January 1, 1837: An earthquake strikes the region of the Sea of Gallilee, flattening several villages and causing an estimated 6,000 deaths.
January 1, 1837: A setting of Tantum ergo by Giuseppe Verdi (23) is performed for the first time, in San Bartolomeo, Busseto.
January 2, 1837: Mily Alyekseyevich Balakirev is born in Nizhny-Novgorod, Russian Empire, the first of four children born to Aleksey Konstantinovich Balakirev, a government official and Yelizaveta Ivanovna Yasherova who is descended from the minor nobility.
January 4, 1837: In Frankfurt auf der Zeile, da steht ein junger Mann for male voices by Felix Mendelssohn (27) is performed for the first time.
January 11, 1837: British settlers make the first survey for their settlement at Adelaide, South Australia.
January 13, 1837: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (32) is appointed Kapellmeister of the Court Chapel Choir by Tsar Nikolay I in St. Petersburg.
January 23, 1837: John Field dies in Moscow, Russian Empire, aged 54 years and approximately six months. Although he suffered from alcoholism and rectal cancer over the last ten years, the cause of death is pneumonia.
January 26, 1837: Michigan becomes the 26th state of the United States.
January 27, 1837: A funeral service for John Field is held in the Reformed Church, Moscow. His earthly remains are laid to rest in Yedensky Cemetery outside Moscow, attended by a large crowd.
January 28, 1837: Today marks the first of four concerts given by Franz Liszt (25) in Paris “to make known the works of the grande école of the piano, too often disfigured by incompetent executants.” This presumably refers to Sigismond Thalberg (25). The four performances will be a critical triumph.
January 31, 1837: Achille Paganini, son of Nicolò (54), is officially legitimized in Piedmont.
January 31, 1837: Bentley’s Miscellany publishes the first of ten installments of Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens.
February 1, 1837: Grand Duke Friedrich Franz I of Mecklenburg-Schwerin dies in Ludwigslust and is succeeded by his grandson, Paul Friedrich.
February 10, 1837: Alyeksandr Pushkin dies in St. Petersburg at the age of 37.
February 12, 1837: Beata mortui in Domino morientes for male voices by Felix Mendelssohn (28) to words of the Apocalypse is performed for the first time, in Leipzig.
February 13, 1837: Bread riots take place in New York City. The military is called in and 50 people are arrested.
February 14, 1837: Ignaz von Rudhart replaces Josef Ludwig Count Armansperg as Prime Minister of Greece.
February 16, 1837: Clara Wieck (17) gives her first concert in Berlin, at the Opera House. She is the opening act for a ballet.
February 17, 1837: Incidental music to Singer’s play Die letzte Heidenverschwörung in Preußen oder Der Deutsche Ritterorden in Königsberg WWV 41 by Richard Wagner (23) is performed probably for the first time, in the Königsberg Stadttheater.
February 18, 1837: Pia de’ Tolomei, an tragedia lirica by Gaetano Donizetti (39) to words of Cammarano after Sestini and Dante, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Apollo, Venice. It gets a mixed reception.
February 19, 1837: Georg Büchner dies of typhus in Zürich at the age of 23, his play Woyzeck still unfinished.
February 20, 1837: Die beiden Schützen, a komische Oper by Albert Lortzing (35) to his own words after Patrat (tr. Cords), is performed for the first time, in Leipzig Stadttheater.
February 23, 1837: César Franck (14) plays the piano in a concert featuring several different performers at the Athénée Musical, Paris. He performs part of his own Deuxième grand concerto for piano and orchestra. Although overshadowed by others on the program, he receives mildly positive notices.
February 24, 1837: Clara Wieck (17) gives her first full-length recital in Berlin. This and the five to follow are given a fairly positive critical response. She is compared to Mendelssohn (28). The public love her. Her father reports, “Triumph, triumph, Clara created a furore last night. Her masterly playing was rewarded by an hour and a half of thunder and formidable bravissimos...Even Paganini (54) did not have such accolades here.”
February 27, 1837: Justo José Corro replaces Antonio López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón as acting President of Mexico.
March 1, 1837: Variation on Cavatine du Pirate of Bellini op.8 for piano by Clara Wieck (17) is performed for the first time, by the composer in Berlin.
