile.
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January 28, 1866: Wiener Bonbons op.307, a waltz by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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January 29, 1866: Par force! op.308, a polka schnell by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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January 30, 1866: In solidarity with Peru and Chile, Ecuador declares war on Spain.
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January 31, 1866: Friedrich Rückert dies in Neuses at the age of 77.
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February 5, 1866: Barbe-bleue, an opéra-comique by Jacques Offenbach (46) to words of Meilhac and Halévy, is performed for the first time, at the Variétés, Paris.
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February 6, 1866: Damenspende op.305, a polka française by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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February 7, 1866: Spanish ships battle a combined Peru-Chile naval force off Abtao Island, Chile. After two hours of fighting, the Spaniards withdraw.
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February 10, 1866: Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte replaces Johann Rudolf Thorbecke as chief minister of the Netherlands.
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February 17, 1866: In the midst of a Fenian uprising, habeas corpus is suspended in Ireland.
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February 17, 1866: Snow-Bound by John Greenleaf Whittier is published in Boston.
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February 19, 1866: The British West African Settlements is created as a union of the Gold Coast, Lagos, Gambia, and Sierra Leone.
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February 23, 1866: Prince Alexander Ioan I of Romania is roused from his bed by troops and forced to abdicate. He is removed from the country and a regency is established.
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February 24, 1866: Pompéia, a suite symphonique by Jules Massenet (23) is performed for the first time, in the Casino de la Rue Cadet, Paris.
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February 28, 1866: Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph II orders the mobilization of cavalry units in preparation for possible war with Prussia and Italy.
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March 4, 1866: Franz Liszt (54) arrives in Paris from Rome. He will stay for ten weeks.
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March 7, 1866: Scène d'Horace op.10 by Camille Saint-Saëns (30) to words of Corneille is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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March 7, 1866: As part of a charity concert, the septet from Hector Berlioz’ (62) Les troyens is performed before a packed house in the Cirque Napoléon (Cirque d'Hiver), Paris. No one sends Berlioz a ticket so he pays three francs admission for a seat very high up. The septet is encored. When he is spotted, the crowd begins yelling Vive Berlioz! Well-wishers mob him and later he receives congratulations at his home. It is his last triumph in Paris.
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March 8, 1866: At a social gathering in the salon of Princess Pauline Metternich in Paris, Camille Saint-Saëns (30) meets Franz Liszt (54). They play through a four-hand arrangement of Liszt’s Missa solemnis zur Einweihung der Basilika in Gran which is due to be performed in Paris shortly. Liszt announces, “It is possible to be as much of a musician as Saint-Saëns; it is impossible to be more of one!” Saint-Saëns writes “I see again that long pale face casting seductive glances at his audience while from beneath his fingers, almost unconsciously, and with an amazing range of nuances, there murmured, surged, boomed, and stormed the waves of the Legend of St. Francis of Paule walking on the waters. Never again shall we see or hear anything like it.” (Williams, 408-9)
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March 10, 1866: The “Irish” Symphony of Arthur Sullivan (23) is performed for the first time, in the Crystal Palace, London, the composer conducting. It is well received by all.
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March 16, 1866: The second version of the Overture in F by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (25) is performed for the first time, in Moscow. It is the first time he is paid for a performance of his music.
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March 16, 1866: The second (Le Départ) and sixth (Le Retour) of the Chants du Rhin, a song cycle by Georges Bizet (27) to words of Méry, are performed for the first time, in the Louvre, Paris, the composer at the keyboard.
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March 20, 1866: Rikard Nordraak, who along with Edvard Grieg (22) provided the vanguard of Norwegian composition, dies in Berlin.
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March 20, 1866: After a series of concerts in Lima, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (36) boards ship for Arica, Peru (now Chile), where he will give several performances in northern Chile and southern Peru.
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March 22, 1866: Bolivia joins Chile, Peru, and Ecuador and declares war on Spain.
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March 23, 1866: The first national athletics championships are held, at Beaufort House, Welham Green, London.
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March 24, 1866: Hesse-Homburg is annexed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
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March 27, 1866: The jury seeking an authentic Czech opera awards first prize (the Harrach Prize) to Bedrich Smetana (42) for The Brandenburgers in Bohemia.
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March 27, 1866: Andrew Rankin of New York City receives a US patent for a urinal.
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March 29, 1866: Oliver Fisher Winchester of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company of New Haven, Connecticut receives a US patent for his first model repeating rifle.
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March 30, 1866: Richard Wagner (52), Cosima von Bülow, and her daughter Daniela arrive in Lucerne looking for a place for him to settle. During this stay, while boating on Lake Lucerne, they will see Tribschen and decide on the spot to obtain it.
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March 31, 1866: Unable to make any headway in their war against Chile, Spanish ships bombard Valparaiso for four hours, sending 2,600 shells into the city. After a battle at Callao, the Spaniards retire for home.
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April 1, 1866: Ferruccio Dante Michelangelo Benvenuto Busoni is born at 16 or 17 Piazza della Vittoria in Empoli, near Florence, Kingdom of Italy, the only child of Ferdinando Busoni, a clarinetist and Anna Weiss, a pianist, the daughter of a grain merchant. Though the parents live in Rome, in the Papal States, Ferdinando brings his wife to his sister’s house for the birth so that it might take place in his family’s ancestral home town.
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April 1, 1866: For the first time, cattle are driven out of De Witt County, Texas to St. Joseph, Missouri. The route taken is named after the drive boss, Thomas Chisholm. Over the next 30 years, 10,000,000 animals will be brought from Texas to market in this way.
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April 3, 1866: In the church of Sainte-Clotilde, Paris, Franz Liszt (54) hears improvisations by the church’s organist, César Franck (43) and is very impressed.
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April 6, 1866: In Rome, Edvard Grieg (22) receives the news of the death of Rikard Nordraak, “the saddest news that could strike me.” He marks the date with a black cross in his diary and composes a funeral march.
