A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1836 – December 31, 1836

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January 1, 1836: A letter from Robert Schumann (25) breaking their engagement reaches Ernestine von Fricken at Schloss Buldern. He asks her to send his ring back, which she will do.
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January 3, 1836: Louis Spohr (51) marries Marianne Pfeiffer, the sister of his late friend Carl Pfeiffer, in Kassel. It is his second marriage, her first. She is 28.
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January 12, 1836: After the sixth performance of Maria Stuarda by Gaetano Donizetti (38), Rainer, Archduke of Austria, the Austrian governor of Lombardy bans the work owing to profanity and other abominations contained therein.
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January 14, 1836: After forbidding his daughter Clara (16) to have any contact with Robert Schumann (25), Friedrich Wieck carries her off to Dresden to forget about him.
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January 23, 1836: Actéon, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (53) to words of Scribe, is performed for the first time, at Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
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January 28, 1836: Daniel Auber is elected to the Académie Française on the eve of his 54th birthday.
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January 29, 1836: Das Schloss am Aetna, a grosse romantische Oper by Heinrich August Marschner (40) to words of Klingemann, is performed for the first time, in Leipzig Stadttheater. A bad performance produces a collossal flop.
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February 2, 1836: A French government decree is issued creating Gaetano Donizetti (38) a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor.
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February 4, 1836: Belisario, a tragedia lirica by Gaetano Donizetti (38) to words of Cammarano after von Schenk translated by Marchionni, is performed for the first time, at Teatro La Fenice, Venice. The work is well received.
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February 5, 1836: French Prime Minister the Duc de Broglie agrees to pay the spoliation claims as required under the 1831 treaty with the US.
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February 6, 1836: Publication of John Field’s (53) Nocturnes nos.14-16 is advertised in Bibliographie de France.
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February 7, 1836: While in Zwickau on account of his mother’s death, Robert Schumann (25) secretly visits Clara Wieck (16) in Dresden. Over the next week he will open his heart to her and profess his love. She reciprocates.
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February 8, 1836: The first series of Sketches by Boz by Charles Dickens is published. It includes several previously published works and three new items. It is his first book in print.
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February 8, 1836: The first leg of the London & Greenwich Railway opens from Spa Road to Deptford. It is the first steam railroad in London.
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February 8, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) apples for the post of maestro di musica in Busseto.
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February 14, 1836: A fire in a temporary wooden theatre in St. Petersburg kills about 800 people.
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February 16, 1836: Verdicts are handed down in the attempted assassination of King Louis-Philippe of France last July. Three defendants are sentenced to death. One receives 20 years. A fifth is acquitted.
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February 19, 1836: Spanish Prime Minister Mendizábal orders the closure of all monasteries and convents in the country.
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February 19, 1836: Giuseppe-Maria Fieschi, Pierre Morey and Théodore Pepin are executed by guillotine for their part in the attempted assassination of King Louis-Philippe of France last July. Hours before his death, Pepin reveals his membership in a hitherto unknown radical republican group, the Société des Familles.
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February 21, 1836: Clément Philibert Léo Delibes is born in St. Germain du Val (today part of La Flèche), Sarthe, Kingdom of France, the only child of Philibert Delibes, a postal worker and Clémence Delibes, the daughter of an opera singer.
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February 22, 1836: Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers replaces Achille Charles Léonce Victor, Duc de Broglie as Prime Minister of France.
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February 23, 1836: 3,000 Mexican troops surround 182 Texan rebels in the Alamo mission at San Antonio de Bexar.
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February 25, 1836: Samuel Colt receives a US patent for a revolver, colloquially known as a six-shooter.
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February 27, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) is examined in Parma for the post of maestro di musica in Busseto.
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February 27, 1836: Seminoles under Osceola defeat a US relief force marching inland from Tampa Bay at the Withlacoochee River.
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February 28, 1836: Hymne an den Unendlichen D.232 for vocal quartet and piano by Franz Schubert (†7) to words of Schiller is performed for the first time, in the Vienna Redoutensaal.
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February 29, 1836: Les Huguenots, a grand opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer (44) to words of Scribe and Deschamps, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. It will be one of the most successful productions ever staged at the Opéra with 1,126 performances in Paris over the next hundred years, and breaking all box office records. In the audience are Hector Berlioz (32) and Harriet Smithson. It will become Meyerbeer’s most performed work, with thousands of performances throughout the world.
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March 2, 1836: Residents of Texas declare their independence from Mexico. A constituent assembly names David Burnet as president and Lorenzo de Zavala as vice-president.
