A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1864 – December 31, 1864

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January 1, 1864: In the first issue of his second journal, Epoch, Fyodor Dostoyevsky publishes the beginning of his novel, Notes from Underground this month.
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January 5, 1864: French forces capture Guadalajara.
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January 5, 1864: New works are performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris: La tradition, a prologue en vers by Léo Delibes (27) to words of Derville, and L’amour chanteur, an operetta by Jacques Offenbach (44) to words of Nuitter and L’Epine.
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January 6, 1864: A new law goes into effect in France ending the monopoly of certain theatres over certain repertoire. Now, any theatre may perform any work in the public domain.
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January 10, 1864: In a weakened condition because of a fever, Stephen Foster (37) collapses in his hotel room in the Bowery, New York and hits his head on a wash basin. The accident also opens a gash in his neck. He is taken to Bellevue Hospital where his neck is stitched.
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January 11, 1864: Neckereien op.31/2 for vocal quartet by Johannes Brahms (30) to anonymous words is performed for the first time, in Vienna conducted by the composer.
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January 11, 1864: La fiancée du Roi de Garbe, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (82) to words of Scribe and Saint-Georges, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris. In the audience is an increasingly infirm Giacomo Meyerbeer (72).
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January 12, 1864: Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence replaces Sir William Thomas Denison as Viceroy of India.
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January 12, 1864: Morgenblätter op.279, a waltz by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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January 13, 1864: Tsar Alyeksandr II signs the “Zemstvo Statute” giving greater power and autonomy to local authorities.
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January 13, 1864: Stephen Collins Foster dies in Bellevue Hospital, New York, New York, USA, aged 37 years, six months, and nine days. Although he suffered wounds on 10 January, the exact cause of his death is not known.
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January 16, 1864: Prussia and Austria send a joint ultimatum to Denmark demanding that it rescind the 1863 constitution which placed Schleswig in union with Denmark. Denmark rejects the ultimatum.
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January 17, 1864: Lorenzo Arrazola García replaces Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo, marqués de Miraflores as Prime Minister of Spain.
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January 17, 1864: A Caprice for organ by John Knowles Paine (25) is performed for the first time, by the composer in the Boston Music Hall.
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January 17, 1864: The train carrying the body of Stephen Foster from New York to Pittsburgh derails between Lewistown and Greensburg, Pennsylvania. Two cars end up in the Juniata River but Foster’s body is not affected.
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January 18, 1864: Juristen-Ball op.280, a polka by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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January 19, 1864: Vergnügungszug op.281, a polka by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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January 21, 1864: After a funeral service in Trinity Episcopal Church, Pittsburgh, the mortal remains of Stephen Foster are laid to rest in Allegheny Cemetery, Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania (now part of Pittsburgh).
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January 23, 1864: Giacomo Meyerbeer (72) makes the last entry in his diary, in Paris.
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January 24, 1864: In a large group of current and former Prix de Rome winners, Jules Massenet (21) arrives in Rome for his stay.
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January 26, 1864: Gut bürgerlich op.282, a polka française by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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January 31, 1864: Studentenlust op.285, a waltz by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
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February 1, 1864: Modest Musorgsky (24) is made the head clerk of the barracks section at the Department of Engineering, Russian Ministry of Communications.
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February 1, 1864: Austrian and Prussian troops cross the River Eider into Schleswig, routing the Danish defenders.
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February 2, 1864: Patronessen-Polka op.286 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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February 4, 1864: Die Rheinnixen, a romantische Oper by Jacques Offenbach (44) to words of von Wolzogen after Nuitter, is performed for the first time, at the Vienna Hofoper.
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February 6, 1864: The men who will tower over the two opposing forces of German art music for the rest of the century, Richard Wagner (50) and Johannes Brahms (30), meet for the first and last time at the home of Baron von Voclow in Penzing, near Schönbrunn. Since late 1862, Brahms has been involved in organizing Wagner’s concerts in Vienna. Brahms performs his Handel Variations prompting Wagner to remark, “It shows what can still be done with the old forms by somebody who knows how to handle them.”
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February 9, 1864: A committee is formed in Geneva, led by Henry Dunant to investigate possible international agreements concerning the treatment of wounded on the battlefield. It is the beginning of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
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February 9, 1864: US Civil War: In the largest prison escape of the war, 109 Union officers tunnel out of Libby Prison in Richmond. 59 reach Federal lines, 48 are recaptured, two drown.
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February 14, 1864: US Civil War: Federal forces capture Meridian, Mississippi and proceed to destroy the town.

Federal troops capture Gainesville, Florida.

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February 15, 1864: 22-year-old Gerard Adriaan Heineken takes over the De Hooiberg brewery in Amsterdam and begins brewing beer.