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April 8, 1866: A secret alliance between Prussia and Italy is signed in Florence. Prussia promises Venetia to Italy in the event of a Prussian victory over Austria.
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April 9, 1866: To pacify German radicals, Prussian Chancellor Bismarck proposes a German parliament elected by universal suffrage.
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April 9, 1866: Edvard Grieg (22) and a Swedish friend leave Rome for a week-long trip to the region of Naples.
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April 9, 1866: The Congress of the United States overrides President Johnson’s veto of the Civil Rights Act, which grants citizenship and equality to all persons born in the United States except Native Americans.
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April 10, 1866: Through the efforts of Henry Bergh, the legislature of the State of New York incorporates The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
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April 10, 1866: Lindes Rauschen in Wipfeln op.3/6, a song by Johannes Brahms (32) to words of Eichendorff, is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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April 15, 1866: Richard Wagner (52) moves to Tribschen, a house obtained for him by King Ludwig overlooking the Vierwald Stättersee near Lucerne. Cosima von Bülow will join him in May and by the time her husband Hans arrives in June, she will be carrying Wagner’s second child.
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April 16, 1866: While walking in the Winter Garden in St. Petersburg, Tsar Alyeksandr II is fired upon by a member of the lesser nobility named Dmitry Vladimirovich Karakozov. The assassin is almost successful but he is pushed as he fires. Karakozov is apprehended.
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April 17, 1866: The day after an attempt on the life of the Tsar, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (25) attends a performance of Glinka’s (†9) A Life for the Tsar at the Bolshoy which, because of the circumstances, has turned into a patriotic event. While he is engrossed in the score, patrons around him become enraged that he should be interested in the music at such a time. Tchaikovsky is forced to flee the theatre in fear of his life.
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April 19, 1866: After a stay of five months, Edvard Grieg (22) departs Rome for Leipzig.
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April 19, 1866: The legislature of the State of New York passes its first laws against cruelty to animals and authorizes the newly incorporated ASPCA to enforce them.
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April 21, 1866: Prussia and Austria agree to stand down their armies on their common border.
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April 26, 1866: Edvard Grieg (22) arrives back in Leipzig after his trip to Italy and Switzerland.
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April 27, 1866: Fearful of a Prussian-Italian alliance against them, Austria mobilizes its troops in Bohemia and Moravia.
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April 27, 1866: Suite for cello and piano op.16 by Camille Saint-Saëns (30) is performed for the first time, at the Salle Pleyel, Paris.
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April 29, 1866: After three concerts of his music in Amsterdam over the last three days, Franz Liszt (54) is received by Queen Sophie of the Netherlands in The Hague.
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April 30, 1866: Race riots erupt in Memphis, Tennessee over the next three days. 46 blacks are killed, 80 blacks and one white are injured. Black veterans are singled out as targets.
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May 2, 1866: Spanish ships attack the Peruvian port of Callao. After four hours of battle, and much damage, both sides claim victory.
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May 2, 1866: War of the Triple Alliance: Paraguayans surprise Brazilians and Uruguayans at Estero Bellaco, Paraguay. After initial gains and causing severe casualties, the attackers are forced to withdraw.
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May 3, 1866: Prussian forces mobilize against Austria.
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May 3, 1866: Edvard Grieg (22) reaches Berlin from Leipzig. While in the city he buys a copy of Berlioz’ (62) book on orchestration. While in the music store he asks for his own Humoresques but is told that the composer has so many friends in Berlin that they are sold out.
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May 7, 1866: Ferdinand Cohen-Blind attempts to kill Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck-Schönhausen in Berlin. Bismarck is saved by a bulletproof vest.
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May 10, 1866: Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern is elected ruler of Romania.
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May 10, 1866: Edvard Grieg (22) returns to Copenhagen from his sojourn in Italy and Germany.
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May 10, 1866: After weeks of delay hoping for peace, King Ludwig II of Bavaria orders mobilization.
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May 11, 1866: After traveling incognito through Austria, Prince Karl Hohenzollern arrives in Romania to take the throne.
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May 11, 1866: The London financial house of Overend and Gurney crashes, leading to disorder, panic, and unemployment.
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May 12, 1866: In order to create the appearance of respectability, Richard Wagner (52) invites the entire von Bülow family to his home, Tribschen, on Lake Lucerne. Cosima arrives today. By the time Hans arrives in mid-June, she will be pregnant with Wagner’s second child.
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May 13, 1866: Morning op.74, a cantata for male chorus and orchestra by Anton Rubinstein (36) to words of Polonsky, is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg.
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May 15, 1866: As war looms, King Ludwig II telegraphs Richard Wagner (52) announcing his desire to abdicate his throne and join the composer in Tribschen.  Wagner responds that he must forget about art for the moment and turn his full attention to affairs of state.
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May 17, 1866: 09:00 Eric Alfred Leslie Satie is born at 90 rue Haute in Honfleur, Calvados, French Empire, eldest of four children born to Jules-Alfred Satie, a ship broker and Jane Leslie Anton.
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May 19, 1866: Several smaller German states call for a demobilization within the German confederation.
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May 22, 1866: Karl, son of Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, becomes Prince Carol I of Romania.
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May 22, 1866: On the day he is scheduled to open Parliament, King Ludwig escapes incognito into Switzerland to be with Richard Wagner on his 53rd birthday. He arrives at Tribschen and stays two days.
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May 24, 1866: Lascar Catargiu replaces Nicolae Cretulescu as Prime Minister of Romania.
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May 24, 1866: War of the Triple Alliance: Paraguayans attack an allied force at Tuyutí before it can be reinforced. The attackers suffer greater casualties and are forced to retire, but the invasion of Paraguay is stopped.
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May 24, 1866: King Ludwig returns to Munich from Tribschen.