March 3, 1837: On his last full day in office, United States President Andrew Jackson recognizes the independence of the Republic of Texas.
March 4, 1837: Martin van Buren replaces Andrew Jackson as President of the United States. The 25th Congress convenes in Washington. Despite the election of Democrat Martin Van Buren, the Democrats lose 15 seats in the House of Representatives while the Whigs gain 25. Democrats hold a 2-1 majority in the Senate.
March 4, 1837: Chicago is incorporated as a city.
March 12, 1837: Sigismond Thalberg (25) gives a concert at the Paris Conservatoire. It is a great success.
March 19, 1837: Franz Liszt (25) hires the Paris Opéra, fills it with an audience of 3,000 and proceeds to enthrall the listeners. This is in response to Thalberg’s (25) success of 12 March.
March 24, 1837: Black men are granted the right to vote in Lower Canada.
March 26, 1837: Messe solennelle for solo voices, chorus, and instruments by Adolphe Adam (33) is performed for the first time, in the Church of Saint-Eustache, Paris.
March 28, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) marries Cécile Charlotte Sophia Jeanrenaud, daughter of a pastor, in the French Reformed Church of Frankfurt-am-Main. Mendelssohn’s mother and two sisters are absent. His mother is ill and his sisters are both pregnant.
March 31, 1837: John Constable dies in London at the age of 59.
April 1, 1837: Richard Wagner (23) is appointed as music director of the city theatre in Königsberg (Kaliningrad).
April 19, 1837: Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera replaces Justo José Corro as President of Mexico.
April 21, 1837: The first section of a railway between Leipzig and Dresden opens.
April 25, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) sails from New York aboard the Virginian for a six month tour of Europe.
April 28, 1837: The aria “Jo l’amai di fiamma pupra” and quintet “Un turbamento orcano” from the opera La figlia abbandonata by Otto Nicolai (26) are performed for the first time, in Milan.
April 30, 1837: Massachusetts becomes the first state in the United States to have a state board of education.
May 1, 1837: Thomas Carlyle’s The French Revolution: a History is published this month.
May 8, 1837: The steamboat Ben Sherrod catches fire on the Mississippi River north of Fort Adams, Mississippi. At least 120 people are killed.
May 10, 1837: Following the demise of the Second Bank of the United States, a liquidity crisis ensues and the Panic of 1837 begins when New York banks suspend all specie payments. 618 banks will fail this year. The depression will last seven years.
May 15, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) arrives in Liverpool for a six month tour that will take him to Germany, Switzerland, and France.
May 18, 1837: Count Adolf Göran Mörner replaces Gustaf af Wetterstedt as Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden.
May 30, 1837: The Treaty of Tafna is signed. After losses to Algerians under Abd al-Kadir, France obtains control of only about a third of the country.
May 31, 1837: Minna Wagner secretly leaves her husband Richard (24) in Königsberg (Kaliningrad) and flees to Dresden with a businessman named Dietrich.
June 1, 1837: Otto Nicolai (26) takes up his position as Kapellmeister of the Vienna Hofburgtheater.
June 2, 1837: António Dias de Oliveira replaces Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira as Prime Minister of Portugal.
June 3, 1837: In London, Lowell Mason (45) writes in his travel diary, “Heard this day of the failure of the great American Houses Wilson & Co., Wild & Co. and Wiggins & Co. of London, and which must produce great distress in America.” (Mason, 40)
June 5, 1837: Houston is incorporated as a city by the Republic of Texas.
June 6, 1837: Boers meet at the Vet River and adopt a fundamental law for the Republic of Natal. Piet Retief is chosen leader.
June 10, 1837: La fête de Versailles, an intermède en deux parties by Daniel Auber (55) to words of Scribe, is performed for the first time, at Versailles.
June 11, 1837: Sectarian violence breaks out in Boston when up to 1,000 Yankees and Irish immigrants battle in Broad Street. The military is called in and quells the fighting.
June 12, 1837: William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone of Great Britain receive a British patent for an electromagnetic telegraph.
June 16, 1837: Unknown to all attending, Nicolò Paganini’s (54) concert today in Turin is the last he will ever give.
June 18, 1837: A new liberal constitution for Spain is adopted.