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February 17, 1864: US Civil War: The Confederate Congress extends conscription to all able-bodied men between the ages of 17 and 50.

The Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley makes its first and only successful run on a Federal ship in Charleston Harbor. The craft’s spar torpedo makes contact with the sloop USS Housatonic and is detonated, sinking the Housatonic. However, the Hunley does not return from its mission. Five men on the Housatonic and the entire seven-man crew of the H.L. Hunley are killed. It is the first time a ship is sunk by a submarine.

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February 19, 1864: The Renegade for double male chorus by Bedrich Smetana (39) to words of Metlinskij translated by Celakovsky is performed for the first time.
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February 23, 1864: The remains of Harriet Smithson are exhumed because the cemetery where they rest is to be abolished. Hector Berlioz (60) is there to witness their placement into a new coffin after which they are transported to Montmartre Cemetery for reburial.
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February 24, 1864: Haakon Jarl, a symphonic poem by Bedrich Smetana (39), is performed for the first time, in Prague, directed by the composer.
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February 27, 1864: US Civil War: A hastily constructed stockade prison at Andersonville, Georgia receives its first prisoners. It will become one of the most notorious prison camps of the war.
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February 28, 1864: Deutscher Krieger-Marsch op.284 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in the Volksgarten, Vienna.
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March 1, 1864: In an attempt to break the power of the Polish nobility, Tsar Alyeksandr II grants one-third of all Polish lands to peasants.
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March 1, 1864: Alejandro Món Menéndez replaces Lorenzo Arrazola García as Prime Minister of Spain.
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March 2, 1864: A Prelude for organ op.19 no.1 by John Knowles Paine (25) is performed for the first time, by the composer, in the Boston Music Hall.
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March 3, 1864: Prince Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin replaces Count Dimitry Nikolayevich Bludov as Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Russia.
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March 3, 1864: A Sonata for violin and piano D.574 by Franz Schubert (†35) is performed for the first time, by the Musikverein, Vienna, 47 years after it was composed.
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March 4, 1864: 22-year-old Gaetano Scavello, tutor to Ruggero Leoncavallo (6) in Montalto Uffugo, Calabria, is set upon by two villagers and stabbed to death in a dispute over the affections of a young woman. The story will provide a starting point for Pagliacci.
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March 5, 1864: Fantasia on the “Portuguese Hymn” by John Knowles Paine (25) is performed for the first time, by the composer in the Boston Music Hall.
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March 6, 1864: The first 2,200 of about 8,000 Navajos begin the Long Walk from Fort Canby to Fort Sumner in New Mexico.
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March 9, 1864: Danish and Austrian ships engage in the North Sea off Helgoland. One Austrian ship is set afire and the Austrians are forced to flee to neutral territory.
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March 10, 1864: William A. Pond & Co. publish Beautiful Dreamer, a song by Stephen Foster (†0). Although composed in 1862, Pond probably publishes it only now because of Foster’s recent death.
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March 10, 1864: King Maximilian II of Bavaria dies in the Residenz in Munich and is succeeded by his son, Ludwig II.
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March 10, 1864: One of the Three Duets op.20 for soprano, alto, and piano by Johannes Brahms (30) is performed for the first time, in Lucerne.
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March 11, 1864: The newly completed Dale Dyke Dam collapses, inundating the city of Sheffield, England. Almost 250 people are killed and over 600 structures damaged or destroyed.
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March 12, 1864: US Civil War: Ulysses S. Grant is created commander of the Union armies.
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March 14, 1864: Petite messe solennelle by Gioachino Rossini (72) is performed for the first time, with piano accompaniment, in the Paris home of Countess Louise Pillet-Will. The work was commissioned for the consecration of her private chapel. Although ordered to bed by his doctors, Giacomo Meyerbeer (72) attends, along with Auber (82). See 24 February 1869.
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March 16, 1864: Les géorgiennes, an opéra-bouffe by Jacques Offenbach (44) to words of Moinaux, is performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris.
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March 17, 1864: Konstantinos Michail Kanaris replaces Demetrios Georgiou Voulgaris as Prime Minister of Greece.
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March 17, 1864: On the second anniversary of the subject’s death, a memorial with full-size sculpture to the memory of Fromental Halévy is unveiled in the Jewish section of Montmartre cemetery.
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March 19, 1864: Mireille, an opéra dialogué by Charles Gounod (45) to words of Carré after Mistral, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre-Lyrique, Paris. The first act is well received but the rest is a disaster. Hector Berlioz (60) is there but leaves before the fifth act (which begins after 24:30).
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March 19, 1864: US Civil War: The Georgia legislature suggest to President Davis that after the next significant Confederate victory, a peace offer should be made.