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May 24, 1866: In better spirits, King Ludwig departs Tribschen to return to Munich.  He promises Wagner that he will abide by the decision of Parliament in regard to the impending war.
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May 26, 1866: Cox and Box, or The Long-Lost Brothers, an operetta by Arthur Sullivan (24) to words of Burnand after Morton, is performed for the first time in the home of London businessman Arthur Lewis, privately with piano accompaniment. See 11 May 1867.
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May 27, 1866: Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz I grants rights of primogeniture to Ismail, Khedive of Egypt.
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May 27, 1866: Leaders on Crete meet at Omalos and agree to petition the Sultan to stop taxing them and other measures they claim are in violation of the 1858 reforms. They send copies to the three protecting powers (France-Great Britain-Russia) that they want autonomy.
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May 30, 1866: The Bartered Bride, a comic opera by Bedrich Smetana (42) to words of Sabina, is performed for the first time, in the Prague Provisional Theatre conducted by the composer. Among the violists is Antonín Dvorák (24). See 29 January 1869, 1 June 1869, and 25 September 1870.
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May 31, 1866: Louis Moreau Gottschalk (37) gives his first concert in Santiago de Chile.
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June 1, 1866: Austria openly abrogates the Gastein treaty of last August and brings its Schleswig-Holstein dispute before the German diet in Frankfurt.
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June 1, 1866: Julius Philipp Jacob Adriaan, Count van Zuylen van Nijevelt and Jan Heemskerk replace Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte as chief ministers of the Netherlands.
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June 1, 1866: French troops are withdrawn from the countryside to Mexico City.
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June 1, 1866: 800 Feinians land at Fort Erie, Ontario from New York.
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June 2, 1866: Feinians battle British troops at Ridgeway, Ontario. The British flee and the Fenians go on to take Fort Erie but then withdraw. Returning to Buffalo they are intercepted by a US Navy warship and are arrested.
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June 3, 1866: At a concert in Santiago de Chile, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (37) introduces his L’Alianza dedicated to the alliance of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador against Spain, and the friendship of those four countries with the United States.
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June 5, 1866: French naval officers Ernest-Marc-Louis Doudart de Lagrée and Marie-Joseph-François Garnier depart Saigon at the head of an expedition up the Mekong River. They will be the first Europeans to enter Yunan Province, China from the south.
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June 5, 1866: Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha replaces Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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June 6, 1866: The new Parliament buildings are officially opened in Ottawa.
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June 7, 1866: About 1,000 Fenians cross from the United States and occupy Pigeon Hill, Quebec.
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June 7, 1866: Chief Seathl (Seattle) of the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes dies at Port Madison, Washington Territory, aged approximately 77 years.
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June 8, 1866: Prussia annexes Holstein as Prussian troops march into the Austrian-held province.
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June 8, 1866: Canadian forces arrive at Pigeon Hill, Quebec and the Fenians there surrender.
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June 8, 1866: The Parliament of the Province of Canada sits in Ottawa for the first time, in the newly opened Parliament buildings.
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June 9, 1866: Austria secretly promises Venetia to France in return for French neutrality in the war against Prussia.
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June 10, 1866: The ambassador of Austria in Berlin demands his passports. The Austrian minister in Frankfurt orders the mobilization of German federal troops against Prussia.
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June 10, 1866: Hans von Bülow arrives at Tribschen to perhaps bring the “situation” with Richard Wagner (53) into the open. No one is sure exactly what transpires. The von Bülows remain at Tribschen into September. Cosima is carrying Wagner’s second child.
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June 11, 1866: Austria calls for military action by the German Confederation against Prussia.
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June 11, 1866: King Ludwig II of Bavaria releases a statement to the press (it was written by Richard Wagner), attesting to the virtue of Cosima von Bülow and vowing to investigate all those who cast public doubt on Hans von Bülow, his wife, and Richard Wagner (53).
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June 12, 1866: Diplomatic relations between Prussia and Austria are severed.
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June 14, 1866: Seven Weeks War: The German Federal Diet votes to militarily oppose the Prussian intervention in Holstein. The Prussian delegates walk out.
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June 15, 1866: Mexicans defeat a French and imperial force near Santa Gertrudis, inflicting heavy casualties. Survivors begin retreating to Monterrey.
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June 16, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussia invades Saxony, Hannover, and Hesse.  The German Confederation declares war on Prussia.
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June 17, 1866: Bettino Ricasoli, Count Brolio replaces Alfonso Ferrero, marchese di La Marmora as Prime Minister of Italy.
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June 17, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Emperor Franz Joseph II of Austria declares war on Prussia.
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June 18, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussian troops reach Dresden.
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June 19, 1866: Prussia annexes Friedberg in der Wetterau.
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June 19, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussian forces reach the summer palace of the King of Saxony at Pirna.
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June 20, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Under its treaty of alliance with Prussia, Italy declares war on Austria.
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June 21, 1866: Demetrios Georgios Voulgaris replaces Benizelos Athanasiou Rouphos as prime minister of Greece.
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June 21, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussia declares war on Austria.
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June 22, 1866: The Swedish constitution is altered to create a two-chamber parliament.
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June 22, 1866: Spanish artillery sergeants, partly unhappy about exclusion of non-aristocrats in the officer corps, and loosely tied to the progressive Juan Prim, rise up and kill their officers in Madrid. The rebellion will be crushed.
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June 22, 1866: Quintet for piano and strings op.34 by Johannes Brahms (33) is performed for the first time, in Leipzig.
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June 23, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussian forces invade Bohemia in two places.

