A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1860 – December 31, 1860

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January 1, 1860: Slavery is officially banned in the Netherlands East Indies.
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January 1, 1860: Paris is organized into 20 arrondissements.
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January 1, 1860: Five months after the death of Carl Gotthelf Siegmund Böhme, the Leipzig music publishing house of CF Peters is sold to the Berlin music and book seller Julius Friedländer.
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January 10, 1860: The Pemberton Mill collapses in Lawrence, Massachusetts. At least 120 people are killed with an equal number of injured. Bonfires set to aid in the rescue effort through the night cause the ruins to catch fire, killing many who survived the collapse.
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January 11, 1860: Kammerball-Polka op.230 by Johann Strauss (34) is performed for the first time, in the Hofburg, Vienna.
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January 13, 1860: Breitkopf and Härtel complete the publishing of Richard Wagner’s (46) Tristan und Isolde.
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January 14, 1860: The following Imperial decree is published in the Bulletin des Lois: “M. Offenbach, Jacques, composer of music, director of the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, born on 20 June 1819, in Cologne (Prussia), living in Paris, is admitted to enjoyment of the rights of a French citizen in conformity with Article 2 of the Law of 3 December 1849.”
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January 15, 1860: Through the efforts of Hector Berlioz (56) the Journal des débats publishes an announcement of Richard Wagner’s (46) upcoming Paris concert.
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January 16, 1860: Count Cavour is recalled to office as acting Prime Minister of Sardinia.
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January 17, 1860: Jules Massenet (17) enters the harmony class of Napoléon-Henri Reber at the Paris Conservatoire.
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January 21, 1860: A package arrives at the Paris home of Hector Berlioz (56) with a note. “Dear Berlioz, I am delighted to be able to offer you the first copy of my Tristan. Accept it and keep it out of friendship for me. Richard Wagner (46).” The score is inscribed, “To the dear and great author of Romeo and Juliet, from the grateful author of Tristan und Isolde.”
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January 23, 1860: Modest Musorgsky’s (20) Scherzo in B flat for orchestra is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg conducted by Anton Rubinstein (30). It is the first performance of a Musorgsky orchestral work.
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January 24, 1860: Lebenswecker op.232, a waltz by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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January 25, 1860: Richard Wagner (46) conducts the first of three concerts of his music in Paris. Attending today at the Théâtre-Italien are Daniel Auber (77), Hector Berlioz (56), Valentin Alkan (46), Charles Gounod (41) and Pauline Viardot (38). The audience is enthusiastic but the press is merciless. Heard tonight for the first time is the Prelude to Tristan und Isolde with the concert ending composed by Wagner. Alkan leaves at intermission, later saying “Wagner is not music; it’s a sickness.”  Viardot writes, "Wagner has just given a concert which exasperated three quarters of the audience and delighted the rest.  Personally, I found a lot of it painful, even though I admired the vehemence of his musical feelings in certain instances.  But the diminished sevenths, the discords and the crude modulations made me feverish, and I have to say that I find this sort of music loathsome and revolting." (Kendall-Davies I, 413-414)  See 12 March 1859.
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January 31, 1860: Sentenzen op.233, a waltz by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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February 4, 1860: Le roman d’Elvire, an opéra comique by Ambroise Thomas (48) to words of Dumas (père) and de Leuven, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris.
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February 4, 1860: Monsieur de Bonne-Etoile, an opéra comique by Léo Delibes (23) to words of Gille, is performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris.
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February 6, 1860: After weeks of fighting, Spanish forces capture the Moroccan city of Tetuan.
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February 7, 1860: Hrabina, an opera by Stanislaw Moniuszko (40) to words of Wolski after Dierzowski, is performed for the first time, in Warsaw.
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February 8, 1860: Prime Minister Carl Edvard Rotwitt of Denmark dies suddenly in Copenhagen.
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February 9, 1860: Hector Berlioz (56) publishes a criticism of Richard Wagner’s (46) music in the Journal des débats beginning a second Querelle des Bouffons. “If this is the religion, and a new one at that, then I am far from confessing it. I never have, am not about to, and never will. I raise my hand and swear: non credo!