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March 20, 1864: Hector Berlioz’ (60) retirement as music critic of the Journal des débats is announced in La France musicale.
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March 23, 1864: Richard Wagner (50) escapes from Vienna ahead of his creditors making for Switzerland via Munich.
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March 24, 1864: Louis Moreau Gottschalk (34) performs in Willard’s Hall, Washington before an audience including President and Mrs. Lincoln and Secretary of State William Seward.
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March 26, 1864: Richard Wagner (50) arrives in Zürich where a friend, Eliza Wille, has agreed to give him room for a month.
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March 26, 1864: General Ulysses S. Grant and his staff attend a concert given by Louis Moreau Gottschalk (34) at Grover’s Theatre on Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington.
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March 29, 1864: An agreement is concluded in London between the three protecting powers (France-Great Britain-Russia) and Greece. Great Britain transfers the Ionian Islands to Greece.
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March 29, 1864: The first group of Navajos reaches Fort Sumner, New Mexico after the Long Walk.
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March 31, 1864: British forces attack Maori positions at Orakau. The Maori easily defeat this and the British settle in for a siege.
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April 1, 1864: After two and a half years, John Knowles Paine (25) resigns his position at West Church in Boston, for Harvard University.
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April 3, 1864: After about 250 Maori escape from Orakau, the British easily overwhelm the remaining defenders and a massacre ensues. This essentially ends the British invasion of the Waikato region.
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April 5, 1864: George Pullman receives a US patent for his railroad car designed specifically for sleeping.
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April 6, 1864: Just south of New Plymouth, New Zealand, British settlers who have just finished destroying Maori crops are set upon by the owners of the crops. Seven British are killed, twelve injured.
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April 6, 1864: A constitutional convention, meeting in New Orleans, adopts a new constitution for Louisiana and abolishes slavery.
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April 8, 1864: US Civil War: Confederates halt a Union advance on Shreveport, Louisiana at Sabine Crossroads, costing 3,235 total casualties.
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April 8, 1864: A destitute Richard Wagner (50) writes to Peter Cornelius (39), "As I say, some good and truly helpful miracle must now befall me, otherwise it will all be over!" (Millington, 159)
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April 10, 1864: In Mirimar Castle, near Trieste, Austrian Archduke Maximilian Josef von Habsburg is created Emperor of Mexico by France.
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April 11, 1864: A Union government for Arkansas is inaugurated at Little Rock.
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April 11, 1864: Verbrüderungs-Marsch op.287 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in the Königliches Schauspielhaus, Berlin.
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April 12, 1864: US Civil War: After Confederates attack Ft. Pillow on the Mississippi River in Tennessee, the Union garrison surrenders. The southerners thereupon begin a massacre of the survivors. Of the 557 men inside Ft. Pillow (half of whom are black) only 168 whites and 58 blacks survive.
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April 14, 1864: 18-year-old King Ludwig II of Bavaria, on the throne for one month, orders his cabinet secretary Franz Seraph von Pfistermeister, to find Richard Wagner (50).
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April 14, 1864: Spanish forces seize the Chincha Islands off the coast of Peru in retaliation for what Spain claims is Peruvian mistreatment of Spanish immigrants. The islands are an important source of guano.
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April 15, 1864: Choe Je-u, leader of the Donghak religious movement, is executed in Daegu for “agitating the people with impure thought.”
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April 17, 1864: A concert of the Wiener Singakademie conducted by Johannes Brahms (30) in the Musikverein, Vienna of his own music meets with only limited success. Among the works premiered are the Sonata for Two Pianos op.34b and four works for unaccompanied chorus: Marias Kirchgang op.22/2 and Ruf zur Maria op.22/5, both to traditional German words, the motet Es is das Heil uns Kommen her op.29/1 to words of Speratus, and Abendständchen op.42/1 to words of Brentano.
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April 18, 1864: Austrian and Prussian forces launch an offensive against the Danes in central Jutland. After a siege of a month, Prussians capture Düppel (Dybbøl) on Als Island from Denmark. The battle marks the first time that the Red Cross symbol is used in attending to the wounded.
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April 18, 1864: Mily Balakirev’s (27) Second Overture on Russian Themes is performed for the first time, at the Free School of Music, St. Petersburg. The work will be published in 1869 as 1000 years and in 1887 as Russia.
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April 23, 1864: March for the Shakespearean Festival by Bedrich Smetana (40) is performed for the first time, in Prague, conducted by the composer. The Festival celebrates the 300th anniversary of the playwright’s birth.
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April 25, 1864: Truce negotiations between Prussia, Austria, and Denmark open in London.
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April 28, 1864: Alyeksandr Borodin (30) is appointed full professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg.
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April 28, 1864: Zinovios Valvis replaces Konstantinos Michail Kanaris as Prime Minister of Greece.