June 20, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) happens to meet Sir George Smart in London who invites him to the Chapel Royal on Sunday the 25th to hear the funeral anthem for the king. Mason will attend.
June 20, 1837: King William IV of the United Kingdom, King Wilhelm I of Hannover dies at Windsor Castle and is succeeded by his niece, Victoria. With the death of King Wilhelm, Hannover is separated from Great Britain since women may not succeed to its throne. Ernst August I, Duke of Cumberland, the eldest surviving son of George III, becomes King of Hannover.
June 24, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) writes to his mother from Frankfurt that he will support and help his sister, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (31), to publish if that is the wish of Fanny and her husband. But he will not encourage her to publish. He thinks that publishing should be part of a lifetime career and that Fanny is “too much a Frau, as is proper…” It might take her away from her first and preferred calling.
June 24, 1837: Swiss paleontologist Louis Agassiz surprises the Swiss Society of Natural Sciences, meeting in Neuchâtel, by supporting the idea that the northern hemisphere was once covered by glaciers, and uses the term “ice age.”
June 30, 1837: Great Britain ceases to use the pillory for punishment.
July 1, 1837: Civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths begins in England and Wales.
July 4, 1837: The Grand Junction Railway opens from Birmingham to Liverpool.
July 5, 1837: Les mohicans, a ballet by Adolphe Adam (33) to a scenario by Guerra, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
July 7, 1837: Frédéric Chopin (27) arrives incognito in London with Camille Pleyel. They will stay for three weeks. Chopin comes to love the city very much but he will cough for most of his stay owing to the effects of soot on his delicate lungs.
July 7, 1837: The new King of Hannover, Ernst August II, suppresses the constitution.
July 20, 1837: The first section of the London & Birmingham Railway opens from Camden Town to Boxmoor.
July 24, 1837: After three months at George Sand’s country estate Nohant, Franz Liszt (25) and Marie d’Agoult depart for an extended trip to Switzerland and Italy.
July 25, 1837: Frédéric Chopin (27) and Camille Pleyel return to Paris after a three-week stay in London.
July 25, 1837: An electric telegraph system invented by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone goes into operation between Euston and Camden Town in London.
July 30, 1837: Virginia Donizetti, wife of Gaetano Donizetti (39) dies in Naples of unknown causes. She apparently suffered puerperal fever after giving birth 13 June then became very ill. The baby survived only an hour. Because of the current cholera epidemic in Naples, her earthly remains are buried today.
August 10, 1837: Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, visconde e barão de Sá Bandeira replaces António Dias de Oliveira as Prime Minister of Portugal.
August 16, 1837: Dutch forces capture the fortress of Bonjol on Sumatra, essentially ending the Padri War.
August 18, 1837: Joaquín Baldomero Fernández Espartero, conde de Luchana replaces José María Calatrava as Prime Minister of Spain.
August 18, 1837: Three weeks of voting conclude in the British general election. Prime Minister Lord Melbourne’s Whigs lose 41 seats to the Conservatives but retain a majority.
August 21, 1837: Richard Wagner (24) arrives in Riga to take up his position as musical director of the theatre there.
August 23, 1837: La double échelle, an opéra comique by Ambroise Thomas (26) to words of Planard, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre de Nouveautés, Paris. It is the first work of Thomas to be staged.
August 24, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) departs Düsseldorf for England. His wife remains at home because she is pregnant.
August 24, 1837: A committee appointed by Mayor Samuel A. Eliot and led by attorney T. Kemper Davis, presents its report that music should be part of the curriculum of the Boston Public Schools.
August 26, 1837: Two gunboats comprising the navy of Texas are attacked by Mexican ships near Galveston. One escapes, one is run aground and destroyed.
August 26, 1837: The first rail line in the Paris area opens to Le Pecq.
August 27, 1837: Anton Bruckner (12) is admitted to the elementary school at the monastery of St. Florian.
August 31, 1837: A relatively unknown speaker fills in for a meeting of the Phi Beta Kappa society at Harvard. His name is Ralph Waldo Emerson and he describes transcendentalist philosophy for the first time in public in a talk called “The American Scholar.”
August 31, 1837: La preghiera di un popolo, a hymn by Gaetano Donizetti (39) for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples.