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February 10, 1860: Johannes Brahms’ (26) Serenade no.2 for orchestra is performed for the first time, in the Wörmerscher Saal, Hamburg. The composer conducts from manuscript. The composer’s father is among the double bass players.
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February 10, 1860: Le carnaval des revues by Jacques Offenbach (40) to words of Grangé, Gille, and Halévy is performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris.
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February 14, 1860: Accelerationen op.234, a waltz by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Sophiensaal, Vienna.
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February 15, 1860: The Journal des débats publishes Richard Wagner’s (46) soft-spoken reply to Berlioz’ (56) article of 9 February, all 1,400 words of it.
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February 17, 1860: Escenas campestres, a one-act opera by Louis Moreau Gottschalk (30) to anonymous words, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro de Tacón, Havana. Also premiered are two orchestral works by Gottschalk: Marcha Triunfal y Final de Opera and La nuit des tropiques. See 10 July 1859.
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February 18, 1860: Philémon et Baucis, an opéra by Charles Gounod (41) to words of Barbier and Carré after de la Fontaine, is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre-Lyrique, Paris.
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February 20, 1860: Immer heiterer op.235, a waltz im Ländlerstyle by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Sperl Ballroom, Vienna.
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February 22, 1860: Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (19) is promoted to senior assistant to the head of his administrative department in the Russian Ministry of Justice.
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February 23, 1860: Floris Adriaan, Baron van Hall and Schelte, Baron Heemstra replace Jan Jacob Rochussen and Peter Philip van Bosse as chief ministers of the Netherlands.
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February 23, 1860: Spanish forces defeat Moroccans at Wadi Ras.
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February 24, 1860: Carl Christian Hall replaces Carl Edvard Rotwitt as Prime Minister of Denmark.
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February 25, 1860: Ouverture et Morceaux d'un opéra-comique inédit by Camille Saint-Saëns (24) to words of Calonne, is performed for the first time, in Bordeaux.
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February 26, 1860: Taubenpost op.237, a polka française by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Volksgarten, Vienna.
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February 27, 1860: Jews gain full legal equality in Umbria.
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March 1, 1860: This month, the Ph.D. dissertation of Albert Niemann is published at Göttingen. It describes his isolation of cocaine from coca leaves.
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March 3, 1860: Serenade no.1, in the setting for full orchestra by Johannes Brahms (26), is performed for the first time, in the Concert Hall of the Royal Theatre, Hannover. Reviews are mixed. See 28 March 1859.
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March 5, 1860: Emperor Franz Joseph issues the March Patent, centralizing authority in Vienna and ignoring Hungarian demands for more autonomy.
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March 7, 1860: The Catholic consistories of Russia and the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg grant an annulment to Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein from her husband Nicholas. This should allow her to marry Franz Liszt (48) but the decree is suspended by the Bishop of Fulda. Weimar lies in his jurisdiction.
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March 11, 1860: Emperor Napoléon III orders the production of Tannhäuser at the Paris Opéra. With such backing, the Saxon ambassador in Paris, Baron von Seebach, will gain an amnesty for the composer, Richard Wagner (46), an exile for eleven years.
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March 12, 1860: Over the last two days, plebiscites in Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and Romagna favor union with Sardinia.
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March 13, 1860: Hugo Filipp Jakob Wolf is born in a house on the main square (at present Glavni trg 40) in Windischgraz, Duchy of Styria, Austrian Empire (Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia), 70 km southwest of Graz, fourth of eight children born to Philipp Wolf, leather merchant and amateur musician, and Katharina Nussbaumer, daughter of a forge owner.
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March 17, 1860: The Japanese steam warship Kanrin Maru arrives in San Francisco in advance of the first Japanese ambassador to the United States.
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March 18, 1860: The Duchies of Parma, Piacenza, Modena, Reggio, and Ferrara along with Tuscany and Romagna are absorbed into the Kingdom of Sardinia.
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March 21, 1860: Joseph Joachim writes to Robert Franz (44) asking him to join in a protest against the “New German School”, particularly Richard Wagner (46) and Franz Liszt (48). Franz will decline.
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March 21, 1860: Ballades op.10/2-3 for piano by Johannes Brahms (26) are performed for the first time, in Vienna by Clara Schumann (40).
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March 23, 1860: Camillo, Count Benso di Cavour once again becomes full Prime Minister of Sardinia.
