January 1, 1848: To oppose Austrian domination, citizens of Milan begin a boycott of tobacco (an imperial monopoly) and the Imperial lottery.
January 3, 1848: Field Marshall Count Josef Radetzky, commander of Austrian troops in Italy, seeks to provoke the Milanese boycotters of tobacco by issuing cigars and brandy to his men. The drunken soldiers taunt the tobacco-starved citizenry and the inevitable scuffles begin. In the ensuing battles, 61 civilians are killed.
January 3, 1848: Joseph Jenkins Roberts becomes the first President of the Republic of Liberia.
January 3, 1848: The United States House of Representatives adopts a resolution stating that the war with Mexico was “unnecessarily and unconstitutionally begun by the President of the United States.”
January 5, 1848: The Dresden Verein für Chorgesang, organized by Robert Schumann (37), meets for the first time.
January 8, 1848: José Manuel de la Peña y Peña replaces Pedro María de Anaya y de Alvarez as interim President of Mexico.
January 8, 1848: Duke Francesco V of Modena replaces Duke Carlo II of Parma as Duke of Guastalla.
January 12, 1848: All classes of the population of Palermo rise in rebellion, demanding a restoration of the Napoleonic constitution of 1812. They succeed in taking over the town and institute a provisional government led by Giuseppe La Masa.
January 12, 1848: Count Vasily Vasilyevich Levashyov becomes Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Russia.
January 20, 1848: King Christian VIII of Denmark dies at Amalienborg and is succeeded by his son Frederik VII.
January 20, 1848: A fifth child, Ludwig, is born to Clara (28) and Robert (37) Schumann.
January 21, 1848: Marie Eugène Henri Duparc is born in Paris, Kingdom of France, the son of Louis-Charles Duparc, director of the Western Railway, and Frédérique Amélie de Gaité, daughter of a noble family from Lorraine.
January 24, 1848: While building a sawmill along the American River near Coloma, California, James W. Marshall and Captain John A. Sutter discover gold.
January 26, 1848: Henry David Thoreau delivers the first draft of Civil Disobedience to his publisher in Concord, Massachusetts.
January 27, 1848: In the face of popular demonstrations in Naples, King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies promises a constitution. Royal troops sent to put down the uprising in Palermo are withdrawn.
January 28, 1848: Bedrich Smetana (23) applies to the authorities to establish a private music institute in Prague.
January 29, 1848: Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein departs her estate in Woronice a few days after Franz Liszt (36) leaves for Weimar. She is traveling to Kiev to sell off some of her property, bid good-bye to her mother, and begin the process to annul her marriage with Nicholas Sayn-Wittgenstein.
February 2, 1848: The first responsible government in British North America is formed in Nova Scotia when an executive council is formed exclusively from the majority party.
February 2, 1848: The American ship Eagle docks at San Francisco bringing the first three Chinese immigrants to North America.
February 2, 1848: US-Mexico War: The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is signed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, ending the North American war. Mexico receives $15,000,000 and cancellation of all claims against it. The United States receives land encompassing the present states of California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Arizona, as well as confirmation of sovereignty over Texas. The border is set at the Rio Grande.
February 3, 1848: Sir Henry Smith, governor of the Cape Colony, annexes the territory between the Orange and Vaal Rivers.
February 8, 1848: After reading a letter from Marie d’Agoult to Franz Liszt (36), wherein Marie tells him that Carolyne will not want to be one of his mistresses, Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein writes that “I would be happy for her to know that, on the contrary, one really wants to be one of the mistresses...for there are devotions without limits.”
February 9, 1848: Lola Montez, mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, is forced to take refuge in a Munich church from an angry mob of university students who dislike her leftist influence on the king.
February 10, 1848: The constitution promised by King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies on 29 January is promulgated. It has very limited franchise, and no freedom of religion.
February 12, 1848: To appease the general displeasure at her presence, Lola Montez flees Bavaria.
February 13, 1848: King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia announces a constitution for his country, causing general rejoicing.
February 15, 1848: The Caledonian Railway opens from Carlisle to Edinburgh and Glasgow.
February 16, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (37) makes his first appearance in almost six years in a program which includes the public premiere of his Cello Sonata op.65. One critic calls him “the Ariel of pianists.” Among the 300 in attendance at the Salle Pleyel is an interested American named Louis Moreau Gottschalk (18). Unknown to all present, this is Chopin's last performance in Paris.
February 16, 1848: Hector Berlioz (44) conducts a command performance at the Drury Lane Theatre before Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg.
February 16, 1848: Grisélidis, ou Les cinq sens, a ballet by Adolphe Adam (45) to a scenario by Pinel Dumanoir and Mazillier, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
February 17, 1848: With his subjects inspired by the new constitution in Naples, Grand Duke Leopoldo grants a constitution in Tuscany. It includes legal equality for Jews.
February 19, 1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo arrives in Washington. Despite the fact that he had sacked the American negotiator months before, President Polk submits it to the Senate. They will ratify.
February 22, 1848: French republicans plan a protest banquet in favor of expanded suffrage. When the government bans this, the protest turns into street demonstrations. 700 armed students march from the Latin Quarter to the Palais Bourbon (seat of the Chamber of Deputies) and thence to the Champs-Elysées, singing republican songs. Dragoons called out to oppose them refuse to impede the crowd. By sundown, barricades are up and theatres are closed.
February 22, 1848: César Franck (25) marries Félicité (Saillot) Desmousseaux, daughter of two actors in the Comédie-Française, in the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, Paris. Desmousseaux is the stage name of her parents, Saillot her legal name. The couple are given safe conduct by revolutionaries over their barricades as they leave church.
February 23, 1848: After composing in the morning, Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) roams the streets of Paris in search of what is going on.
February 23, 1848: Congressman (and former president) John Quincy Adams suffers a stroke at his desk in the chamber of the House of Representatives in Washington. He is borne to the Speaker’s Room where he dies, at the age of 80.
February 23, 1848: French troops march into Paris and take up strategic positions. The National Guard is called out. Hoping to assuage the crowds, King Louis-Philippe tearfully dismisses Prime Minister Guizot. A mob protesting inflation, food shortages, and unemployment sparks gunfire in front of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paris. Over 60 people are killed, 81 injured.
February 24, 1848: As revolution erupts outside his Paris window, Jules Massenet (5) receives his first music lesson, from his mother.
February 24, 1848: Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) spends most of the day on the streets of Paris watching the show. He is at the Palais-Royal when most of the furniture comes flying out the windows.
February 24, 1848: King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies swears to uphold the 10 February constitution.
February 24, 1848: King Louis-Philippe appoints the opposition leader Louis Adolphe Thiers as Prime Minister of France. The new government sends word to the barricades to end the rebellion but they begin to call for a republic. The King abdicates in favor of his nine-year-old grandson, the Count of Paris. Workers occupy the Tuileries Palace shortly after the King and Queen depart, eating a lunch prepared for the royal family. They break 23,000 pieces of glassware but refuse to touch the paintings, fearing they could never be replaced. The Chamber of Deputies installs a provisional republican government led by Jacques Charles Dupont de l’Eure as president and Alphonse de Lamartine.
February 25, 1848: The provisional government of Louis Adolphe Thiers proclaims itself the head of the French Republic, thus deposing the Orléans monarchy. Justice Minister Adolphe Crémieux orders the release of all political prisoners and indictments against the ministers of the royal government.
February 25, 1848: Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) visits the Prussian embassy in Paris to have his passport renewed. He plans to leave the country soon.
February 26, 1848: A 29-year-old Karl Marx publishes The Communist Manifesto in London.
February 27, 1848: Charles Hubert Hastings Parry is born at 2 Richmond Terrace in Bournemouth, United Kingdom, the sixth child born to Thomas Gambier Parry, a painter and art collector, and Anna Maria Isabella Fynes Clinton, of aristocratic lineage and daughter of a former member of Parliament. Mrs. Parry gives birth in the last stages of tuberculosis and will die in twelve days. They are in Bournemouth in an attempt to recover her health.