The Italian army crosses the Mincio into Austrian territory.

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June 24, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Austrian forces defeat the Italians at Custoza west of Verona. Although Austria loses more casualties, the Italians retreat. The Austrians do not pursue.
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June 26, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussians defeat Austrians in furious street fighting over the Iser (Jizera) crossings in Podol.
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June 27, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussian troops attack well-entrenched Hannoverians at Langensalza in Thuringia. The attack is repulsed and a Hannoverian counterattack sends the Prussians into retreat towards Gotha.

Austrian forces attack Prussians on the high ground at Vysokov near Skalice. In a confused and bloody encounter, they manage to achieve some objectives but are ultimately beaten back and defeated by the Prussians.

At about the same time, Austrian units attack Prussians near Trautenau (Trutnov). After initial Prussian successes in the morning, a larger Austrian force resumes the attack in the afternoon. They clear the high ground of Prussians, who retreat and leave the Austrians in possession of the field. But the Austrians are forced to withdraw for tactical reasons and leave casualties at a rate four times that of the Prussians.

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June 28, 1866: Following the defeat of 15 June, the besieged imperial garrison of Matamoros is withdrawn.
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June 28, 1866: Seven Weeks War: The main Prussian army arrives at Langensalza and forces the Hannoverians to retreat to the east.