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March 23, 1860: The clipper ship Andrew Jackson arrives at San Francisco, 89 days and four hours out of New York, thus setting a new record for the passage.
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March 24, 1860: In return for support against Austria, Sardinia cedes Nice and Savoy to France in the Treaty of Turin.
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March 25, 1860: The board of directors of the Russian Musical Society resolves to found a conservatory.
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March 25, 1860: Symphony no.2 by Camille Saint-Saëns (24) is performed for the first time, at Salle Pleyel in Paris.
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March 27, 1860: Daphnis et Chloé, an operetta by Jacques Offenbach (40) to words of Nicolaie (pseud. of Clairville) and Cordier (pseud. of de Vaulabelle), is performed for the first time, at the Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris.
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March 29, 1860: The USS Powhatan arrives in San Francisco carrying the first Japanese Embassy to the United States.
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April 1, 1860: General Ortega makes a Carlist pronunciamento at San Carlos de la Rápita, 160 km southwest of Barcelona, precipitating a conservative revolt in Spain. It will fail.
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April 2, 1860: The first Italian parliament meets in Turin.
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April 2, 1860: Anton von Stabel replaces Franz, Baron Stengel as Prime Minister of Baden.
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April 3, 1860: Anton Bruckner (35) passes a course in advanced counterpoint with his Vienna instructor Simon Sechter, largely through correspondence.
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April 3, 1860: Pretoria is made the capital of the Transvaal.
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April 3, 1860: Riders inaugurate the Pony Express starting simultaneously from Sacramento, California and St. Joseph, Missouri.
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April 4, 1860: A small uprising in Sicily is immediately put down by royal troops.
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April 8, 1860: British in Hong Kong lease five square kilometers of the Kowloon Peninsula in perpetuity for £160 per year.
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April 9, 1860: Concerto for violin and orchestra no.2 op.58 by Camille Saint-Saëns (24) is performed for the first time, in Salle Erard, Paris.
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April 18, 1860: Orpheus-Quadrille op.236 by Johann Strauss (34) is performed for the first time, in “Zum großen Zeisig,” Vienna.
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April 22, 1860: Over the last week, plebiscites in Nice and Savoy favor union with France.
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April 23, 1860: On his cross-continent trek, explorer John McDouall Stuart becomes the first European to stand at the center of Australia.
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April 24, 1860: Bedrich Smetana’s (36) symphonic poem Richard III is performed for the first time, in Göteborg in an arrangement for four pianos. See 5 January 1862.
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April 26, 1860: Peace is concluded between Spain and Morocco.
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April 27, 1860: Emperor Napoléon III attends a performance of Orphée aux enfers and presents the composer, Jacques Offenbach (40) with gifts.
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May 1, 1860: Joaquim António de Aguiar replaces António José de Sousa Manuel e Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marquês e conde de Vila-Flor as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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May 4, 1860: A statement appears in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik mocking the letter from Brahms (26) and Joachim which will appear two days from today. It is written by Carl Friedrich Weitzmann.
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May 4, 1860: A bronze statue of Felix Mendelssohn (†12) by Charles Bacon, measuring eight feet (2.4 m) high, is unveiled at the Crystal Palace, London.
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May 6, 1860: About a thousand poorly armed men under Garibaldi board two steamers in Genoa and sail for Sicily.
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May 6, 1860: Die Pariserin op.238, a polka française by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in Ungers Casino.
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May 6, 1860: A declaration appears in the Berliner Musik-Zeitung Echo signed by Johannes Brahms (26), Joseph Joachim, Julius Otto Grimm and Bernhard Scholz attacking Wagner’s (46) ideals and the Music of the Future. It says in part, “The undersigned...declare that…they can only deplore and condemn as contrary to the most fundamental essence of music the productions of the leaders and disciples of the so-called New German School, some of whom put these principles into practice, while others keep trying to impose the establishment of more and more novel and preposterous theories.” (Frisch and Karnes, 111) Unfortunately for the signers, this declaration has already been leaked and parodied in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.
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May 7, 1860: Rita, ou Le mari battu, an opéra comique by Gaetano Donizetti (†12) to words of Vaëz, is performed for the first time, at the Théatre Favart, Paris.