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March 5, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) is appointed maestro di musica in Busseto.
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March 6, 1836: After a two week battle, Mexican forces overrun the Texan defenders of the Alamo, San Antonio de Bexar. They take no prisoners.
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March 8, 1836: The faculty of the University of Leipzig votes to confer an honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree on Felix Mendelssohn. See 20 March 1836.
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March 12, 1836: Publication of Die Schule des Fugenspiels op.400 for piano by Carl Czerny (45) is announced in Vienna.
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March 17, 1836: The government of Texas proclaims a republican constitution which includes slavery.
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March 19, 1836: Mexican forces defeat Texans at Goliad. They take about 300 prisoners.
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March 20, 1836: The University of Leipzig confers an honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree on Felix Mendelssohn (27).
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March 27, 1836: Mexican troops execute the 300 prisoners taken at Goliad on 19 March along with 100 others.
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March 29, 1836: Richard Wagner’s (22) grosse komische Oper Das Liebesverbot, oder Die Novize von Palermo to the composer’s words after Shakespeare is performed for the first time, in the Magdeburg Stadttheater, conducted by the composer. On the same day, an anonymous article appears in Robert Schumann’s (25) Neue Zeitschrift für Musik in support of Wagner’s opera. It is written by Wagner.
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March 30, 1836: Samuel Wesley (70) writes to William Crotch (60), sending compositions by his son, Samuel Sebastian Wesley (25), in an attempt to gain a Bachelor of Music for him. Nothing will come of it.
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March 30, 1836: A second performance of Richard Wagner’s (22) Das Liebesverbot has to be cancelled when fist fights break out among the cast on stage before curtain. One combatant produces a knife but no one is seriously injured. See 11 April 1836.
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March 31, 1836: The first monthly installment of Charles Dickens’ first novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, is published.
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April 9, 1836: Daniel Auber’s (54) opéra comique Les chaperons blanc to words of Scribe is performed for the first time, at Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
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April 11, 1836: Hoping to make the acquaintance of Felix Mendelssohn (27) and gain a wider audience for his music, Richard Wagner (22) sends Mendelssohn a copy of his Symphony in C major. (Mendelssohn seems not to have responded and the score has never been found.)
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April 11, 1836: Das Liebesverbot by Richard Wagner (22) is given a second performance in Magdeburg but the fiasco of 30 March has caused a scandal and only three people show up to form an audience.
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April 16, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) is formally engaged to Margherita Barezzi in the office of the mayor of Busseto.
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April 17, 1836: Overture in D D.556 by Franz Schubert (†7) is performed publicly for the first time, at the Vienna Musikverein.
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April 20, 1836: Antonio José de Sousa, Manuel e Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marques e conde de Vila-Flor replaces José Jorge Loureiro as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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April 20, 1836: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (31) petitions Alyeksandr Mikhailovich Gedeonov, Imperial Theatre director, to accept A Life for the Tsar for production.
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April 20, 1836: An aria and chorus for Bakhturin’s play The Moldavian Girl and the Gypsy Girl by Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (31) are performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg.
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April 20, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) signs a contract to be maestro di musica in Busseto, a position that requires him to reside in Busseto ten months of every year, give vocal, instrumental, counterpoint, and composition lessons and conduct the Philharmonic Society.
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April 20, 1836: Prince Johann I of Liechtenstein dies in Vienna and is succeeded by his son, Alois II.
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April 21, 1836: Texan forces under Sam Houston defeat Mexicans at San Jacinto. 630 Mexicans are killed, some while trying to surrender. General Santa Anna is captured.
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May 1, 1836: Felix Mendelssohn (27) departs Leipzig to direct the Niederrheinisches Musikfest in Düsseldorf. While stopping in Frankfurt, he will meet Cécile Jeanrenaud, the daughter of a Protestant minister.
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May 3, 1836: A railway line opens between Mechelen and Antwerp.
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May 4, 1836: Giuseppe Verdi (22) marries Margherita Barezzi, daughter of Antonio Barezzi, a grocer and Verdi’s patron, in the Chiesa Collegiata di San Bartolomeo, Busseto.
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May 4, 1836: Felix Mendelssohn (27) arrives in Frankfurt on his way to Düsseldorf to direct the Niederrheinisches Musikfest. Upon his arrival he is introduced to several people, including a young chorus member Cécile Jeanrenaud. She will eventually become his wife.