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April 29, 1864: British forces attack Maoris at Gate Pa near Tauranga. Despite eight hours of bombardment, a British assault is decisively defeated by the Maori defenders. This stinging result encourages the British governor of New Zealand to begin peace negotiations.
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April 29, 1864: The Danish fortress of Fredericia surrenders to the Prussians.
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April 30, 1864: Maoris attack British troops and local militia at Sentry Hill. They are easily repulsed with heavy casualties.
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May 1, 1864: Giacomo Meyerbeer (72) completes copying the full score of L’africaine.
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May 2, 1864: 05:40 Giacomo Meyerbeer dies in Paris, French Empire, aged 72 years, seven months, and 27 days.
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May 3, 1864: As Gioachino Rossini (72) seeks out Giacomo Meyerbeer in Paris he learns of the latter’s death and faints on the spot. He is unconscious for ten minutes. Later, Rossini will compose a Chant funèbre.
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May 3, 1864: After a search of nearly two months, Franz Seraph von Pfistermeister, cabinet secretary to King Ludwig II of Bavaria, catches up to Richard Wagner (50) in Stuttgart.  Pfistermeister brings a photograph of the King and a ring, and conveys the king's wish that Wagner come to Munich at once.  Everything Wagner needs will be provided so that Der Ring des Nibelungen can be produced.  Later in the day, Wagner learns of the death of Meyerbeer. He takes the coincidence of these two “happy” events as an omen of good fortune.
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May 4, 1864: Richard Wagner (50) meets King Ludwig II of Bavaria for the first time, in the Residenz, Munich. Ludwig offers Wagner an annual stipend, a house, and to pay all his outstanding debts. Wagner accepts. According to the composer, “It was one unending love scene.”
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May 5, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate forces attack Federals on the Orange Turnpike in the “Wilderness” west of Fredericksburg, Virginia. In confused fighting, no lasting advantage can be gained by either side.
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May 5, 1864: Saison-Quadrille op.283 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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May 6, 1864: After lying unmoved for four days (by his own command--he was fearful of being buried alive) a funeral ceremony for Giacomo Meyerbeer takes place in the Gare du Nord, Paris. Some of his music is performed. Then his body is placed on a train for Berlin.
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May 6, 1864: US Civil War: Federal advances in the Wilderness, west of Fredericksburg, Virginia are checked and a Confederate counterattack begins. The southerners make advances but the battlefield is so confused that they begin shooting at their own units. Federals manage to halt the advance. Over the last two days, there have been 25,166 total casualties.
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May 8, 1864: US Civil War: Skirmishing around the town of Spotsylvania Court House, 75 km north of Richmond, erupts into major fighting. Neither side gains an advantage.
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May 10, 1864: Queen Victoria writes to her daughter Victoria, the Crown Princess of Prussia, “Meyerbeer’s death grieved me much; I do so admire his music and so did darling Papa (Prince Albert)!”
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May 10, 1864: Richard Wagner (50) arrives in Vienna to pay off his debts and retrieve his personal items. He learns that his Erard piano has been sold to pay creditors.
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May 12, 1864: Before hundreds of mourners, including Prince Georg of Prussia, Oberstkämmerer and intendant-general of theatres Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Redern, members of the diplomatic corps and representatives of King Wilhelm and Queen Augusta, the mortal remains of Giacomo Meyerbeer are laid to rest in the Jewish Cemetery in the Schönhauser Alle, Berlin.
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May 12, 1864: US Civil War: The most vicious fighting of the ten-day battle for Spotsylvania Court House takes place as thousands of people die in hand-to-hand fighting. Very slowly, over the next few weeks, Federals force the Confederates back in the direction of Richmond. This day sees 11,800 total casualties.
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May 14, 1864: Richard Wagner (50) moves into Haus Pellet at Münchner Strasse 49-61 in Berg, a house provided for him on Lake Starnberg by King Ludwig.
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May 14, 1864: L’île enchantée, a ballet by Arthur Sullivan (22) to a scenario of Desplaces, is performed for the first time, at Covent Garden Theatre, London. It plays after a complete performance of Bellini’s (†28) La sonnambula.
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May 19, 1864: Nathaniel Hawthorne dies in Plymouth, New Hampshire at the age of 59.
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May 22, 1864: His beloved Erard having been sold to pay creditors, King Ludwig II gives a new Bechstein piano to Richard Wagner for his 51st birthday.
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May 29, 1864: Archduke Maximilian Josef von Habsburg (Emperor Maximilian I) arrives at Veracruz.
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June 2, 1864: War between Russia and the Circassians is declared ended in the village of Kbaada (Krasnaya Polyana). Several hundred thousand Circassians were massacred by the Russians over the last five years of war. Millions more will flee, or be deported by the Russians to Turkey.