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May 10, 1860: The discovery of cesium by Germans Robert Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff is announced to the Berlin Academy of Scientists.
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May 11, 1860: Garibaldi’s makeshift army lands at Marsala at the westernmost point on Sicily.
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May 12, 1860: United States troops clash with Paiutes at Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 42 soldiers are killed, 30 are missing.
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May 15, 1860: Garibaldi’s army defeats Neapolitan royalist forces at Calatafimi, which allows them to advance on Palermo, 50 km to the northeast.
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May 17, 1860: Princess Caroline Sayn-Wittgenstein and Ladislaw Okraszewski, one of her tenants from Ukraine who negotiated her annulment, depart Weimar for Rome in order to press her case that the suspension of the annulment be lifted.
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May 17, 1860: 77 Japanese diplomatic and trade officials arrive in San Francisco. After meetings and celebrations with California leaders, they board ship for Washington.
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May 22, 1860: Today begins weeks of killings by Druzes and Christians in Syria.
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May 24, 1860: Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein arrives in Rome from Weimar to have the suspension of the annulment of her marriage by the Bishop of Fulda overturned.
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May 24, 1860: The city of Soochow (Suzhou) falls to the Taiping.
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May 25, 1860: Arthur Sullivan’s (18) Rosenfest Overture is performed for the first time, in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, conducted by the composer. This is part of the year-end examination at Leipzig Conservatory.
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May 27, 1860: Garibaldi’s army enters Palermo.
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May 27, 1860: Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha replaces Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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May 29, 1860: Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual is born in Camprodón, Kingdom of Spain, 100 km north of Barcelona and 10 km south of the French border, fourth of four children born to Angel Lucio Albéniz y Gauna, a customs official and published poet, and Dolors Pascual i Bardera, daughter of a soldier.
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June 2, 1860: In a punitive expedition against Paiutes by Texas Rangers and federal troops, 57 people are killed in a clash at Pinnacle Mount, Nevada.
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June 6, 1860: Argentina and Buenos Aires are formally reunited.
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June 9, 1860: Concerto for cello and orchestra op.129 by Robert Schumann (†3) is performed for the first time, in Leipzig one day after what would have been the composer’s 50th birthday.
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June 12, 1860: The State Bank of the Russian Empire is founded by decree of Tsar Alyeksandr II.
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June 18, 1860: A setting of the 23rd Psalm by Franz Liszt (48) is performed for the first time.
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June 25, 1860: Gustave Charpentier is born in Dieuze, Moselle, in the French Empire, 80 km west of Strasbourg, the son of a baker.
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June 25, 1860: King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies offers autonomy to Sicily and amnesty to all political prisoners.  He restores the constitution of 1848.
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June 26, 1860: The first railway in southern Africa opens between Durban and The Point, a distance of five km.
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June 27, 1860: British forces attack Maori at Puketakauere and are soundly defeated.
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June 30, 1860: A famous debate takes place at Oxford between Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, and biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, on the merits of Origin of Species.
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July 1, 1860: Charles Goodyear dies in New York at the age of 59.
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July 2, 1860: Russian troops found Vladivostok as a military outpost.
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July 4, 1860: Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Bareto, duque de Loulé, conde de Vale de Reis replaces Joaquim António de Aguiar as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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July 7, 1860: Gustav Mahler is born at house no.9 in Kalischt, near Iglau, (Kaliste, near Jihlava, Czech Republic), 110 km southeast of Prague in the Royal Province of Bohemia, district of Humpoletz (Humpolec), Austrian Empire, second of 14 children born to Bernhard Mahler, distiller and owner of several taverns, and Marie Hermann, daughter of a soap maker. (The house burned down in 1937. It has been restored.)
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July 9, 1860: The Nightingale School of Nursing opens at St. Thomas Hospital in London by Florence Nightingale.
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July 9, 1860: Today begins three days of pogroms carried out by Moslems against Christians in Damascus.
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July 10, 1860: Bedrich Smetana (36) marries his second wife, Bettina Ferdinandova, the sister of his brother’s wife, in Obríství, just north of Prague.
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July 15, 1860: Baron von Seebach, Saxon ambassador to France, receives word that Richard Wagner (47) is given free access to Germany, except Saxony.
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July 17, 1860: Monaco is made a protectorate of France.