September 5, 1837: In London, Lowell Mason (45) writes in his travel journal, “At 8 went to rehearsal of St. Paul at Exeter Hall—the Author Mendelssohn (28) was present. I did not much enjoy it, and left before it was over…” (Mason, 122)
September 10, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) performs during a service at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. After the service, he continues to play and most of the congregation stay on to listen. The sexton, desirous to clear the Cathedral, orders those pumping the bellows to stop. Thus, the concert is concluded. Three or four clergymen publicly berate the sexton and call for his dismissal. The crowd makes a fuss, crying shame at the sexton.
September 12, 1837: Samuel Wesley (71) attends a recital by Felix Mendelssohn (28) at All Saints, Newgate Street, London. After the concert, Wesley is asked to play. He does so and receives praise from Mendelssohn. “The frail old man improvised with great artistry and splendid facility, so that I could not but admire. His daughter was so moved by the sight of it all that she fainted and could not stop crying and sobbing.” (Eatcock, 63) Wesley replies to Mendelssohn’s praise, “You should have heard me forty years ago.”
September 13, 1837: Friedrich Wieck receives the letter from Robert Schumann (27) asking for his daughter’s hand. Wieck will be evasive.
September 13, 1837: Richard Wagner (24) conducts in Riga for the first time, in a performance of a comic opera by Carl Blum to which Wagner added an aria.
September 14, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) arrives in Oxford. On the way from London, his coach was passed by a procession carrying Queen Victoria.
September 16, 1837: Ferdinand, son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry is given the title of King of Portugal. He will reign alongside his wife, Queen Maria II as Fernando II.
September 16, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) arrives in Birmingham for Oxford. On the way he visited Shakespeare’s house in Stratford-upon-Avon.
September 18, 1837: Charles Tiffany and John B. Young found Tiffany & Young on Broadway in New York City. The price of every item is not negotiable, a policy unheard of at this time.
September 19, 1837: Acting on the Kemper Committee report of 24 August, the Boston School Committee authorizes a trial of music classes in four schools during the 1837-38 academic year. They will be run by the Boston Academy of Music.
September 20, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) conducts his St. Paul at the Birmingham Festival to great acclaim.
September 21, 1837: Piano Concerto no.2 op.40 by Felix Mendelssohn (28) is performed for the first time, in Birmingham, the composer at the keyboard.
September 22, 1837: Nicolas-Joseph Franck receives word that King Louis-Philippe has accepted his application and made him a citizen of France. He may now enroll his son César (14) in the Paris Conservatoire.
September 27, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) arrives in Frankfurt from London where he joins his wife to return to Leipzig.
September 27, 1837: Charles Dickens dedicates his first novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club in London.
September 29, 1837: Emperor Mo’in ad-Din Abu’n Nasr Mohammad Akbar Padshah Saheb Quiran-e Sani of India dies in Delhi and is replaced by Seraj ad-Din Abu’l Mozaffar.
October 1, 1837: Tokugawa Ieyoshi becomes Shogun in Japan.
October 1, 1837: Felix Mendelssohn (28) arrives in Leipzig from London via Frankfurt hours before he is to conduct the first concert of the new Gewandhaus season.
October 1, 1837: After five months in Europe, Lowell Mason (45) sails from Liverpool making for New York.
October 2, 1837: A hurricane strikes near Matamoros, Mexico and slowly moves north.
October 4, 1837: After waiting a year to become a French citizen, César Franck (14) is enrolled in the Conservatoire. He enters the counterpoint class of Aimé-Ambroise-Simon Leborne.
October 5, 1837: The storm that struck Matamoros moves over Galveston.
October 6, 1837: The Gulf of Mexico storm makes a third landfall (near present Venice, Louisiana). It then moves across the southern United States. 105 people are killed by this storm.
October 10, 1837: On a visit to her brother Felix (28) in Leipzig, Fanny Mendelssohn (31) meets her new sister-in-law Cécile for the first time. Fanny was pregnant and could not attend the wedding.
October 11, 1837: 16:20 Samuel Wesley dies after a short illness, in London, United Kingdom, aged 71 years, seven months, and 17 days.