February 27, 1848: Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) contributes 500 francs to a fund for those wounded in the fighting in Paris.
February 27, 1848: A large political demonstration takes place in Karlsruhe, Baden calling for the Radical-Liberal demands of free press, trial by jury, and a German parliament.
February 28, 1848: Louis Napoleon Bonaparte leaves London for Paris.
February 28, 1848: The United States becomes the first government to recognize the new French Republic. The deed is accomplished by Minister Richard Rush without authority from Washington. When they hear of it at the end of next month, President Polk and Secretary of State James Buchanan will concur.
February 29, 1848: News of the fall of the French monarchy reaches Vienna. Long lines begin appearing outside banks with depositors changing paper money for silver.
March 2, 1848: Former King Louis-Philippe of France and his wife arrive in England.
March 3, 1848: The German Diet grants each state the right to revoke the reactionary measures of 1819.
March 3, 1848: Hungarian nationalist-liberal leader Lajos Kossuth speaks before the Hungarian Diet, demanding that Hungary have a separate ministry, army, and treasury.
March 4, 1848: King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia grants the Statuto Albertino, a relatively conservative constitution. It grants equality before the law, freedom of assembly and the press. However, suffrage is severely limited.
March 4, 1848: A funeral is celebrated in the Church of the Madeleine, Paris, in remembrance of all those who died in the recent fighting. Hundreds of thousands of people gather peacefully from the church to the Place de la Bastille.
March 4, 1848: At the home of Charlotte Marliani in Paris, Frédéric Chopin (38) accidentally meets George Sand. They speak politely. He tells her that her daughter has just given birth. Sand will remember, “I pressed his trembling and icy hand, I wanted to speak to him; he fled. It was my turn to say that he no longer loved me. I spared him that suffering...” Chopin writes “She asked how I was--I said I was well, and then I called for the concierge to open the door. I raised my hat and walked back home to the Square d’Orléans...” Edmond Combes, who was with Chopin will recall that he was “very sad, very depressed.” Chopin and Sand will never see each other again.
March 5, 1848: 51 delegates from south German states meet in Heidelberg to constitute a German parliament elected by universal suffrage.
March 5, 1848: Two days of rioting and looting break out in Glasgow. Citizens protest unemployment and a general economic downturn, partly spurred on by events on the continent. All manufacturing centers in Great Britain will see riots.
March 5, 1848: Heinrich, Baron Gagern replaces Karl Wilhelm Heinrich du Bos du Thil as Prime Minister of Hesse-Darmstadt.
March 6, 1848: The Glasgow rioting is put down by cavalry.
March 6, 1848: King Ludwig I grants a free press in Bavaria.
March 6, 1848: Clashes erupt in Silesia by Polish bourgeoisie and peasants against the Prussian army.
March 7, 1848: An assembly of Prussian citizens meets in the Zelte (a district near the Spree in Berlin) and petitions King Friedrich Wilhelm to immediately call the Diet and grant press freedom.
March 8, 1848: The Orange River Sovereignty is annexed to the Cape Colony.
March 9, 1848: Forty fraternity men meet in Vienna, pledge themselves to the German Fatherland, and draft a petition to the Lower Austrian assembly for the abolition of censorship and the granting of academic freedom.
March 9, 1848: The German Diet adopts the tricolor of black-red-gold as the official colors of the confederation.
March 9, 1848: Karl Georg Hoffmann replaces Johann Baptist Bekk as Prime Minister of Baden.
March 9, 1848: Friedrich von Römer becomes Prime Minister of Württemberg.
March 10, 1848: The German Diet calls upon the member states to send “men trusted by the public” to Frankfurt for the writing of a new German constitution.
March 10, 1848: The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
March 11, 1848: An assembly of Czechs meets in Prague to demand autonomy and constitutional reform for Bohemia.
March 11, 1848: Johannes Brahms (14) hears Joseph Joachim (17) play for the first time, in Hamburg. The prodigious violinist performs Beethoven’s (†20) Violin Concerto. Brahms is enthralled by the music and the performer.
March 12, 1848: Viennese students sign their petition after mass and in the evening, a professor presents it to Emperor Ferdinand who promises to consider it.
March 12, 1848: Czech leaders demand equality with Austria and democratic reforms.
March 13, 1848: Small clashes begin between unruly citizens and soldiers in Berlin.
March 13, 1848: A crowd consisting of university students and professors, members of a merchants’ association, and a group of factory workers assembles before the palace of Prince Metternich in Vienna to petition for freedom of the press, a city charter, and participation of the middle class in appointed councils. Metternich orders the crowd fired upon. 30 people are killed. This turns the crowd into a mob which immediately sets about arming itself. The Emperor accedes to all demands and dismisses Metternich who flees the city with a false passport. Metternich is replaced as Chancellor by Alfred Candidus Ferdinand Fürst zu Windischgrätz.
March 14, 1848: Pope Pius IX approves a constitution for the Papal States. Two deliberative bodies are set up to create laws.
March 14, 1848: Klemens August Graf von Waldkirch replaces Ludwig, Prince Ottingen-Wallerstein as acting President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
March 14, 1848: Troops are called out to counter growing numbers of revolutionary-minded workers in Berlin.
March 14, 1848: Free press is granted in Austria and a national guard is formed to patrol the streets of Vienna.
March 14, 1848: Grand Duke Carl Friedrich of Weimar replaces some unpopular ministers in his government, as demanded by crowds of workers and peasants, thus ending the “revolution” in Weimar.
March 14, 1848: The Hungarian Parliament grants Jews the right to vote. However, the decision causes widespread riots in opposition and the action will be rescinded.
March 15, 1848: Crowds gather before the royal palace in Berlin. Sporadic battles cause deaths and injuries.
March 15, 1848: Lajos Kossuth arrives in Vienna and wins his demands for a separate Hungarian government and an Austrian constitution, announced by Emperor Ferdinand.
March 15, 1848: A crowd gathers in Pest, encouraged by revolutionary students, and begins anti-Austrian acts, organizing a Committee of Safety and militia. The Hungarian Diet, in Pressburg (Bratislava), votes to establish free press, a national guard, a tax on the nobility, and the end of feudalism.
March 16, 1848: Prussian soldiers fire on unruly civilians in Berlin, killing two.
March 16, 1848: Faced with demands for an assembly, King Ludwig of Bavaria abdicates in favor of his son who reigns as Maximilian II.
March 16, 1848: Alexander Karl Hermann Braun replaces Julius Traugott Jakob von Könneritz as Prime Minister of Saxony.
March 17, 1848: When the news of the Vienna insurrection reaches Venice, a great crowd assembles in St. Mark’s square and overruns the prison holding the lawyer and reformer Daniel Manin. Thus liberated, he makes a republican oration and the Italian tricolor is tied to one of the great poles in front of San Marco so that the Austrians can not remove it.
March 17, 1848: Lajos, Count Batthyány becomes Prime Minister of Hungary.
March 17, 1848: As the Austrian ballerina Fanny Elssler dances in La Scala, Milan, the chorus wear revolutionary symbols on their costumes. The crowd is split between Austrians cheering her performance and Italians shouting patriotic epithets. As a result of the tumult, she faints. The theatre is closed.
March 18, 1848: Crowds before the royal palace in Berlin demanding a liberal constitution are attacked by troops. This sparks counterattacks and barricades by demonstrators throughout the city and the general battle continues until nightfall. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV orders the army to put down the insurrection. Unknown numbers are killed and injured.
March 18, 1848: Citizens of Milan rise against Austrian occupation, beginning with a peaceful march to press demands for a national guard. Austrian soldiers fire into this crowd, causing the survivors to quickly build barricades and kill of as many soldiers as can be found. Count Radetzky removes his troops from the city and institutes a siege.