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July 20, 1860: Garibaldist forces defeat the Neapolitans at Milazzo, 25 km west of Messina.
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August 1, 1860: Second Opium War: A combined British-French expeditionary force lands at Pei Tang (Beitang), China and takes the fort there, abandoned by the Chinese. They soon engage in rape and looting.
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August 2, 1860: A French expeditionary force, accompanied by British and Russian warships, disembarks in Beirut in response to the massacre of 40,000 Christians in the area by Muslims.
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August 3, 1860: A trading agreement is signed between Portugal and Japan.
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August 3, 1860: La colombe, an opéra comique by Charles Gounod (42) to words of Barbier and Carré after La Fontaine, is performed for the first time, in the Stadttheater, Baden-Baden.
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August 8, 1860: 200 members of Garibaldi’s forces cross from Faro on Sicily to Altifiumara on the Italian mainland, on the night of 8-9 August.
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August 9, 1860: Stephen Foster (34) sells all rights to songs published under his previous contract to his publisher, Firth, Pond & Co for $1,600. After paying off his advances, he has $203.36 left.
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August 12, 1860: Richard Wagner (47) crosses into Germany for the first time in eleven years, on his way from Paris to Baden-Baden.
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August 12, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French troops defeat Chinese north of Tangku (Tanggu) behind the town.
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August 13, 1860: José Ignacio Pavón replaces Félix María Zuloaga Trillo as acting President of Mexico.
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August 13, 1860: Danilo II Petrovic Njegos, Prince of Montenegro, is murdered in Kotor by a member of a rival clan. He is succeeded by his nephew Nicholas I Petrovic Njegos.
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August 14, 1860: Louis Pasteur and Emile Duclaux perform an experiment which disproves the theory of spontaneous generation.
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August 14, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French forces take the town of Tangku (Tanggu), near the mouth of the Peh-Ho (Hai) River.
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August 15, 1860: Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo replaces José Ignacio Pavón as President of Mexico.
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August 16, 1860: French forces land in Beirut following massacres of thousands of Christians by Moslems and Druzes.
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August 18, 1860: Garibaldi and 3,400 of his troops cross from Giardini in Sicily to Melito on the Italian mainland, through the night of 18-19 August.
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August 20, 1860: 1,500 of Garibaldi’s men cross in rowboats from Faro in Sicily to Favazzina on the Italian mainland, through the night of 20-21 August.
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August 20, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French land and naval forces push back the Taiping rebels at Shanghai.
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August 21, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French forces capture the Taku forts on the mouth of the Pei ho (Hai) River, China.
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August 25, 1860: Second Opium War: French and British forces capture Tientsin (Tianjin).
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September 3, 1860: Alyeksandr Borodin (26) arrives in Karlsruhe for a four-day stay attending an international meeting of chemists.
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September 5, 1860: The governments of Austria, France, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, Prussia, and Russia agree to allow French intervention in Syria following the massacre of thousands of Christians by Moslems and Druzes. However, the expedition is limited to 12,000 men for a stay of six months.
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September 6, 1860: 5,000 Bavarians, constituting the Royal Neapolitan Army, flee from Naples before an Italian army led by Garibaldi about one-tenth their size.
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September 6, 1860: Grand Duke Georg of Mecklenburg-Strelitz dies in Neustrelitz and is succeeded by his son Friedrich Wilhelm.
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September 7, 1860: Only a few hours after King Francesco II flees to Gaeta, Garibaldi’s troops enter Naples and secure the city.
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September 7, 1860: Anton Bruckner (36) becomes chorus master of the singing society “Frohsinn” in Linz.
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September 8, 1860: Popular uprisings begin in the Papal States.
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September 8, 1860: Il quattro giugno, a cantata by Arrigo Boito (18) and Franco Faccio to words of Boito, is performed for the first time, at Milan Conservatory. It celebrates the Battle of Magenta, at which a friend and classmate of the composer was killed.
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September 8, 1860: A few hours out of Chicago, the steamer Lady Elgin is struck by the schooner Augusta and goes down in Lake Michigan. Only about 100 of the approximately 400 on board make it to shore.
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September 9, 1860: Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein sees Pope Pius IX about her annulment. He agrees to investigate the case.
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September 11, 1860: Forces of King Vittorio Emanuele enter the Papal States in support of insurrections.