October 13, 1837: Constantine (Qusantina), Algeria, 330 km west of Tunis, falls to French troops but at great cost including the death yesterday of Charles, Comte de Damrémont, Governor-General of French North Africa.
October 17, 1837: 07:00 Johann Nepomuk Hummel dies at his home in the Marienstraße, Weimar, Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, probably of heart disease, aged 58 years, eleven months, and three days.
October 17, 1837: A funeral service in memory of Samuel Wesley takes place in Old Marylebone Church, London, following which his mortal remains are laid to rest in the family vault in St. Marylebone, (now East Finchley) Cemetery.
October 18, 1837: Eusebio Bardají y Azara replaces Joaquín, Baldomero Fernández Espartero, conde de Luchana as Prime Minister of Spain.
October 20, 1837: A funeral is held in memory of Johann Nepomuk Hummel in Weimar in the presence of the Grand Ducal court. His mortal remains are laid to rest in the Historic Cemetery, near those of the ruling family, Goethe, and Schiller.
October 22, 1837: Publication of the Etudes for piano op.25 by Frédéric Chopin (27) is advertised in the Paris press.
October 23, 1837: About 4,000 Patriotes rally at Saint Charles, Lower Canada, led by Louis-Joseph Papineau. They essentially declare the independence of French-speaking Canada.
October 24, 1837: Adolf von Henselt (23) marries Rosalie (Mangen) Vogel, recently divorced from the physician to Duke Carl August, in Bad Salzbrunn, Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia (Szczawno-Zdroj, Poland).
October 27, 1837: Seminole war chief Osceola is lured to a “peace conference” at Fort Payton, ten km south of St. Augustine, Florida, and captured. He is transported to Fort Moultrie, South Carolina.
October 28, 1837: Gaetano Donizetti’s (39) tragedia lirica Roberto Devereux, ossia Il conte di Essex to words of Cammarano after Ancelot is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples. The composer reports that “it went very, very well indeed.”
October 30, 1837: Scene at the Monastery by Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (33) to words of Kukolnik is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg.
October 30, 1837: The steamboat Monmouth, carrying about 600 Creek Indians to a reservation, collides with the Tremont at Prophet Island Bend in the Mississippi Rivers. Around 300 Creeks are killed.
October 30, 1837: The first railway line in Russia opens between St. Petersburg and the Tsar's summer residence at Tsarskoye Selo.
October 31, 1837: English immigrant William Procter, a candle maker, and Irish immigrant James Gamble, a soap maker, join forces in Cincinnati to form Procter and Gamble. They met because they are married to sisters.
November 1, 1837: Lowell Mason (45) arrives back in Boston on a steamboat from New York after a six-month tour that took him to Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland, and France.
November 1, 1837: Karl von Abel replaces Georg Friedrich, Baron Zentner as President of the Council of Ministers of Bavaria.
November 7, 1837: Abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy is killed by a mob in his Alton, Illinois newspaper office.
November 8, 1837: Mount Holyoke Female Seminary opens its doors in South Hadley, Massachusetts. It is the first college in the United States intended exclusively for women.
November 12, 1837: Clara Wieck (18) gives her first concert in Prague, at the Conservatory. She receives 13 curtain calls.
November 14, 1837: The Boston School Committee accepts the offer of Lowell Mason (45) to teach music in the Hawes Grammar School in South Boston, without payment. Although the School Committee authorized music at their 19 September meeting, the City Council refused to fund the measure.
November 16, 1837: Horace Mann begins writing his annual reports as Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. They will change the face of public education.
November 17, 1837: The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club by Charles Dickens is published in book form. It was serialized last year.
November 17, 1837: Political tensions become violent when patriote militia attack 20 British troopers escorting two prisoners at Longueuil, Lower Canada. Many are wounded and the prisoners escape.
November 17, 1837: The first steam railway in Austria opens between Florisdorf and Wagram.
November 19, 1837: String Quartet no.4 op.44/2 by Felix Mendelssohn (28) is performed for the first time, in Leipzig.
November 23, 1837: The first steam railway in the Austrian Empire opens between Floridsdorf, in Vienna, and Wagram (Deutsch-Wagram).
November 23, 1837: British troops sent to crush the rebellion meet patriote resistance at Saint Jean, Lower Canada. After battling, the British are forced to retreat.