March 18, 1848: Many Polish landowners sign the Address to the (Austrian) Emperor at Lemberg (Lviv), requesting, among other things, the complete abolition of serfdom and the creation of a national guard.
March 19, 1848: After failing to conquer the insurrection, Prussian troops are removed from the streets of Berlin in an attempt by the king to convince the mob of his good faith. A mass demonstration is held in Berlin to honor those killed yesterday and King Friedrich Wilhelm is forced to attend. As the bodies of the fallen, killed by his troops, are paraded before the king, their names and manner of death are announced. When the king tells the crowd that all their demands are granted, including a constitution, the crowd disperses. King Friedrich Wilhelm appoints Adolf Heinrich, Count von Arnim-Boitzenburg as Prime Minister.
March 19, 1848: In Offenburg, radical and liberal leaders meet to organize the political movement in Baden from the grass roots.
March 19, 1848: Count Palffy, Austrian governor of Venice, accedes to the republican demand for a small civic guard. By evening, 3,000 Venetians are under arms.
March 19, 1848: Revolution begins in the Duchy of Parma with demands for a constitution.
March 19, 1848: Georgios Andreou Koundouriotis replaces Kitsos Photou Tzavelas as Prime Minister of Greece.
March 20, 1848: A provisional government is formed in Parma under Luigi Sanvitale, count of Fontanellato.
March 20, 1848: Frantisek Antonín, Count Kolowrat-Libstensky becomes acting Prime Minister of Austria replacing Chancellor Alfred Candidus Ferdinand Fürst zu Windischgrätz.
March 21, 1848: Spanish Prime Minister Narváez dismisses the Cortes and suspends certain constitutional liberties in an effort to preempt the revolutionary contagion.
March 21, 1848: King Frederik VII of Denmark incorporates the Duchy of Schleswig fully into Denmark.
March 22, 1848: Colonel Marinovich, Austrian commander of the Venetian arsenal, is murdered. In the confusion, republican leader Daniel Manin and some civic guards take the arsenal and distribute the arms to citizens. The Austrians are disarmed and cannon are turned on the governor’s palace. Governor Count Palffy resigns, leaving power to a military governor, Count Zichy, who is forced to accede to Manin’s demands. Venice proclaims itself an independent republic.
March 22, 1848: A provisional government for Milan is constituted under Count Gabrio Casati.
March 22, 1848: Adam Wilhelm greve Moltke replaces Poul Christian Stemann as Prime Minister of Denmark.
March 22, 1848: Readers of the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung are told that a new world of freedom has arrived and that this new world would find expression in the arts.
March 22, 1848: Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) receives word of the events in Berlin. He is relieved that his family is safe.
March 23, 1848: The siege of Milan is broken and Count Radetzky withdraws his Austrian troops to Venetia.
March 23, 1848: Sardinia declares war on Austria as Sardinian troops march into Lombardy to aid the uprising in Milan.
March 23, 1848: Daniel Manin moves into the governor’s palace in Venice at the head of a provisional republican government.
March 23, 1848: The Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein revolt against the Danish crown and set up provisional governments.
March 24, 1848: Over 100 Milanese irregulars (soon to reach 2,500) march out of Milan in pursuit of the Austrians.
March 24, 1848: The Estates of Schleswig-Holstein declare independence from Denmark and appeal to the German Parliament for assistance. A provisional government is established at Kiel. German citizens take the Fortress of Rendsburg and its military stores.
March 24, 1848: After days of liberal demonstrations, riots break out in Amsterdam.
March 24, 1848: Pope Pius IX blesses 12,000 volunteers as they march from Rome to Lombardy.
March 24, 1848: Provisional governments are set up in Modena and Reggio under Provisional President Giuseppe Malmusi.
March 25, 1848: Gerrit, Count Schimmelpenninck becomes chief minister of the Netherlands.
March 25, 1848: A “national assembly” of Croats meets in Zagreb.
March 25, 1848: The Sicilian Parliament, produced by literate male suffrage, meets in Palermo.
March 26, 1848: Tsar Nikolay I issues a manifesto declaring that Russia will resist all revolutionary forces.
March 26, 1848: A civilian rising in Madrid is easily crushed by troops.
March 26, 1848: In the midst of revolution, the Paris Opéra suspends operations.
March 28, 1848: A second Bohemian manifesto, this one not supported by German residents, demands a common Diet for Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia and a responsible ministry.
March 29, 1848: Gottfried Ludolf Camphausen replaces Adolf Heinrich, Count von Arnim-Boitzenburg as Prime Minister of Prussia.
March 31, 1848: Past and present members of legislative bodies of all German states meet in Frankfurt to organize an all-German parliament.
April 1, 1848: Gaetano Donizetti (50) suffers a seizure that paralyzes his arms and left leg and locks his teeth. This will subside in the morning.
April 2, 1848: Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein leaves her estate at Woronice for the last time. She has cast her lot with her lover, Franz Liszt (36) and is traveling to join him in Kryzanowicz.
April 2, 1848: The German colors are hung from the tower of St. Stephen’s Cathedral, Vienna.
April 2, 1848: Hungarian peasants are emancipated from feudal obligations.
April 2, 1848: The provisional governments in Modena and Reggio are joined.
April 2, 1848: A ceremony takes place in the courtyard of the Paris Opéra led by the Minister of the Interior and other important officials. They plant a liberty tree to identify it as a temple at the service of the Second Republic.
April 3, 1848: Mayor Josiah Quincy signs an act creating the Boston Public Library.
April 3, 1848: The Chicago Board of Trade is founded.
April 4, 1848: Gaetano Donizetti (50) suffers yet another seizure, for an hour. He is administered the Last Rites of the Roman Catholic Church.
April 6, 1848: Jews are granted equality before the law in Prussia.
April 8, 1848: The Vienna government accedes to Czech demands for a responsible government in Prague.
April 8, 1848: Sardinian forces defeat the Austrians at Goito.
April 8, 1848: 17:00 Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti dies in the Palazzo Basoni, Bergamo, Austrian Empire, of meningovascular syphilis, aged 50 years, four months, and ten days.
April 9, 1848: Danish forces defeat a Schleswig-Holstein army at Bau and force them to retreat.
April 10, 1848: A mass demonstration called by Chartists in London in favor of universal male suffrage is called off when the government begins assembling troops. This is seen as the last gasp of chartism and the beginning of British socialism.
April 10, 1848: Prussian troops attack Polish insurgents near Tremeszna.
April 10, 1848: Gustaf Sparre replaces Arvid Posse as Prime Minister for Justice of Sweden. Gustaf Nils Algernon Stierneld replaces Albrecht Ihre as Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs.
April 10, 1848: The Illinois and Michigan Canal opens between Chicago and LaSalle. It connects the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River.
April 11, 1848: Provisional governments are set up in Parma and Piacenza. Gregorio Ferdinando, Count of Castagnola replaces Luigi Sanvitale, Count of Fontanellato as president of the provisional government in Parma. Pietro Gioia heads the provisional government in Piacenza.
April 11, 1848: The Hungarian Diet adjourns in Pozsony (Bratislava). Over the last month they have passed 31 new laws which are, in effect, a new constitution. It calls for a constitutional monarchy based on liberal ideals, but falls short of demands of the radicals.
April 11, 1848: Negotiators for Prussia and Polish insurgents sign the Jaroslawiec Agreement. Poles in Posnania (Prussian Poland) are granted certain language and administrative concessions in return for a maintenance of order in the district.
April 11, 1848: The city of Bergamo gives an elaborate funeral for its most famous son, Gaetano Donizetti. Eight doctors perform an autopsy in the toolshed of the Valtesse Cemetery and the earthly remains of the composer are then placed in the vault of the Pezzoli family. (In 1875, the remains will be moved to the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo)
April 12, 1848: Friedrich Hecker, leader of the radical liberals, and Gustav von Streuve lead a putsch proclaiming a German Republic in Constance. They organize a rag-tag army and invade Baden.