Prussian forces defeat Austrians and Saxons at Münchengrätz (Mnichovo Hradiste), 60 km northeast of Prague, but the main Austrian army escapes. Meanwhile, Prussians defeat the Austrians at Burkersdorf and Rudersdorf (Rubinovice), south of Trautenau (Trutnov).

In a furious engagement near the same ground as Vysokov yesterday, Prussians send Austrians into retreat at Skalice, leaving thousands of casualties.

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June 29, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussians attack numerically superior Austrians and Saxons at Gitschen (Jicin), 75 km northeast of Prague. Despite some successes the defenders are forced to withdraw in disorder.

King Georg V of Hannover surrenders his army to the Prussians at Nordhausen in northern Thuringia.

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June 30, 1866: The Great Eastern begins a second crossing of the Atlantic in an attempt to lay a transatlantic cable. They sail from England. The European terminus will be Foilhummerum Bay.
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July 1, 1866: Seven Weeks War: The main Austrian army in Bohemia retreats to positions around Königgrätz (Hradec Králové).

The Austrian army crosses the Mincio into Italian territory, but only to forage.

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July 3, 1866: Seven Weeks War: In the presence of King Wilhelm and Chancellor Bismarck, the Prussian army crosses the Bystrice in force at Sádová, near Königgrätz (Hradec Králové), 100 km east of Prague and engages the main Austrian army. After about nine hours of battle, the Austrians take to their heels and flee towards Königgrätz, many unaccompanied by their weapons. Hundreds drown attempting to cross the Elbe in panic. Thousands more will die of exhaustion and exposure. In spite of the extremely favorable situation, the Prussians do not finish off the Austrian army. 33,000 people die in the battle. Upon hearing the news from Sádová, Bedrich Smetana (42) flees Prague, fearing persecution from the Prussians.
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July 4, 1866: Fire destroys one-third of the city of Portland, Maine. Two people are killed, 1,500 buildings are destroyed and 10,000 people are made homeless.
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July 5, 1866: In Genoa, Giuseppe Verdi (52) learns that Venetia has been given by Austria to France and not Italy. He is so upset that he stops composing Don Carlos. “I am ill in a thousand ways.”
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July 5, 1866: Seven Weeks War: The Prussian army sets off in pursuit of the Austrians, presently retreating southeast towards Olmütz (Olomouc).

In hopes of gaining an ally against Prussia, Austria fulfills its promise of 9 June and cedes Venetia to France.

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July 6, 1866: Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of Derby replaces John Russell, Earl Russell as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
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July 8, 1866: Empress Carlotta of Mexico departs the capital to travel to Paris. She will implore Napoléon III not to withdraw his troops.
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July 10, 1866: Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia replaces Leopoldo O’Donnell Joris, duque de Tetuán as Prime Minister of Spain.
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July 10, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Prussian forces defeat Bavarians at Kissingen.
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July 11, 1866: Arthur Sullivan (24) conducts an orchestral concert in St. James’ Hall of music written mostly by himself. His mentor from Leipzig, Ignaz Moscheles, is present and in his honor, Sullivan programs Moscheles’ Recollections of Ireland for piano and orchestra. The concert is a triumph and helps to establish Sullivan as composer and conductor.
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July 12, 1866: Seven Weeks War: The entry of Prussian troops into Brünn (Brno) is witnessed by a choirboy named Leos Janácek (12).
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July 13, 1866: The first constitution for Romania goes into effect.
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July 16, 1866: Prince Ion Ghica replaces Lascar Catargiu as Prime Minister of Romania.
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July 16, 1866: King Ludwig II of Bavaria authorizes Prime Minister von Pfordten to begin peace negotiations with Prussia.
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July 18, 1866: After playing the organ at the Harvard University commencement in the morning, John Knowles Paine (27) boards the steamer Cuba making for Liverpool.
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July 18, 1866: A Prussian administration takes over in the Free City of Frankfurt (Main).
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July 20, 1866: Seven Weeks War: In the first major engagement fought by ironclad ships, Austrian naval forces destroy the Italian fleet off the island of Lissa (Vis, Croatia). The Italian frigate Re d’Italia is rammed and sunk with the loss of 350-450 men. The Palestro blows up. Only 19 of her 230 men are saved.
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July 22, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Emperor Franz Joseph II of Austria decides to capitulate to Prussia.
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July 23, 1866: Demonstrations by the Reform League in favor of enfranchising the working class take place in London. Crowds break down Hyde Park railings.
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July 24, 1866: Tennessee is restored to the union.
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July 26, 1866: John Knowles Paine (27) arrives in Liverpool from Boston and goes immediately to London.
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July 26, 1866: Seven Weeks War: An armistice between Austria and Prussia is agreed to at the country estate of Austrian Foreign Minister Alexander Mensdorff at Nikolsburg, Moravia (Mikulov, Czech Republic).