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June 3, 1864: French troops capture San Blas and Acapulco.
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June 3, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops attack Confederate positions at Cold Harbor, 15 km northeast of Richmond, losing 7,000 people in 30 minutes. They are repulsed.
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June 4, 1864: La Succession Bonnet, a comédie-vaudeville by Jacques Offenbach (44) to words of Saint-Rémy, is performed for the first time, in the Salons du Corps législatif, Paris.
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June 4, 1864: Three movements of Edvard Grieg’s (20) Symphony in c minor are performed for the first time, in Tivoli Concert Hall, Copenhagen. See 19 January 1865.
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June 6, 1864: A Venetian Dirge for voice and piano by Charles Villiers Stanford (11) is performed for the first time, privately in Dublin.
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June 7, 1864: Mexican Republicans recapture San Blas and Acapulco from the French.
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June 11, 1864: 06:00 Richard Georg Strauss is born at 2 Altheimer Eck in Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, the eldest of two children of Franz Joseph Strauss, principal horn player of the Munich Court Orchestra, and his second wife, Josephine Pschorr, daughter of a brewer. The birth takes place in an apartment next the Pschorr brewery.
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June 12, 1864: Maximilian, brother of the Emperor Franz-Joseph, Archduke of Austria arrives in Mexico City and takes up the title of Emperor of Mexico. He is placed there by French forces on orders of Emperor Napoléon III.
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June 16, 1864: US Civil War: By today the Army of the Potomac has taken up positions before Petersburg, Virginia and has proceeded to assault the city.
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June 18, 1864: US Civil War: Union troops give up their frontal assault on Petersburg. Over the last four days, 1,688 people have been killed, 8,513 wounded and 1,185 are missing. A long siege begins.
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June 19, 1864: US Civil War: USS Kearsarge defeats the Confederate raider Alabama off Cherbourg. Alabama surrenders and subsequently sinks.
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June 21, 1864: British forces defeat Maoris at Te Ranga, near the British stronghold of Tauranga.
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June 25, 1864: The London Conference on Denmark concludes indecisively. This allows Austria and Prussia to resume the war.
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June 25, 1864: King Wilhelm I of Württemberg dies in Stuttgart and is succeeded by his son Karl.
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June 27, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate defenders of Atlanta defeat attacking Federals at Kenesaw Mountain, 30 km northwest of the city leaving 2,500 total casualties.
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June 29, 1864: Cosima von Bülow and her two daughters join Richard Wagner (51) at his house on Lake Starnberg, Bavaria. Wagner has invited the von Bülow family to his house and Hans has sent Cosima and the children on ahead. He will arrive on 7 July.
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June 29, 1864: A passenger train falls through an open swing bridge into the Richelieu River at St. Hilaire in the Province of Canada. About 100 people are killed.
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July 5, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate terrorists cross the Potomac into Maryland causing widespread panic.
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July 6, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate terrorists occupy Hagerstown, Maryland and demand $20,000 of the citizens.
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July 7, 1864: After Cosima von Bülow has visited Richard Wagner (51) for a week in the Villa Pellet on Lake Starnberg (during the king’s absence), her husband Hans von Bülow arrives. In the week before von Bülow’s arrival, Wagner and Cosima have consummated their union. A servant will later testify that when von Bülow finds the locked bedroom door, he went “to his living room, threw himself on the ground, beat on the floor with his hands and feet like a man possessed, and cried and even screamed.” (Köhler, 460)
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July 9, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate terrorists rout a hastily assembled Union force near Frederick, Maryland. They stop at Frederick and demand $200,000 of the citizens.
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July 11, 1864: Christian Albrecht Bluhme replaces Ditlev Gothard Monrad as Prime Minister of Denmark.
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July 11, 1864: Persischer Marsch op.289 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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July 11, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate terrorists arrive at Silver Springs, Maryland but with the arrival of Union reinforcements they decide not to attack Washington.
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July 12, 1864: Denmark sues for peace with Prussia and Austria.
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July 12, 1864: Le fif re enchanté, ou Le soldat magicién, an opéra-comique by Jacques Offenbach (45) to words of Nuitter and Tréfeu, is performed for the first time, at Bad Ems.
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July 14, 1864: Russia annexes its protectorate of Abkhazia.
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July 14, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate troops withdraw across the Potomac.
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July 15, 1864: Alfred Nobel receives a Swedish patent for nitroglycerin.
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July 16, 1864: Prince Alexandru Ioan signs a decree creating the University of Bucharest.
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July 19, 1864: After a long siege, Imperial Chinese troops take Nanking in heavy fighting. This essentially ends the Taiping Rebellion.