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September 12, 1860: After attempting to take over a second Central American country, North American adventurer William Walker is shot by a firing squad in Honduras.
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September 14, 1860: Separated from his mistress, Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein, distressed by the death of his son, troubled by the letter from Brahms (27), Joachim, Grimm, and Scholz printed in the Berlin Echo protesting the new German School, Franz Liszt (48) pens his first will.
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September 17, 1860: Second Opium War: Groups of British and French negotiators are taken captive by the Chinese at Tungchow (Tongzhou). Some are taken to Peking for torture and public humiliation.
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September 18, 1860: Sardinian forces defeat papal troops at Castelfidaro, essentially ending the army of the Pope.
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September 18, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French forces capture Chang-chia-wan (Zhiangjiawan) and plunder the city.
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September 21, 1860: Arthur Schopenhauer dies in Frankfurt-am-Main at the age of 72.
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September 21, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French troops defeat the Chinese at Palikao (Baliqiao).
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September 22, 1860: The Holy Congregation of Cardinals is convened in Rome to discuss the marriage annulment of Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein. They rule in her favor.
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September 24, 1860: In the Ecuadorian civil war, forces of the Quito government defeat the Peru-backed army of Guillermo Franco at Guyaquil.
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September 26, 1860: Second Opium War: A combined British-French expeditionary force arrives at Peking.
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September 26, 1860: Prince Milos Obrenovic I dies in Belgrade and is succeeded by his son Mihailo Obrenovic III.
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September 29, 1860: Ancona, in the Papal States, surrenders to Sardinian troops.
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September 30, 1860: The first tram service in Great Britain begins operation at Birkenhead near Liverpool.
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October 1, 1860: Victoria Station opens in London.
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October 1, 1860: Bedrich Smetana (36) reopens his music institute in Göteborg.
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October 1, 1860: Garibaldi’s forces defeat the royal army of Naples at the Volturno.
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October 2, 1860: Maskenzug-Polka op.240 by Johann Strauss (34) is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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October 4, 1860: The French Ivory Coast-Gabon Colony is created.
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October 4, 1860: Schwärmereien op.253, a concert waltz by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in the Dianabadsaal, Vienna.
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October 6, 1860: Second Opium War: British and French troops complete the conquest of Peking. They ransack and plunder the Summer Palace.
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October 8, 1860: Allied prisoners taken by the Chinese on 17 September are freed.
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October 12, 1860: A first child is born to Hans von Bülow and Cosima Liszt von Bülow, a daughter, Daniela, in Berlin. The child is named after her mother’s recently deceased brother.
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October 13, 1860: What are believed to be the first extant aerial photographs are taken by James Wallace Black from a balloon operated by Samuel Archer King 350 meters over Boston Common.
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October 14, 1860: After burning down in January 1859, the permanent home of the Russian Opera reopens in St. Petersburg and is named the Mariinsky Theatre.
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October 14, 1860: Fantasieblümchen op.241, a polka mazur by Johann Strauss (34), is performed for the first time, in Pavlovsk.
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October 16, 1860: Second Opium War: Count Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev, a Russian diplomat, persuades the government of Peking to surrender to a combined British and French force besieging it.
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October 18, 1860: Second Opium War: The British set the Summer Palace near Peking, and its 200 buildings, on fire.
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October 20, 1860: The October Diploma is signed (published 24 October). It claims as the basic law of the Austrian Empire, the unrestricted authority of the monarch. Miklos Baron Vay de Vaja et Luskod is named Chancellor of Hungary.
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October 20, 1860: String Sextet no.1 by Johannes Brahms (27) is performed for the first time, in the Saal des Museums, Hannover.
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October 21, 1860: A plebiscite in Naples favors union with Sardinia.
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October 22, 1860: On his 49th birthday, the city of Weimar makes Franz Liszt an honorary citizen and gives him a torchlight parade.
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October 22, 1860: Bernhard Mahler moves his family, consisting of his wife Marie and infant son Gustav (0), from Kalischt (Kaliste), Bohemia to Iglau (Jihlava), Moravia.
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October 23, 1860: Louis Moreau Gottschalk (31) conducts an opera for the first time, Les Martyrs of Gaetano Donizetti (†12), in the Teatro Principal, Havana. Reviewers call the performance “abysmal” although not blaming Gottschalk.