Italian forces capture Udine, 100 km northeast of Venice.

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July 27, 1866: Karl Mathy replaces Anton von Stabel as Prime Minister of Baden.
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July 27, 1866: The Great Eastern reaches Heart’s Content, Newfoundland with the transatlantic cable. It works as planned and messages are easily sent across the ocean.
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July 28, 1866: The constitution of Denmark is amended to limit suffrage and enhance the power of the monarch and the Upper House.
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July 30, 1866: Whites riot against blacks in New Orleans. 38 people die, 200 are injured before federal troops intervene.
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July 30, 1866: Italy accepts a three-day cease fire with Austria.
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August 2, 1866: Seven Weeks War: Italy agrees to extend the cease fire of 2 August until 10 August.
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August 3, 1866: A Cretan “national assembly” tells the diplomats of the protecting powers (France-Great Britain-Russia) that they plan to defend themselves against 14,000 troops sent by the Sultan to subdue them.
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August 4, 1866: Jews gain full legal equality in Venice.
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August 4, 1866: Cantique de Jean Racine for chorus and organ by Gabriel Fauré (21) is performed for the first time, at the blessing of the organ in the Church of St. Sauveur, Rennes. The premiered is played on harmonium and string quintet. See 28 January 1906.
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August 6, 1866: Vancouver Island is annexed to the Crown Colony of British Columbia.
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August 7, 1866: The British Sanitary Act of 1866 receives royal assent. It gives local authorities power to enforce sanitation laws and the responsibility to see they are adhered to.
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August 10, 1866: In a treaty between Bolivia and Chile, Bolivian land between the Andes and the Pacific is ceded to Chile.
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August 11, 1866: Despite a personal appeal from Empress Carlotta of Mexico, Emperor Napoléon III announces that all French troops will be withdrawn from Mexico.
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August 12, 1866: Seven Weeks War: A four-week armistice is agreed to by Austrian and Italian negotiators at Cormons, between Udine and Gorizia.
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August 13, 1866: Seven Weeks War: A peace agreement is signed between Prussia and Württemberg at Berlin, including a secret alliance against France.
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August 16, 1866: Anton Bruckner (41) writes to Josefine Lang, a 17-year-old daughter of a butcher, proposing marriage. She will refuse.
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August 17, 1866: Seven Weeks War: A peace agreement is signed between Prussia and Baden at Berlin.
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August 21, 1866: Tändelei, op.310, a polka mazur by Johann Strauss (40), is performed for the first time, in the Volksgarten, Vienna.
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August 22, 1866: Seven Weeks War: A peace agreement is signed between Prussia and Bavaria, including a secret alliance against France.
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August 23, 1866: By the Peace of Prague, the Seven Weeks War is over. Austria is forced out of Schleswig and Holstein and all German affairs. Prussia is given leave to annex Hannover, Hesse-Kassel, Nassau, and Frankfurt, unifying Prussian territory. Austria recognizes the North German Confederation. The Austrian cession of Venetia to France is affirmed. It marks the end of the German Confederation and the effective end of Austrian dominance in Germany to be replaced by Prussia.
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August 27, 1866: Monte Christo, a ballet by Stanislaw Moniuszko (47) to a story after Dumas, is performed for the first time, in Warsaw.
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August 29, 1866: Three months after his birth, Eric Satie is baptized at the Anglican Church of Honfleur, at the insistence of his Scottish mother.
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September 2, 1866: Crete revolts against Turkey and proclaims union with Greece.
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September 2, 1866: Six weeks after successfully laying a transatlantic cable, the Great Eastern retrieves and repairs the cable which broke last year. Now two cables are in operation.
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September 3, 1866: The Prussian Parliament, quite unconstitutionally, grants Chancellor Bismarck an indemnity to collect taxes. This marks the effective end of Prussian liberalism.
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September 3, 1866: The Grand Duchy of Hesse transfers Mainz, Worms, and Hesse-Homburg to Prussia.
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September 3, 1866: War of the Triple Alliance: Brazilians overrun Paraguayan positions at Curuzú, Paraguay.
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September 10, 1866: Edward Elgar (9) attends the Three Choirs Festival in Worcester for the first time.
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September 12, 1866: A theatrical monstrosity named The Black Crook opens at Niblo’s Garden, New York City. It is seen as the grandparent of the twentieth century Broadway musical.
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September 13, 1866: The Moscow Conservatory officially opens with celebrations. At the end of the dinner, faculty member Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (26) plays a piano reduction of the overture to Ruslan and Lyudmilla of Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (†9).
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September 15, 1866: Bedrich Smetana (42) is elected conductor of the Provisional Theatre, Prague.