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July 19, 1864: Jeanne qui pleure et Jean qui rit, an operetta by Jacques Offenbach (45) to words of Nuitter and Tréfeu, is performed for the first time, at Bad Ems.
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July 20, 1864: US Civil War: Confederates assault Union troops at Peachtree Creek, Georgia. They are repulsed with 6,575 total casualties.
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July 21, 1864: A dentist named Dr. Mahlon Loomis, living in Washington, makes a sketch of something he has been working on for years. It is a method of connecting two points telegraphically without the use of wires. It is the earliest known description of radio communication. In October 1866 he successfully performs an experiment to produce this result.
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July 22, 1864: Armin Count Zichy de Zich et Vásonkeö replaces Antal Count Forgách de Ghymes et Gács as Chancellor of Hungary.
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July 30, 1864: A Prelude for organ op.19 no.2 by John Knowles Paine (25) is performed for the first time, by the composer at the Boston Music Hall.
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July 30, 1864: US Civil War: After the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania fails to produce a ransom of $500,000, Confederate terrorists burn it to the ground.

Federals who have tunneled under the Confederate lines east of Petersburg, Virginia (35 km south of Richmond), plant powder and blow a hole 50 meters long, 20 meters wide and ten meters deep, killing 278 southerners in the process. The hopelessly bungled attempt by the northerners to exploit the breach is called the “Battle of the Crater.” The day leaves 5,200 total casualties.

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August 4, 1864: Brazil presents an ultimatum to Uruguay, threatening war if their demands are not met.
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August 5, 1864: In Florence, Giovanni Battista Donati becomes the first person to observe the spectrum of a comet. His observations shows that the comet tail contains luminous gas.
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August 5, 1864: US Civil War: Federal naval forces capture or destroy all Confederate shipping at Mobile Bay, Alabama, closing the port to the rebels.
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August 7, 1864: Konstantinos Michail Kanaris replaces Zinovios Valvis as Prime Minister of Greece.
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August 7, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops capture Fort Gaines in Mobile Bay, Alabama.
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August 12, 1864: Emperor Napoléon III names Hector Berlioz (60) an Officer in the Legion of Honor.
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August 13, 1864: Emperor Napoléon III creates Gioachino Rossini (72) a Grand Officer in the Legion of Honor.
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August 20, 1864: King Vittorio Emanuele II names Gioachino Rossini (72) Commander of the Order of Sts. Maurice and Lazarus.
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August 22, 1864: 26 delegates representing 16 countries agree to The Geneva Convention for the Protection of Wounded. Twelve countries sign the convention.
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August 23, 1864: US Civil War: Federal forces take Fort Morgan, the last Confederate fort on Mobile Bay, Alabama.
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August 25, 1864: Franz Liszt (52) and his daughter Cosima von Bülow arrive at Richard Wagner’s (51) villa on Lake Starnberg. Wagner has gone to Hohenschwangau to be with King Ludwig on his birthday but returns in the evening.
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August 29, 1864: At his own observatory in South London, William Huggins becomes the first person to observe the spectrum of a planetary nebula.
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August 30, 1864: President Francisco Solano López criticizes Brazil for sending warships into the Rio de la Plata to threaten Uruguay. After a brief naval encounter between Uruguayan and Brazilian ships, Uruguay severs diplomatic relations.
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September 1, 1864: Delegates from the various provinces of British North America meet in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island to map out proposals for their confederation.
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September 1, 1864: US Civil War: Unable to carry off all of their munitions, Confederates retreating from Atlanta blow them up.
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September 2, 1864: US Civil War: Federal forces capture Atlanta.
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September 5, 1864: British, French, and Dutch navies attack the Japanese in the Shimoneski Straits in reprisal for the closing of ports and expelling of foreigners by Japan.
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September 8, 1864: Kenilworth, a masque by Arthur Sullivan (22) to words of Chorley, is performed for the first time, at Birmingham Town Hall.
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September 15, 1864: In a treaty between France and Italy, France renounces its claim to Rome in return for the move of Italy’s capital from Turin to Florence. Italy promises never to invade the Papal States and pledges to defend the Papal States against rogue attacks.
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September 15, 1864: African explorer John Hanning Speke is killed by his own gun while hunting in Wiltshire, one day before he is to debate Richard Burton on whether he found the source of the Nile.
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September 16, 1864: Ramón María Narváez y Campos, duque de Valencia replaces Alejandro Món Menéndez as Prime Minister of Spain.
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September 18, 1864: Voters in the State of Maryland approve a new constitution which includes the abolition of slavery. It will go into effect on 1 November.
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September 19, 1864: Quadrille sur des airs française op.290 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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September 19, 1864: US Civil War: Union troops defeat southerners at Winchester, Virginia forcing them to retreat. The day leaves 8,000 total casualties.