April 13, 1848: The Parliament of Sicily deposes the king and declares its independence from The Two Sicilies. Ruggero Settimo heads a provisional government.
April 14, 1848: In response to the European revolts, Tsar Nikolay I of Russia sets up a special committee to ensure strict censorship.
April 15, 1848: Giuseppe Garibaldi, 56 men, two cannon, and 800 muskets (donated by the government of Uruguay) sail from Montevideo for Italy. Garibaldi was in Uruguay fleeing a death sentence. They are unaware of the Milanese uprising but will learn of it in the mid-Atlantic from a passing ship.
April 18, 1848: Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein meets Franz Liszt (36) at the hunting castle of his friend Felix Lichnowsky in Silesia. She leaves Russia moments before the border is closed to protect against infection from revolutionary Europe.
April 18, 1848: Prussia abrogates the Jaroslawiec Agreement in the first of a series of pitched battles with Polish insurgents.
April 19, 1848: Karl Ludwig, Count Ficquelmont replaces Frantisek Antonín, Count Kolwrat-Libstensky as Prime Minister of Austria.
April 19, 1848: General Jelacic orders that all officials in Croatia sever communication with the Hungarian government and take orders only from him.
April 19, 1848: Apprentices run amok in the Jewish district of Budapest, looting and terrorizing the population. Order is restored by the national guard and regular troops.
April 20, 1848: German republicans, led by Friedrich Hecker, battle Baden troops and are defeated. Hecker flees to Switzerland.
April 20, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) arrives in London and, as before, his lungs are affected by the coal smoke. Admirer and pianist Jane Stirling has provided him with an apartment in Bentinck Street.
April 20, 1848: Second Anglo-Sikh War: Sikhs mutiny against the British at Multan setting off a general Sikh uprising.
April 21, 1848: Giuseppe Verdi (34) writes to his librettist Piave from Milan, “I am drunk with joy. Just think--there are no more Germans here!!...You speak of music to me!! What are you thinking? Do you imagine I want to occupy myself now with notes, with sounds? There is, and should be, only one kind of music pleasing to the ears of the Italians of 1848--the music of the cannon! I would not write a note for all the gold in the world: I should feel immense remorse for using up music paper, which is so good to make cartridges." (Izzo, 202)
April 23, 1848: German (mostly Prussian) troops defeat the Danes near the city of Schleswig.
April 23, 1848: Today and tomorrow, elections are held in France for the first assembly of the Second Republic.
April 25, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand declares Austria a constitutional state with a bicameral legislature.
April 26, 1848: Revolutionary disturbances in Kraków are ended by a Russian bombardment.
April 27, 1848: The Second Republic abolishes slavery in all French lands.
April 27, 1848: German missionary Johannes Rebmann and caravan leader Bwana Kheri depart Mombasa in search of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Within two weeks, Rebmann will be the first European to see it.
April 28, 1848: Gioachino Rossini (56), believing his life to be in danger from revolutionaries who question his support for their cause, leaves Bologna for Florence.
April 28, 1848: In order to keep them from discussing the Frankfurt assembly, King Friedrich August II of Saxony dissolves the Saxon Diet in Dresden.
April 28, 1848: Prussia offers military support to any German king who refuses to consent to the German constitution.
April 28, 1848: Ibrahim Sarim Pasha replaces Mustafa Resid Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
April 29, 1848: Pope Pius IX announces that he can not support other Italians in fighting the Austrians, but he will not stop any of his subjects who wish to volunteer.
April 29, 1848: Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von Bray-Steinburg replaces Klemens August Graf von Waldkirch as President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
April 30, 1848: In its last act, the Saxon Diet acclaims the German constitution.
April 30, 1848: The Polish National Committee of the Grand Duchy of Poznan, believing Prussia and Germany to be untrustworthy, votes itself out of existence.
April 30, 1848: Polish forces rout the Prussians at Miloslaw.
May 1, 1848: Elections are held throughout the German states for a German Parliament.
May 1, 1848: A law goes into effect in Great Britain limiting women and children aged 13-18 to work no more than ten hours per day, five days per week and only eight hours on Saturday.
May 1, 1848: A manifesto is signed by Czech intellectuals and aristocrats, calling for a congress “of all Slav nations of the Austrian Empire.” This is done partly to counter the demands of the Frankfurt Assembly on Austria.
May 2, 1848: The Leipzig militia unanimously supports the German constitution.
May 2, 1848: Polish forces defeat the Prussians at Sokolowo.
May 3, 1848: Finnish students hold a peaceful nationalistic gathering in Kumtähti meadow near Helsinki.
May 4, 1848: A new Constitutional Assembly for the French Republic opens, elected by the broadest suffrage yet seen. It is surprisingly moderate.
May 6, 1848: With revolution in the air, Franz Liszt (36) is serenaded at his Vienna hotel by a group of medical students. He tells them that a “conductor” will have to be found for the impending uprising.
May 7, 1848: The España Regiment mutinies in Madrid.
May 8, 1848: Electors meet to choose the first Prussian assembly.
May 9, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand of Austria grants partial adult male suffrage.
May 9, 1848: Polish insurgents surrender to Prussia at Bardo, east of Posen (Poznan).
May 9, 1848: Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez becomes President of the National Constituent Assembly of France, thus effective head of state.
May 10, 1848: Citizens march in Budapest in protest of a military commander they accuse of hiding weapons from them. The crowd is charged by Austrian troops resulting in one death and many injuries.
May 10, 1848: The Kingdom of Sardinia annexes Parma.
May 10, 1848: A “national assembly” of Slovaks meets in Liptovsky Sväty Mikulas.
May 10, 1848: Dominique François Jean Arago is named Chairman of the Executive Power Commission in France, thus succeeding Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez as head of state.
May 11, 1848: When election laws for the new Reichstag are announced, armed students and workers fill the streets of Vienna. They force the government to issue laws with wider suffrage.
May 11, 1848: Richard Wagner (34) submits a “Plan for the Organization of a German National Theatre for the Kingdom of Saxony.”
May 12, 1848: Tuscany annexes Massa and Carrara.
May 12, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) attends a dinner at the home of Jenny Lind in London. She sings Swedish songs for him until midnight.
May 13, 1848: Serbs convene a national assembly at Karlowitz (Sremski Karlovici). It proves to be a forum for Southern Slav unity, including Croats and Bulgarians.
May 13, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) writes from London of his dismay at the failure of the Polish insurrection. “Disaster on disaster! My soul feels no more desire.”
May 15, 1848: After the Austrian government suppresses an opposition committee, a mass demonstration in Vienna forces Emperor Ferdinand to revoke the constitution and promise to convene a constitutional assembly. With this, the Emperor flees from Vienna to Innsbruck.
May 15, 1848: The Austrian governor of Galicia ends serfdom in that province.
May 15, 1848: 10,000 Parisian workers (among them George Sand), carrying a petition to support Poland, march from the Place de la Bastille to the National Assembly. They storm the National Assembly hall and order the dissolution of the assembly, forming a provisional government led by Armand Barbès. With the arrival of the National Guard, the insurrection fails and Barbès is arrested.
May 15, 1848: 40,000 Romanians meet near Blaj, 250 km northwest of Bucharest, and institute liberal reforms similar to those of Hungary, although adding various nationalistic and religious demands.
May 15, 1848: Royal troops reestablish royal control in Naples. The liberal government is dismissed by King Ferdinando and Parliament dissolved. Royal troops enter Palermo. Hundreds of republicans are exiled or arrested.
May 15, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) gives his first London performance in Stafford (Lancaster) House at a dinner given for attenders of the christening of Alexandrina, daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland. Illustrious personages present include Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, the Duke of Wellington, and the Prince of Prussia (later Kaiser Wilhelm I). The Queen notes in her diary that “some pianists” played.