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September 15, 1866: Dmitry Vladimirovich Karakozov, would-be assassin of Tsar Alyeksandr II of 16 April, is hanged. During the investigation, the government uncovered no great conspiracy but they are astonished to find how many members of Karakozov’s class, the lesser nobility, desire the overthrow of the monarchy.
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September 20, 1866: As a Prussian condition of peace with Austria, Georg II replaces his anti-Prussian father, Bernhard II as Duke of Saxe-Meiningen.
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September 20, 1866: Pursuant to the Peace of Prague, Prussia annexes Hannover, Nassau, and Hesse-Kassel.
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September 22, 1866: War of the Triple Alliance: Allied forces assault Curupayti, Paraguay but are repulsed with heavy casualties. They retreat to Curuzú.
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September 26, 1866: An advertisement appears in today’s issue of the Christiania Morgenbladet announcing that Edvard Grieg (23) will be available in the city for piano students beginning in mid-October.
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September 27, 1866: Bedrich Smetana (42) takes up duties as conductor of the Provisional Theatre, Prague.
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September 28, 1866: Bedrich Smetana (42) makes his debut as conductor of the Provisional Theatre, Prague, with a performance of Der Freischütz by Carl Maria von Weber (†40).
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September 30, 1866: After moving through the Leeward Islands, a hurricane devastates the Turks and Caicos Islands. It moves on to the Bahamas where it sinks many ships and destroys Nassau. There are 383 known deaths attributed to this storm.
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October 3, 1866: By the Treaty of Vienna, war between Austria and Italy is ended. Austria loses some territory and accepts the transfer of Venetia to Italy by France.
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October 3, 1866: The American SS Evening Star goes down in a hurricane off Georgia. 261 people are lost, 17 survive.
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October 3, 1866: Mexican forces defeat French and Imperial troops at Miahuatlán, Oaxaca.
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October 8, 1866: Prussia annexes the Free City of Frankfurt-am-Main.
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October 8, 1866: In the parish church of Avon, near Fontainebleau, Jules Massenet (24) marries Louise Constance de Gressy, sister of an artist, cousin of a mathematician and piano student of Franz Liszt (54) who introduced them.
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October 10, 1866: Edvard Grieg takes up residence in Christiania (Oslo).
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October 15, 1866: In Christiania (Oslo), a newly arrived Edvard Grieg (23) introduces himself and his music to the city in a concert where he performs his music with Nina Hagerup and Wilhelmine Norman Neruda. It is very successful.
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October 15, 1866: A great fire in Quebec City destroys 2,500 buildings.
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October 16, 1866: As part of a punitive expedition for the killing of three French priests and several thousand Korean Catholics, French troops land on Gangwha Island, taking the fortress and the city of Gangwha.
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October 18, 1866: Mexican troops defeat a joint French/Imperial force at La Carbonera, near Oaxaca City. They chase the defeated for 20 km.
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October 20, 1866: The French/Imperial garrison in Oaxaca City surrenders to the Mexicans.
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October 21, 1866: Seven Weeks War: A peace agreement is signed between Prussia and Saxony.
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October 21, 1866: A plebiscite in Venetia votes for unification with Italy.
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October 21, 1866: The United States recognizes the government of Benito Juárez as the sole legitimate government of Mexico.
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October 21, 1866: Emperor Maximilian meets with the French envoy General François de Castelnau at Orizaba. The General attempts to persuade Maximilian to give up and return to Europe.
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October 24, 1866: Turks defeat Cretans at Vafe, near Sfakia.
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October 26, 1866: French troops land and unsuccessfully attack the Korean fort at Munsusansong.
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October 29, 1866: Prince Michael of Serbia demands that the Ottoman Empire give up the Danube fortresses.
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October 29, 1866: A hurricane moves across the Danish Virgin Islands, killing around 600 people and sinking many ships. It moves on to Puerto Rico where 211 people are killed.
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October 30, 1866: In memoriam, an overture by Arthur Sullivan (24), is performed for the first time, in St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich. It is in memory of his father, who died five weeks ago.
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October 31, 1866: La vie parisiènne, an opéra-bouffe by Jacques Offenbach (47) to words of Meilhac and Halevy, is performed for the first time, at the Palais-Royal, Paris. It is a resounding triumph.
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October 31, 1866: Steinway Hall opens in New York. It will be a center of the city’s music scene until it closes in 1890.
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November 1, 1866: Sextet for Strings no.2 op.36 by Johannes Brahms (33) is performed for the first time, in Boston.
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November 4, 1866: By the Treaty of Vienna of 3 October and the plebiscite of 21 October, Venice and the Venetia become part of the Kingdom of Italy.