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September 21, 1864: Karl Friedrich Gottlob, Baron Varnbüler von und zu Hemmingen replaces Joseph, Baron Linden as Prime Minister of Württemberg.
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September 23, 1864: Alfonso Ferrero, marchese di La Marmora replaces Marco Minghetti as Prime Minister of Italy.
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September 27, 1864: Newa-Polka française op.288 by Johann Strauss (38) is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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September 28, 1864: A public meeting in St. Martin’s Hall, London proclaims the International Working Men’s Association. One of those invited is Karl Marx.
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September 28, 1864: Adolphe Vuitry replaces Gustave Rouland as Minister President of the Council of State for France.
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October 2, 1864: Aus den Bergen op.292, a waltz by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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October 4, 1864: Franz Liszt (52), with his daughter Cosima von Bülow, spends nine days in Paris. He is reunited with his mother and Marie d’Agoult.
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October 4, 1864: Max von Neumayr becomes acting President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
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October 5, 1864: A cyclone flattens Calcutta, killing 70,000 people.
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October 5, 1864: Huldigungsmarsch WWV 97 for military band by Richard Wagner (51) in honor of King Ludwig II of Bavaria is performed for the first time, at the Residenz in Munich. See 12 November 1871.
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October 7, 1864: King Ludwig agrees to give Richard Wagner (51) a contract to finish Der Ring des Nibelungen.
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October 8, 1864: ‘s giebt nur a Kaiserstadt, ‘s giebt nur a Wien op.291, a polka by Johann Strauss (38), is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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October 10, 1864: Delegates from Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island meet in Quebec to continue discussions on the union of British North America.
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October 12, 1864: Brazilian forces invade Uruguay in support of the Colorado Party in the Uruguayan Civil War.
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October 12, 1864: Richard Wagner (51) moves into a new house provided by King Ludwig, at 21 Briennerstrasse, Munich.  (The building was destroyed in World War II)
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October 15, 1864: Arthur Sullivan’s (22) incidental music to Shakespeare’s The Tempest is used for the first time in a staging of the play, in the Prince’s Theatre, Manchester. See 6 April 1861.
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October 17, 1864: Ode to Labour, a cantata by Samuel Sebastian Wesley (54), is performed for the first time, to celebrate the opening of the North London Working Men’s Industrial Exhibition in the Agricultural Hall, Islington.
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October 19, 1864: US Civil War: Rebel forces attack and gain the advantage at Cedar Creek, Virginia but a Federal counterattack saves the day. The southerners retreat in disarray and never again threaten the Shenandoah Valley.

Confederate terrorists slip over the border from Canada and rob three banks in St. Alban’s, Vermont of $200,000. Citizens prevent them from burning the town. Eleven attackers escape into Canada.

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October 22, 1864: War between Japan and the allies of Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands ends when Japan agrees to pay an indemnity.
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October 27, 1864: The Quebec Conference concludes with 72 resolutions on the unification of British North America being agreed to. The delegates return to their home provinces to submit the resolutions for approval.
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October 29, 1864: A new more liberal constitution is adopted by the Greek national assembly.
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October 30, 1864: Peace is concluded in Vienna between Denmark and the German allies. Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenberg to Prussia and Austria jointly.
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October 31, 1864: Nevada becomes the 36th state of the United States.
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November 2, 1864: Sind es Schmerzen, sind es Freuden op.33/3, a song by Johannes Brahms (31) to words of Tieck, is performed for the first time, in Karlsruhe.
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November 8, 1864: Voting in the 25 states loyal to the United States ensure the election of Abraham Lincoln for a second term as president over General George B. McClellan. The ruling Republican Party gains 50 seats in the House of Representatives.
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November 10, 1864: Piano Concerto no.4 by Anton Rubinstein (34) is performed for the first time, in the Hall of the Nobility, St. Petersburg, the composer at the keyboard.
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November 12, 1864: Paraguayans seize the Brazilian ship Marquês de Olinda in the Paraguay River, in support of the Blanco Party in the Uruguayan Civil War, thus beginning hostilities between the two countries.
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November 15, 1864: US Civil War: Federal forces in Atlanta under William Tecumseh Sherman begin their march to the sea by burning the city to the ground.
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November 16, 1864: A joint Prussian-Austrian administration takes over in Lauenburg. Prussian and Austrian troops evacuate Jutland.
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November 17, 1864: Two works for organ by César Franck (41) are performed for the first time, in the Church of Sainte-Clotilde, Paris by the composer: Fantaisie op.16 and Grande Pièce Symphonique op.17.
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November 20, 1864: Mass no.1 in d minor for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, and organ by Anton Bruckner (40) is performed for the first time, in Linz Cathedral, directed by the composer.