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October 24, 1860: A plebiscite in Sicily favors union with Sardinia.
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October 24, 1860: With British and French forces occupying the city, the Chinese government signs the Convention of Peking ending the Second Opium War. China agrees to all concessions in the Treaty of Tientsin (Tianjin) of 1858, legalizes the opium trade, gives part of Kowloon to Great Britain, opens Tientsin to trade, grants full rights to Christians, allow emigration and agrees to pay quadruple the indemnity called for in the Treaty of Tientsin.
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October 25, 1860: Benevento is annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia.
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October 26, 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi meets King Vittorio Emanuele of Sardinia at Teano, north of Naples, and proclaims him to be King of Italy.
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October 26, 1860: Franz Liszt (49) is granted the freedom of the city of Weimar.
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November 4, 1860: A plebiscite in Umbria favors union with Sardinia.
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November 5, 1860: A plebiscite in the Legations (Romagna) favors union with Sardinia.
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November 6, 1860: Voting in the United States ensures the election of former Representative Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party, as president, over Senator Stephen A. Douglas, Vice President John C. Breckinridge, and former Senator John Bell.
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November 7, 1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi officially hands Southern Italy and Sicily over to King Vittorio Emanuele of Sardinia in a ceremony in Naples.
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November 8, 1860: Franz Liszt’s (49) orchestral work, Künstlerfestzug zur Schillerfeier 1859, is performed for the first time, in Weimar.
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November 9, 1860: Garibaldi and two close friends leave Naples for his home in Caprera and intended obscurity. In spite of his many successes, he is bitter over his failure to add Rome to the Kingdom of Italy.
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November 14, 1860: Russia annexes the Maritime (Primorsky) province from China.
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November 21, 1860: Prince Georg I Wilhelm of Schaumburg-Lippe dies in Bückeburg and is succeeded by his son Adolf I Georg.
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November 24, 1860: French Emperor Napoléon III allows the press to report debates in the Parliament, and grants the Parliament the right to answer the speech from the throne.
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November 26, 1860: Le papillon, a ballet by Jacques Offenbach (41) to a scenario by Taglioni and Saint-Georges, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. Some see it as a desecration of the Opéra but the audience loves it.
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December 1, 1860: All the Year Round publishes the first installment of Great Expectations by Charles Dickens.
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December 7, 1860: The Duchy of Pontecorvo is annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia.
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December 8, 1860: United States Secretary of the Treasury Howell Cobb of Georgia resigns, stating that the election of Abraham Lincoln justifies secession.
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December 12, 1860: US Secretary of State Lewis Cass of Michigan resigns because President Buchanan refuses to reinforce the forts in Charleston harbor.
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December 13, 1860: Károly Baron Mecséry replaces Miklos Baron Vay de Vaja et Luskod as Chancellor of Hungary.
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December 16, 1860: Music from Stanislaw Moniuszko’s (41) incomplete opera Rokiczana is performed for the first time, in a concert setting in Warsaw.
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December 17, 1860: The Kingdom of Sardinia formally annexes the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
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December 18, 1860: Edward Alexander MacDowell is born on the Lower East Side of New York City, USA, the third child of Thomas Fair MacDowell, a milk dealer, and Frances Mary Knapp.
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December 20, 1860: The legislature of South Carolina votes to secede from the United States.
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December 22, 1860: The Holy Congregation of Cardinals meets for a second time to consider the annulment for Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein. For a second time, they rule in her favor.
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December 22, 1860: Mexican factions battle at San Miguel Calpulalpan, 65 km northeast of Mexico City, in the final victory of liberals over conservatives.
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December 24, 1860: Barkouf, an opéra-bouffe by Jacques Offenbach (41) to words of Scribe and Boisseaux, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris.
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December 26, 1860: The first inter-club football match takes place in Sheffield between Sheffield FC and Hallam FC.
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December 28, 1860: Félix María Zuloaga Trillo replaces Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo as President of Mexico.
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December 29, 1860: HMS Warrior is launched in London. It is the first iron-hulled warship in the Royal Navy.
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December 30, 1860: South Carolina troops occupy the federal arsenal and all federal property in Charleston except Fort Sumter.