May 16, 1848: The Hungarian government calls for the recruitment of ten divisions of a national guard.
May 16, 1848: King Ferdinando of the Two Sicilies empanels a more conservative government.
May 18, 1848: The German National Assembly convenes in St. Paul’s Church, Frankfurt.
May 18, 1848: General Josip Jelacic creates a government in Croatia independent of Hungary.
May 18, 1848: King Ferdinando of the Two Sicilies recalls his troops from Venice.
May 18, 1848: Bedrich Smetana (24) receives official permission to establish his music institute in Prague.
May 19, 1848: Franz, Baron Pillersdorf replaces Karl Ludwig, Count Ficquelmont as acting Prime Minister of Austria.
May 19, 1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is ratified by the Congress of Mexico.
May 22, 1848: The Prussian assembly meets for the first time, in the palace of the King of Prussia, to hear his speech.
May 25, 1848: The Kingdom of Sardinia takes over administration of Piacenza, Modena, and Reggio.
May 26, 1848: Once again, workers and students take over the streets of Vienna. The authorities are powerless to stop them.
May 27, 1848: The German National Assembly votes not to suppress any nationality.
May 28, 1848: Two works by Johann Strauss (22) are performed for the first time, in Casino Zögernitz, Vienna: Freiheitslieder op.52, a waltz, and Revolutions-Marsch op.54.
May 29, 1848: A plebiscite in Piedmont votes for immediate union with Lombardy.
May 29, 1848: Count Leo Thun, Imperial governor of Bohemia, refuses to obey any further orders from the Vienna government.
May 29, 1848: Austrian forces defeat Tuscans at Curtatone.
May 29, 1848: Wisconsin becomes the 30th state of the United States.
May 30, 1848: Sardinian forces defeat the Austrians at Gioto.
May 30, 1848: William G. Young of Baltimore receives a US patent for an ice cream freezer.
June 1, 1848: Great Britain claims that the southern border of its protectorate over the Mosquito kingdom is the San Juan River. They raise the Mosquito flag at the mouth of the river and name the point Greytown after Governor Grey of Jamaica. It is an attempt to pre-empt US expansion in Central America and prevents Nicaragua from using the San Juan as part of a canal.
June 1, 1848: Karl Marx takes up the position of editor of the Neue Rheinische Zeitung.
June 2, 1848: The Pan-Slav Congress opens in Prague. Among other things, they blame Germans and Hungarians for the lack of unity among Slavs.
June 3, 1848: Czech radicals attempt to seize power in Prague, providing an excuse for the Austrian military to intervene and subdue them by force. This marks the first victory of the counterrevolution.
June 3, 1848: José Joaquín Antonio Florencio de Herrera y Ricardos replaces José Manuel de la Peña y Peña as President of Mexico.
June 3, 1848: Two works by Johann Strauss (22) are performed for the first time, in Vienna: Studenten-Marsch op.56 at the Alte Universität, and Liguorianer-Seufzer op.57, a scherzpolka, at the Blaue Flasche Coffee House.
June 4, 1848: In by-elections to the French Assembly, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew and heir to Napoleon, wins a seat.
June 5, 1848: A new Croatian Sabor (assembly) meets in Zagreb. It is the first Sabor to be selected on democratic lines.
June 5, 1848: William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) reads his paper “On an Absolute Thermometric Scale…” to the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
June 9, 1848: US President James K. Polk offers Spain $100,000,000 for Cuba.
June 10, 1848: Austrians overwhelm a hastily assembled Italian force at Vicenza.
June 12, 1848: A demonstration by an unarmed crowd in Wenceslas Square, Prague is attacked by Austrian troops under Prince Windischgrätz, precipitating barricades and a demand for the withdrawal of the troops. Bedrich Smetana (24) joins the Svornost Corps and mans the barricades.
June 12, 1848: Serbs in southern Hungary revolt against the new Hungarian government.
June 12, 1848: On his journey south from Berlin, Giacomo Meyerbeer (56) is warned by travelers that fighting has broken out in Prague. He returns to the last station, Zdiby, and makes arrangements to take a coach around Prague to the first station after the city, Jessnitz (Jesenice).
June 13, 1848: Adolf Fischhof, chairman of the Vienna Committee of Public Safety (the most radical organization in Austria) backs war against the Italians because the honor of Austrian arms is at stake.
June 14, 1848: Richard Wagner (35) reads his article “What relationship do republican endeavors bear to the monarchy?” to the Vaterlandsverein. It is strongly anti-monarchy and will be published in the Dresdener Anzeiger tomorrow.
June 15, 1848: Austrian forces withdraw from Prague.
June 15, 1848: Richard Wagner's (35) article "What relationship do republican endeavors bear to the monarchy?" is published anonymously in the Dresdener Anzeiger.
June 16, 1848: Grand Duke Ludwig II of Hesse-Darmstadt dies in Darmstadt and is succeeded by his son, Ludwig III.
June 16, 1848: Administration of the Duchy of Guastalla is taken over by the Kingdom of Sardinia.
June 17, 1848: Austrian forces bombard Prague causing its capitulation, the arrest or exile of pan-slav leaders, martial law in Bohemia, and the indefinite postponement of elections to a Czech Diet.
June 20, 1848: It is reported that the bourgeois government has decided to draft all French workers engaged in unrest over the last month.
June 21, 1848: At a mass meeting at Islaz on the Danube, a revolutionary government for Wallachia is proclaimed.
June 21, 1848: The French National Assembly abolishes the “national workshops” which were designed to combat unemployment. Despite proletarian support, the new government is becoming decidedly bourgeois.
June 21, 1848: Segna Iddio ne’suoi confini by Gioachino Rossini (56) to words of Martinelli is performed for the first time, in Bologna’s Piazza Maggiore. It was orchestrated by his friend, Domenico Liverani. The composer is not there. He has fled to Florence because of charges from various quarters that he is either a conservative or a liberal.
June 22, 1848: Word spreads through Paris that workers’ organizations, the National Workshops, have been dissolved by the government. Large crowds gather throughout the city to protest.
June 23, 1848: Romanian hospodar George Bibescu accepts a revolutionary cabinet and a constitution.
June 23, 1848: General R. Cabrera re-enters Spain to lead a Carlist revolt in support of Don Carlos’ son Montemolin.
June 23, 1848: Workers begin building barricades near the Place de la Bastille and throughout Paris. Through fierce fighting, they eventually win control over three distinct areas of the city. It is an insurrection against the bourgeois republic, perhaps the first class war in modern Europe.
June 24, 1848: The French Assembly votes to end the Executive Commission and appoint General Louis Eugène Cavaignac dictator to deal with the insurrection. Furious fighting continues with neither side gaining an advantage.
June 24, 1848: Giuseppe Garibaldi and his men arrive in Nice to general rejoicing.
June 25, 1848: Rudolf Ludwig Cäsar von Auerswald replaces Gottfried Ludolf Camphausen as Prime Minister of Prussia.
June 25, 1848: French government troops begin to force the workers from their strongholds in bloody street fighting.
June 25, 1848: Romanian hospodar George Bibescu abdicates. A provisional government is named. It is egalitarian and nationalistic.
June 25, 1848: The final section of Scenes from Goethe’s Faust for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Robert Schumann (38) is performed for the first time, in a private performance directed by the composer.
June 26, 1848: French government forces subdue the last workers’ stronghold at the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. In the evening they shoot or stab 150 prisoners to death. Four days of insurrection have cost 1,460 lives. Some estimates are higher.
June 27, 1848: The French National Assembly votes to deport anyone captured in the June insurrection, a total of about 1,700 people.
June 27, 1848: A primitive, steam powered air conditioning is used at the Broadway Theatre, New York.