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November 20, 1864: Hans von Bülow, his wife and children arrive in Munich and take up residence not far from Richard Wagner (51). Von Bülow has been appointed “Vorspieler des Königs” at Wagner’s suggestion, but it is a ruse to bring Cosima as close to him as possible.
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November 22, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops occupy Milledgeville, the temporary state capital of Georgia. Just before they arrive, the state legislature issues a call for troops and then runs away.
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November 24, 1864: Herbstlied for two sopranos, male chorus, and piano by Anton Bruckner (40) to words of von Sallet is performed for the first time, in Linz, the composer conducting.
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November 25, 1864: Voyage au centre de la Terre by Jules Verne is published in Paris.
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November 25, 1864: US Civil War: Confederate terrorists set fire to ten New York City hotels, two theatres, and Barnum’s Museum. No serious damage results.
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November 26, 1864: As an early Christmas present, mathematician Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) sends his manuscript of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland to 12-year-old Alice Liddell.
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November 28, 1864: King Giorgios I of Greece takes an oath to uphold the new constitution.
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November 29, 1864: Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians awaiting surrender terms at Sand Creek, Colorado are attacked by 900 Colorado Militiamen under John Chivington. Somewhere between 500 and 600 men, women, and children are killed along with nine soldiers. Many of the victims are tortured and mutilated.
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November 30, 1864: US Civil War: A Confederate assault south of Franklin, Tennessee is repulsed. But during the night, the Federals retreat towards Nashville. The day sees 8,578 total casualties.
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December 1, 1864: Fire destroys the central business district of Brisbane, Queensland.
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December 2, 1864: Tsar Alyeksandr II signs an imperial edict instituting a radical reform of the Russian legal system. It creates a judiciary independent of the executive power and equality before the law.
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December 4, 1864: Karl Ludwig Heinrich, Baron von der Pfordten replaces Max von Neumayr as President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
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December 7, 1864: A joint Austrian-Prussian administration takes over in Schleswig and Holstein.
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December 8, 1864: Syllabus Errorum is issued by Pope Pius IX condemning liberalism, socialism, and rationalism.
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December 8, 1864: John Clerk Maxwell reads his paper "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" to the Royal Society in London. It contains the eight Maxwell’s Equations. He shows that electricity and magnetism are unified in a single force called electromagnetism. He is the first to postulate that light is an electromagnetic wave.
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December 10, 1864: US Civil War: After cutting a swath of destruction from Atlanta to the Atlantic, Union armies reach Savannah, Georgia and surround it.
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December 11, 1864: Pursuant to the treaty of 15 September, the Italian Parliament creates Florence as the capital of Italy replacing Turin. The actual move will take place next May.
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December 11, 1864: Um Mitternacht for alto, male chorus, and piano by Anton Bruckner (40) to words of Prutz, is performed for the first time, in Linz, the composer conducting.
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December 13, 1864: Paraguay declares war on Brazil to support the National Party in Uruguay.
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December 13, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops capture Fort McAllister, downriver from Savannah.
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December 15, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops drive back Confederates around Nashville.
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December 16, 1864: Le serpent à plumes, a farce by Léo Delibes (28) to words of Gille and Cham, is performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris.
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December 16, 1864: US Civil War: Union forces break the Confederate lines at Nashville. The southerners begin headlong flight towards Franklin. The fighting sees 9,000 total casualties.
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December 17, 1864: La belle Hélène, an opéra-bouffe by Jacques Offenbach (45) to words of Meilhac and Halevy, is performed for the first time, at the Variétés, Paris. The public is lukewarm. Critics don’t like the irreverence. It will eventually succeed.
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December 21, 1864: US Civil War: Federal troops enter Savannah without opposition.
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December 24, 1864: An army from Paraguay invades Mato Grosso, Brazil in compliance with their alliance with Uruguay.
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December 24, 1864: Incidental music to Hippolyte and Théodore Cogniard’s féerie La Fille de l’air by Jacques Offenbach (45) is performed for the first time, at the Folies-Dramatiques, Paris.
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December 25, 1864: Around this time, Edvard Grieg (21) is secretly engaged to his cousin, Nina Hagerup. When she learns of it, Nina’s mother remarks, “He is nothing and he has nothing and he writes music that nobody wants to listen to.”
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December 25, 1864: Hans von Bülow conducts his first concert as music director at the Odeon Theater in Munich. King Ludwig attends.
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December 26, 1864: Kazachok, a fantasia for orchestra by Alyeksandr Dargomizhsky (51), is performed for the first time, in Brussels.
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December 30, 1864: Peter Cornelius (40) arrives in Munich, summoned by Richard Wagner (51) to be with him.