November 25, 1837: Patriotes are overrun by a British force at Saint Charles, Lower Canada with great losses.
November 28, 1837: Messa di Gloria by Gaetano Donizetti for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra is performed for the first time, on the eve of the composer’s 40th birthday.
December 2, 1837: Le domino noir, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (55) to words of Scribe is performed for the first time, at Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
December 3, 1837: Clara Wieck (18) gives her first concert in Vienna, at the home of Baroness Pereira.
December 3, 1837: Richard Wagner’s (24) Volks-Hymne “Nikolai” for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra to words of von Brackel is performed for the first time, in the Riga Stadttheater.
December 5, 1837: Former Mayor William Lyon Mackenzie leads a revolt against repressive government measures in Toronto. After doing some damage, they are dispersed by armed loyalists.
December 5, 1837: Giacomo Meyerbeer (46) halts work on his opera Cinq Mars. It will never be completed.
December 5, 1837: Grande messe des morts op.5 for tenor, chorus, and orchestra by Hector Berlioz (33) is performed for the first time, in Les Invalides, Paris. The work was commissioned by the French Minister of the Interior and is used to honor General Damrémont and others killed in the conquest of Constantine, Algeria by French troops. The performance takes place before the royal family and all the powers of the nation. It is an unquestioned success.
December 6, 1837: Agnes von Hohenstaufen, a grosse historisch-romantische Oper by Gaspare Spontini (63) to words of Raupach revised by Lichtenstein, is performed for the first time, in the Berlin Opera. See 28 May 1827 and 12 June 1829.
December 7, 1837: Armed loyalist militia attack Mackenzie’s insurgents at Toronto and scatter them. Mackenzie escapes to Buffalo.
December 13, 1837: Pauline Garcia (16) makes her singing debut at the Hôtel de Ville in Brussels in a charity concert before King Léopold, the Queen, and other members of the court and diplomatic corps. It is extremely successful.
December 14, 1837: Patriotes attack a British force at Saint Eustache but are soundly defeated. The British then go on to bombard and capture the town.
December 14, 1837: William Lyon Mackenzie sets up a provisional government for Upper Canada on Navy Island in the Niagara River and is joined by about 25 renegade Americans.
December 14, 1837: Clara Wieck (18) gives her first concert at the Musikverein in Vienna. Through the winter, she will give six concerts here, two at the Kärntnertortheater, and appear at many private parties. She becomes the sensation of the city, compared to Paganini (55) for her technical virtuosity and depth of feeling.
December 15, 1837: British forces destroy Saint Benoit near Saint Eustache, effectively ending the rebellion in Lower Canada.
December 16, 1837: Narciso de Heredia y Begines de los Ríos, conde de Ofalia replaces Eusebio Bardají y Azara as Prime Minister of Spain.
December 20, 1837: King Othon I replaces Ignaz von Rudhart as Prime Minister of Greece.
December 22, 1837: Albert Lortzing’s (36) komische Oper Zar und Zimmermann, oder Die beiden Peter to the composer’s words after Melesville, Merle, and Boirie (tr. Römer) is performed for the first time, in Leipzig. This work secures Lortzing’s position as the most important German composer of comic opera.
December 24, 1837: A second child, Francesca Gaetana Cosima, is born to Franz Liszt (26) and Countess Marie d’Agoult, at Hotel dell’Angelo, Como, while they are on their extended tour of Switzerland and Italy.
December 25, 1837: US forces under Zachary Taylor attack Seminoles near Lake Okeechobee, Florida. The whites are forced to retreat with serious losses.
December 26, 1837: True to its name, Teatro La Fenice reopens in Venice, a little over a year after burning down.
December 26, 1837: Clara Wieck (18) plays before the Imperial court in Vienna. She will be given the title Imperial Court Pianist by Emperor Ferdinand.
December 29, 1837: Fire breaks out in the Winter Palace, St. Petersburg. Tsar Nikolay is called back from the theatre to oversee firefighting operations but all that can be done is salvage as much as possible. Most of the interior decoration of the building is destroyed. The conflagration is witnessed by Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (33) from his monastery.
December 30, 1837: Canadian government forces burn the American steamer Caroline for aiding the rebels and send it over Niagara Falls.