June 28, 1848: General Louis Eugène Cavaignac takes on the additional title of Prime Minister of France. The post has been vacant since 24 February.
June 28, 1848: William Makepeace Thackeray dates the preface (“Before the Curtain”) to his novel Vanity Fair. It has already been serialized over the last 18 months.
June 29, 1848: The German National Assembly creates the post of Imperial Vice-Regent and names Grand Duke Johann of Austria to the post.
June 29, 1848: Hector Berlioz’ (44) second London concert establishes his reputation with the London press. His orientale La captive for soprano and orchestra to words of Hugo is performed for the first time, at this concert.
July 1, 1848: Citizen forces take to the streets in Bucharest to save the revolutionary government from conservative elements of the military. They are led by Ana Ipatescu.
July 1, 1848: La Dame aux camélias by Alexandre Dumas is published this month in Paris.
July 1, 1848: The Leeds Intelligencer announces that Samuel Sebastian Wesley (38) has returned to the town after being laid up for six months in Helmsley.
July 3, 1848: Giuseppe Garibaldi offers his sword to King Carlo Alberto of Sardinia. The King refuses his help, fearing his radical views.
July 3, 1848: Governor Peter von Scholten abolishes slavery in the Danish West Indies.
July 4, 1848: The Venetian Assembly votes to unite Venetia with Sardinia.
July 5, 1848: Daniel Manin resigns the Venetian government because of his opposition to monarchies, including that of Sardinia. Jacopo Castelli becomes President of the provisional government.
July 7, 1848: At the invitation of the Ottoman Empire, Russian troops enter Moldavia to put down a revolt.
July 7, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) is the principal performer at the residence of the Earl of Falmouth, London.
July 8, 1848: Anton, Baron Doblhoff-Dier replaces Franz, Baron Pillersdorf as Prime Minister of Austria.
July 8, 1848: Full legal rights are granted to Jews in Sardinia-Piedmont.
July 10, 1848: The Sicilian Parliament names Sardinian Prince Ferdinando Maria Alberto Amadeo Filiberto Vincenzo to be their king. He will not take up the post.
July 11, 1848: The Hungarian Diet votes to raise 200,000 troops to oppose the Imperial army.
July 14, 1848: Hector Berlioz (44) returns to Paris from England to find the city a shambles from the revolutions and intellectually inactive.
July 16, 1848: 50,000 Irish rally at Slievenamon, County Tipperary to repeal the Act of Union.
July 17, 1848: The French National Assembly votes 200,000 francs for the relief of those in the artistic world displaced by the revolution.
July 18, 1848: Johann, Baron Wessenberg-Ampringen replaces Anton, Baron Doblhoff-Dier as Prime Minister of Austria.
July 19, 1848: The first Women’s Rights convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York, chaired by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Ms. Stanton proposes female suffrage in the United States.
July 22, 1848: Archduke Johann of Austria inaugurates a Reichstag in Vienna. The 383 deputies representing all areas of the empire except Italy and Hungary are intent upon creating a constitutional government.
July 25, 1848: Austrian forces under Field Marshal Radetzky defeat a Sardinian army at Custozza.
July 26, 1848: Buddhists begin an uprising against British rule on Ceylon.
July 26, 1848: The British Parliament grants the government of Ireland the right to suspend habeas corpus for nine months in an attempt to control seditious activities on the island.
July 26, 1848: A bill for the abolition of serfdom passes the Austrian Parliament.
July 27, 1848: The formal union of Venice, Sardinia, and Lombardy is effected.
July 29, 1848: The British governor on Ceylon declares martial law in Kandy after armed conflict between local citizens and British troops.
July 29, 1848: Robert Schumann (38) reads Byron’s Manfred, in translation. He begins to conceive of a musical treatment of it.
July 29, 1848: An abortive uprising in Ireland is put down in County Tipperary.
July 29, 1848: Cast Me not Away from Thy Presence, an anthem for chorus and organ by Samuel Sebastian Wesley (37), is performed for the first time, in Leeds Cathedral, the composer at the keyboard.
July 29, 1848: In a flag-dedication ceremony, a homemade black, red, and gold flag is presented to the Student Academic Freicorps by the women of Tübingen. Among those signing the official document is Josephine Lang Köstlin (33). Reinhold Köstlin speaks at the ceremony, strongly attacking Prussia.
July 31, 1848: The British governor on Ceylon extends martial law to include Kurunegala.
July 31, 1848: The last United States forces are withdrawn from Mexico, at Veracruz.
August 3, 1848: The Hungarian government declares that in the event of a war between Austria and the Frankfurt Assembly, Hungary would not aid Austria.
August 7, 1848: After defeating the Italians at Custozza, the first Austrian troops enter Milan.
August 7, 1848: Royal commissioners from Turin arrive in Venice to take over in the name of King Carlo Alberto.
August 7, 1848: Jöns Jacob Berzelius dies in Stockholm at the age of 68.
August 9, 1848: The Venetian Assembly creates an executive triumvirate made up of Daniel Manin and two military men.
August 9, 1848: Sardinia concludes an armistice with Austria at Vigevano.
August 10, 1848: The Duchy of Guastalla is returned to sovereignty, having been ruled by Sardinia since 16 June. Massa and Carrara are restored by Tuscany.
August 12, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand and the Imperial Court return to Vienna.
August 12, 1848: Once the Sardinian armistice with Austria becomes known, Venice expels Sardinian troops and resumes its former status.
August 12, 1848: George Stephenson dies in Chesterfield, Derbyshire at the age of 67.
August 13, 1848: Mustafa Resid Pasha replaces Ibrahim Sarim Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
August 13, 1848: The Conservatório Imperial de Música opens in Rio de Janeiro.
August 14, 1848: A large ceremony takes place in Cologne Cathedral to mark the 600th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone. Attenders include King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia and other high dignitaries. Among the music played is a cello solo by the city's favorite son, Jacques Offenbach (29).
August 15, 1848: Spain officially refuses the United States’ offer to buy Cuba for $100,000,000.
August 15, 1848: Brünner-Nationalgarde-Marsch op.58 by Johann Strauss (22) is performed for the first time, in Brünn (Brno).
August 18, 1848: Sardinia restores Parma and Piacenza to sovereignty under Duke Carlo II.
August 19, 1848: The discovery of gold in California is announced in the New York Herald.
August 22, 1848: Louisy Matthieu, until recently a slave, is elected the first black member of the French Parliament, representing Guadeloupe.
August 22, 1848: Austrian soldier Johann Strauss, Jr. (22), while standing guard for the government on the Karmeliterplatz, is warned that workers in the Leopoldstadt might march on his position. Unable to bring himself to fire upon those whose cause he espouses, he goes home to his mother, eats supper, and does some composing until all is quiet again. He will never be prosecuted.
August 24, 1848: The western part of New Guinea is claimed by the Netherlands at the ceremonial opening of Fort du Bus at Lobo.
August 24, 1848: The first French postage stamp is approved, to go into use next 1 January.
August 24, 1848: The American barque Ocean Monarch, just out of Liverpool heading for Boston with Irish emigrants, catches fire 10 km off Great Orme’s Head, Wales. Fortunately, other ships are in the area and come to the rescue, but by the time the Ocean Monarch goes down tomorrow, over 150 lives are lost. More than 200 are saved.
August 26, 1848: Prussia concludes an armistice with Denmark in Malmö, freeing troops to deal with domestic unrest.
August 27, 1848: Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen abdicates his throne and is succeeded by his son Karl Anton.
August 28, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) is the principal performer at the Gentlemen’s Concert Hall, Manchester. The critics, as Chopin predicted, are disappointed. His music and style are lost in the large hall. As a featured work, Chopin plays his Sonata in B flat minor. He will later write, “I had played the allegro and the scherzo successfully, and I was going to attack the march when, suddenly, I saw the cursed creatures that one lugubrious night appeared to me at the monastery rising from the case of the piano. I had to go out for a moment to collect myself, after which I resumed playing without saying a word to anyone...”