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November 7, 1866: French troops make a second attempt to capture the Korean fort at Munsusansong. For a second time they are forced to withdraw.
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November 7, 1866: The first railroad in Bulgaria opens between Ruse and Varna.
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November 11, 1866: Troops sent by President Juárez to subdue mutineers arrive at Matamoros.
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November 12, 1866: The French punitive expedition in Korea decides to withdraw.
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November 12, 1866: Mexicans occupy Mazatlán, abandoned by the French.
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November 12, 1866: La source, ou Naila, a ballet by Léo Delibes (30) and L. Minkus to a story of Nuitter and Saint-Léon, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
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November 17, 1866: Mignon, an opéra comique by Ambroise Thomas (55) to words of Barbier and Carré after Goethe, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris.
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November 18, 1866: Express-Polka schnell op.311, the waltz Feen-Märchen op. 312, and the polka française Wildfeuer op.313 by Johann Strauss (41) are performed for the first time, in the Volksgarten, Vienna.
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November 20, 1866: Sextet for Strings no.2 op.36 by Johannes Brahms (33) is performed in Europe for the first time, in Zürich.
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November 22, 1866: Franz Liszt (55) moves into the Santa Francesca Romana in Rome, where he will live until 1871.
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November 23, 1866: US forces cross the Rio Grande on the pretext of safeguarding foreign interests and enter Matamoros.
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November 23, 1866: The Waltzes op.39 for piano four hands by Johannes Brahms (33) are performed for the first time, in Oldenburg, by Clara Schumann (47) and Albert Dietrich. See 17 March 1867 and 15 November 1868.
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November 24, 1866: A Concerto for cello and orchestra by Arthur Sullivan (24) is performed for the first time, in the Crystal Palace, London.
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November 27, 1866: Loyal troops assault the mutinous garrison of Matamoros but are repulsed. US forces remain neutral. They surround the block which contains the US consulate.
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November 30, 1866: The two battling Mexican factions join forces to expel the US invaders in Matamoros.
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December 1, 1866: US forces retreat from Matamoros back across the Rio Grande.
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December 1, 1866: After the pleadings of Mexican conservatives, Emperor Maximilian agrees to stay on the throne.
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December 7, 1866: The last of the French occupation forces depart Rome.
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December 8, 1866: O Lord, Thou hast cast us out, a cantata by Hubert Parry (18) to words from the Bible, is performed for the first time, at Eton College. The work is in partial fulfillment of the B.Mus. degree.
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December 11, 1866: Oft in the stilly night, a madrigal by Hubert Parry (18) to words of Moore, is performed for the first time, at Eton College.
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December 12, 1866: In the Christiania (Oslo) Morgenbladet, Norwegian composers Edvard Grieg (23) and Otto Winter-Hjelm lay out their plans for a music academy in the city. It will include a music school and training for teachers.
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December 12, 1866: An explosion in a coal mine near Stairfoot, Barnsley, South Yorkshire kills 388 people.
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December 13, 1866: Modest Musorgsky (27) is promoted to the rank of Titular Councilor at the Russian Ministry of Communication.
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December 14, 1866: Hubert Parry (18) leaves Eton College after having achieved the B.Mus. degree. He will apply to Exeter College, Oxford.
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December 16, 1866: Hector Berlioz (63) conducts his La damnation de Faust in Vienna. Despite his failing health and declining powers as a conductor, the concert is a wild success.
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December 20, 1866: Student Life, one of the Four Songs for Male Voices by Edvard Grieg (23) is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen.
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December 21, 1866: Cheyenne, Arapahoe, and Sioux battle United States troops in Sheridan County, Wyoming. 200 Indians are killed or wounded. 81 soldiers are killed.
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December 22, 1866: The scherzo of Symphony no.1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (26) is performed for the first time, in Moscow. See 15 February 1868.
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December 23, 1866: Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov’s (22) Overture on Three Russian Themes is performed for the first time, at the Free School of Music, St. Petersburg.
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December 24, 1866: Pursuant to the Peace of Prague, Schleswig and Holstein are incorporated into Prussia.
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December 30, 1866: Alexandros Koumoundouros replaces Demetrios Georgios Voulgaris as Prime Minister of Greece.
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December 31, 1866: Chlodwig, Prince von Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst replaces Karl Ludwig Heinrich, Baron von der Pfordten as President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.