August 29, 1848: Boers are defeated by British troops at Boomplatz and retreat across the Vaal.
August 31, 1848: Because of the decidedly independent course taken by the Hungarian Diet, Emperor Ferdinand demands that it be dissolved.
August 31, 1848: Queen Victoria grants royal assent to the Public Health Act. It establishes the first boards of health in England and Wales.
September 1, 1848: Robert Schumann (38) presents the first seven pieces of the Album für die Jugend op.68 to his daughter Marie on the occasion of her seventh birthday.
September 1, 1848: The opera company at Theater an der Wien is dissolved. Its Kapellmeister, Albert Lortzing (46), is now unemployed.
September 3, 1848: Citizens of Genoa assemble in the city’s largest theatre and swear an oath, with drawn swords, to drive the foreigners back over the mountains.
September 5, 1848: The Frankfurt Assembly refuses to consent to the armistice granted by the King of Prussia with Denmark.
September 5, 1848: Jews are granted equality before the law in Hannover.
September 7, 1848: The Austrian Assembly abolishes the robot (tax paid by peasants to their landlords) and all other medieval duties.
September 8, 1848: Landgrave Gustav of Hesse-Homburg dies and is succeeded by his brother Ferdinand.
September 11, 1848: A Croatian army of about 35,000 under Baron Joseph Jalacic, secretly serving the emperor, enters Hungary and advances towards Pest, pillaging as they go. They will be beaten off by an army of Hungarian peasants and national guardsmen.
September 12, 1848: A new constitution is promulgated in Switzerland providing for a federal union with a strong central government.
September 12, 1848: Jews are granted equality before the law in Nassau.
September 16, 1848: Pope Pius IX appoints Pellegrino Rossi as prime minister to deal with republican tendencies of the citizenry.
September 16, 1848: Faced by Prussian pressure, the Frankfurt Assembly reverses itself and endorses the armistice with Denmark.
September 16, 1848: Hyperion, the second moon of Saturn to be identified from Earth, is discovered simultaneously by William Cranch Bond and George Phillips Bond of Harvard College and William Lassell of Liverpool.
September 18, 1848: An armed mob attacks St. Paul’s Church, Frankfurt attempting to make quick work of the German Assembly who they consider traitors for consenting to the Danish armistice. The Assembly is saved by Prussian and Austrian troops arriving from Mainz.
September 21, 1848: Ernst von Pfuel replaces Ludolf Camphausen as Prime Minister of Prussia.
September 21, 1848: Crossing from Switzerland, Gustav von Struve with some followers seizes the Rathaus in Lörach, Baden and once again proclaims a German republic.
September 22, 1848: Richard Wagner (35) conducts the finale to Act I of his unperformed opera Lohengrin at a concert celebrating the 300th anniversary of the Saxon Royal Court Orchestra, Dresden.
September 23, 1848: A republican army of 10,000 volunteers marches from Lörach to Freiburg where they are defeated and dispersed.
September 24, 1848: Psalm 84 for chorus and Psalm 100 for four solo voices and chorus by Otto Nicolai (38) are performed for the first time, for the consecration of the Friedenskirche, Sanssouci.
September 25, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand appoints Count Franz Philipp Lamberg as commander-in-chief of all Imperial forces in Hungary.
September 26, 1848: Rioting by radicals takes place in Frankfurt.
September 27, 1848: The Hungarian Diet, led by Lajos Kossuth, denounces the appointment of Count Lamberg as commander-in-chief.
September 27, 1848: At the invitation of the Ottoman Empire, a Russian army crosses into Wallachia and crushes the revolutionary government.
September 27, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) is the featured performer at The Merchant’s Hall, Glasgow. He performs the Andante op.22, Impromptu op.36, some Etudes op.25, Nocturnes opp.27 & 55, Berceuse op.57, Preludes op.28, Ballades op.38, Mazurkas op.7, and Waltzes op.64 to a less than full house.
September 28, 1848: Lajos Kossuth becomes the head of government in Hungary at the head of a Committee of National Defense.
September 28, 1848: Count Franz Philipp Lamberg, appointed by Emperor Ferdinand as commander-in-chief of all Imperial forces in Hungary, is killed by a mob in Budapest. His body is ripped to pieces.
September 29, 1848: A hastily assembled citizen army of Hungarians defeats the Croatian army of General Jelacic twice its size at Pákozd, near Lake Velence. Jelacic asks for three days cease-fire to negotiate a truce, which is granted. However, he flees to Vienna to raise an imperial army.
October 1, 1848: Reuss-Schleiz-Gera, Reuss-Ebersdorf, and Reuss-Lobenstein are joined together to form the Principality of Reuss, Junior Line.
October 3, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand names Count Josip Jelacic civil and military governor of Hungary, dissolves the Diet, and puts Hungary under martial law.
October 4, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) appears in the only solo recital he will ever give, in the Hopetown Rooms, Edinburgh. It is solo only because he is too ill to go out and find other musicians. The program is two hours long and, despite his ill health, he captivates the audience.
October 6, 1848: Shooting begins in Vienna between radical national guardsmen and those loyal to the Assembly. Some fighting takes place within St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Troop trains being sent to Hungary are stopped by demonstrators. A mob at the war ministry demands the resignation of War Minister Count Latour. After stating that he will only resign with the Emperor’s consent, the crowd falls on him, leaving 43 wounds in his lifeless body. The corpse is thereupon stripped and hung from a lamppost while general rejoicing takes place around it. The mob then fortifies the War Ministry. Loyal troops use rockets to set the building on fire, even though it is being used to store ammunition. Assembly members persuade the radicals to surrender.
October 7, 1848: Most of the Austrian government, including the Emperor, flee to Olmütz (Olomouc).
October 8, 1848: The Tchaikovsky family, including young Pyotr Ilyich (8), leave their provincial home for Moscow where the father believes a new job awaits him.
October 8, 1848: Richard Wagner (35) dates a manuscript entitled Die Nibelungensage (Mythus). It is a prose outline of the Ring.
October 9, 1848: Georges Bizet (9) competes in the examination for entrance to the Paris Conservatoire. He is accepted.
October 11, 1848: The Vienna city council promises to provide for the families of any man who falls defending the city against imperial troops now massed outside the walls.
October 11, 1848: King Willem II accepts revisions to the Dutch constitution which institute, essentially, a parliamentary democracy.
October 14, 1848: The Austrian Imperial family reaches Olmütz (Olomouc).
October 16, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand proclaims every Hungarian a rebel.
October 19, 1848: The state of siege existing in Paris since June ends.
October 20, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand places the city of Vienna under martial law.
October 21, 1848: The Tchaikovsky family, including Pyotr Ilyich (8), arrives in Moscow only to find that the job promised the father is taken and that there is a cholera epidemic in the city. They quickly depart for St. Petersburg.
October 22, 1848: The Austrian Assembly is dissolved by Emperor Ferdinand.
October 24, 1848: After a siege of four days, Prince Windischgrätz, imperial commander, gives Vienna 48 hours to surrender.
October 25, 1848: Il corsaro, an opera by Giuseppe Verdi (35) to words of Piave after Byron, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Grande, Trieste. The audience is less than complementary.
October 25, 1848: Lowell Mason (56) conducts a choir of 3,000 children at festivities celebrating the installation of Boston’s large-scale water supply from Lake Cochituate.
October 26, 1848: Imperial troops advance through the suburbs of Vienna.
October 28, 1848: Imperial troops reach the walls of Vienna and by nightfall the city is afire. The Assembly agrees to surrender but many fighters vow to continue.
October 28, 1848: The first railway in Iberia opens between Barcelona and Mataró.
October 29, 1848: The Hungarian army under Kossuth, ignorant of the surrender of Vienna, joins the battle on behalf of the city.
October 29, 1848: Hector Berlioz (44) directs a concert at Versailles to benefit the Association des artistes musiciens. It is very successful.
October 30, 1848: Imperial troops (from Bohemia, Moravia, Galicia, and Croatia) defeat the Hungarian army at Schwechat, near Vienna.
October 31, 1848: After heavy fighting at the Burgtor near the Palace, the Inner City of Vienna falls. The Imperial commander, General Windischgrätz, believing himself betrayed, encourages general pillaging and sadism by his troops on the population. Imperial troops enter the city and kill anyone with a weapon.
November 1, 1848: Halka, an opera by Stanislaw Moniuszko (29) to words of Wolski, is performed for the first time, in a concert setting in Vilnius. See 1 January 1858.
November 2, 1848: A workers’ revolt in Lemberg (Lviv) is destroyed by a Russian bombardment which kills 55 people.
November 2, 1848: Friedrich Wilhelm, Count of Brandenburg, son of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, replaces Ernst von Pfuel as Prime Minister of Prussia.
November 3, 1848: The first railroad in South America opens in British Guiana (Guyana).
November 4, 1848: A constitution for the Second French Republic is completed.
November 7, 1848: Voting in the United States presidential election ensures the victory of General Zachary Taylor over Senator Lewis Cass.
November 9, 1848: Robert Blum, a member of the German National Assembly who went to Austria to aid the liberals, is executed in Vienna on charges of treason.
November 11, 1848: Le val d’Andorre, an opéra comique by Fromental Halévy (49) to words of Saint-Georges, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris. It is an unqualified success with press and public.
November 12, 1848: The constitution of the Second French Republic is inaugurated at the Place de la Concorde. Snow is lightly falling.
November 13, 1848: The Piano Trio no.1 op.63 by Robert Schumann (38) is performed publicly for the first time, in Leipzig. See 13 September 1847.
November 15, 1848: Count Pellegrino Rossi, Prime Minister of the Papal States, on his way into the Assembly building in Rome, is pressed upon by a democratically-minded crowd and stabbed in the neck by an unknown assailant. He bleeds to death within half an hour.
November 16, 1848: About 10,000 demonstrators converge on the Pope’s residence in Rome demanding a new, liberal cabinet. In response to a brewing insurrection, Pope Pius IX names a more democratically inclined government.
November 16, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38), ill and exhausted, plays at a charity ball for the relief of Polish refugees at the Guildhall, London. It is his last public performance.
November 16, 1848: Second Anglo-Sikh War: British forces cross the River Ravi and attack the Sikhs.
November 17, 1848: Imperial troops capture Kolozsvár, the capital of Transylvania.
November 21, 1848: General Prince Felix, Count Schwarzenberg, an absolutist replaces the liberal Johann, Baron Wessenberg-Ampringen as Prime Minister of Austria. The appointment takes place in Olmütz (Olomuc) where the Emperor has fled.
November 21, 1848: Dirk Donker Curtius and Jacob Matthaeus de Kempenaer replace Gerrit Count Schemmelpenninck as chief ministers of the Netherlands.
November 22, 1848: The Austrian Reichstag, having fled Vienna, assembles at Kremsier, Moravia (Kromeriz, Czech Republic).
November 22, 1848: Second Anglo-Sikh War: Fighting between the British and Sikhs at Ramnagar brings inconclusive results.
November 23, 1848: As Frédéric Chopin (38) leaves London by train he suffers a brief seizure, a cramp below his ribs on the right side. Later, he crosses the Channel heading for Paris.
November 24, 1848: Frédéric Chopin (38) arrives in Paris from his sojourn in Great Britain. He is very ill.
November 25, 1848: Pope Pius IX flees to Gaeta and receives protection from King Ferdinando of Naples.
November 26, 1848: Giacomo Meyerbeer (57) resigns his post as Prussian Generalmusikdirektor in a cloud of controversy and personal animosity. He retains the position of director of Royal Court Music.
November 29, 1848: The festival hymn Du, Du, der über Raum und Zeit for solo voices and chorus by Giacomo Meyerbeer (57) to words of Winkler is performed for the first time, in Berlin for the 25th wedding anniversary of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV and and Queen Elisabeth of Prussia.
November 30, 1848: Poliuto, a tragedia lirica by Gaetano Donizetti (†0) to words of Cammarano after Corneille, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples. The previously censored work is produced owing to decreased censorship during the constitutional period. See 26 September 1838.
November 30, 1848: Duke Joseph of Saxe-Altenburg abdicates his throne and is succeeded by his brother Georg.
December 1, 1848: The merchant ship New York arrives in New York harbor from France bringing passengers infected with cholera. Although the passengers are quarantined on Staten Island, some will escape and begin an epidemic which will kill 5,000 people.
December 2, 1848: Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria, King Ferdinand V of Bohemia, King Ferdinand V of Hungary, Archduke Ferdinand IV of Austria, under regency since 1836, abdicates, and is succeeded by his nephew Emperor Franz Joseph II of Austria, Archduke Franz Josef I of Austria, King Frantisek Josef I of Bohemia, King Ferenc József I of Hungary.
December 2, 1848: Olympe Pélissier writes to a friend about the psychological troubles of her husband, Gioachino Rossini (51), describing a month of insomnia and nervous disorders.
December 3, 1848: A Grand Duo for violin and piano on themes from Meyerbeer’s (57) Le Prophète, jointly composed by Henri Vieuxtemps and Anton Rubinstein (19), is performed for the first time, by the composers, in St. Petersburg.
December 3, 1848: Johann Strauss, Jr. (23) conducts the Marseillaise at a concert the day after the accession of Emperor Franz Joseph.
December 5, 1848: With 13,000 Prussian troops now in Berlin, King Friedrich Wilhelm IV dissolves the Parliament and decrees a conservative constitution. It allows for universal male suffrage but places ultimate power with the king.
December 5, 1848: In his annual address to Congress, US President Polk confirms the discovery of gold in California.
December 6, 1848: Johann Strauss, Jr. (23) is detained and interrogated by the police for playing the Marseillaise at a concert on 3 December. He claims that if he had not played it, the audience would have attacked him.
December 10, 1848: An election is held for President of the French Republic.
December 13, 1848: An imperial army of 44,000 men led by General Windischgrätz enters Hungary.
December 14, 1848: Preußens Stimme for voice and piano by Otto Nicolai (38) to words of Lange is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
December 14, 1848: Geißelhiebe op.60, a polka by Johann Strauss, Jr. (23), is performed for the first time, at the Grünes Thor.
December 18, 1848: Milda, a cantata by Stanislaw Moniuszko (29) after Kraszewski, is performed for the first time, in Vilnius.
December 19, 1848: Emily Brontë dies in Haworth, West Yorkshire at the age of 30.
December 20, 1848: Although slavery was abolished in French lands on 27 April, it is today ended in practice on Réunion.
December 20, 1848: The result of the French election of 10 December is announced and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is inaugurated president of the Second French Republic in the evening. He appoints Camille Odilon Barrot as Prime Minister.
December 23, 1848: Speaking to the Société Philomatique de Paris, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau describes spectrum shifts in light coming from stars similar to the Doppler Effect.
December 26, 1848: Neue Steiersche Tänze op.61 by Johann Strauss, Jr. (23) are performed for the first time, in Dommayer’s Casino, Heitzing.
December 27, 1848: The Frankfurt Assembly approves the Imperial Law regarding the Basic Rights of the German People. It proclaims freedom of religion, assembly, press, and movement as well as abolishing capital punishment.
December 29, 1848: President James K. Polk ignites the first gas light in the White House.
December 30, 1848: A large Hungarian force is defeated by Imperial troops at Mór, west of Pest.
December 31, 1848: Hungarians begin the evacuation of Pest, personally supervised by Lajos Kossuth. It will take three days and nights. Kossuth moves the government to Debrecen.