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May 15, 1836: Francisco Xavier Istúriz y Montero replaces Juan Alvarez Mendizábal as Prime Minister of Spain.
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May 15, 1836: At Inch Bonney in Scotland, British astronomer Francis Baily, viewing a solar eclipse, observes bright points of light near the outer edge of the moon’s disc. The phenomenon will become known as Baily’s Beads.
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May 19, 1836: United States troops in Alabama begin rounding up Creeks into concentration camps.
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May 22, 1836: St. Paul, an oratorio by Felix Mendelssohn (27) to words of Schubring after the Bible, is performed for the first time, at the Niederrheinisches Musikfest, Düsseldorf, the composer conducting. This performance, and others at the festival, assure the international stature of Mendelssohn. At one point, a soloist playing a “false witness” against St. Stephen loses his way. An alto named Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (30) steps out of the chorus and sings the correct notes for him, whereupon he resumes his part and Frau Hensel returns to the chorus.
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June 1, 1836: Gaetano Donizetti’s (38) melodramma giocoso Il campanello di notte to words of the composer after Brunswick, Troin, and Lhérie is performed for the first time, at Teatro Nuovo, Naples, to a good reception.
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June 6, 1836: King Anton of Saxony dies in Dresden and is succeeded by his nephew Friedrich August II.
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June 6, 1836: Felix Mendelssohn (27) arrives in Frankfurt where he plans to spend the summer. He will see Gioachino Rossini (44) every day for a week. Mendelssohn plays JS Bach (†85) for him at Rossini’s request. The Italian is very impressed. Mendelssohn also spends time with two young women who live in the house where he is staying.
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June 6, 1836: The Departure from Paradise, a cantata by Henry R. Bishop (49), is performed for the first time, at the Philharmonic Society, London.
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June 8, 1836: Robert Schumann’s Piano Sonata op.11 “dedicated to Clara by Florestan and Eusebius” is published on the composer’s 26th birthday.
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June 10, 1836: André-Marie Ampère dies in Marseille at the age of 61.
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June 15, 1836: Arkansas becomes the 25th state of the United States.
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June 16, 1836: The London Working Men’s Association is formed in Covent Garden, beginning the Chartist Movement.
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June 25, 1836: Louis Alibaud, an unemployed man, fires at a carriage carrying King Louis-Philippe of France just outside the Tuileries Palace. No one is hurt. Alibaud is captured.
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July 1, 1836: Henry James Hungerford, having died without children, the US Congress authorizes the acceptance of the gift of Hungerford’s uncle, James Smithson, who died 27 June 1829.
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July 2, 1836: Fromental Halévy (37) is elected to the French Institute.
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July 11, 1836: Louis Alibaud is executed by guillotine for the attempted assassination of King Louis-Philippe on 25 June.
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July 11, 1836: Antônio Carlos Gomes is born in Campinas, Empire of Brazil, the son of Manuel José Gomes, a bandmaster, and Fabiana Maria Jaguari Cardoso.
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July 13, 1836: Felix Mendelssohn (27), in Leipzig, mentions in a letter for the first time “an especially beautiful girl whom I should love to see again.” She is his future wife, Cécile Jeanrenaud.
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July 20, 1836: British settlement of South Australia begins with the establishment of a colony on Kangaroo Island.
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July 21, 1836: The Champlain and Saint Lawrence Railroad opens between La Prairie on the St. Lawrence River and St-Jean on the Richelieu River. It is the first steam railway in Canada.
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July 28, 1836: Frédéric Chopin (26) arrives in Marienbad (Mariánské Lázne) from Paris. His sweetheart, Maria Wodzinska, and her mother are staying there.
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July 29, 1836: King Louis-Philippe of France dedicates the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.
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July 31, 1836: Publication of the Nocturnes op.27 by Frédéric Chopin (26) is advertised in the Paris press.
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August 12, 1836: At the Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso, members of the Royal Guard force the regent Queen María Cristina of Spain to accept a radical ministry and restore the Constitution of 1812 and the national militia.
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August 13, 1836: The Tithe Commutation Act receives Royal Assent from King William. It replaces the practice of paying tithes in kind with monetary payments.
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August 14, 1836: Spanish Conservative leader General Vicente Genaro de Quesada is killed by a mob in Hortaleza, north of Madrid. José María Calatrava replaces Francsco Xavier Istúriz y Montero as Prime Minister of Spain.
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August 20, 1836: The Prisoners’ Counsel Act receives Royal Assent from King William. It ensures that those charged with a felony shall have the right to counsel.
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August 21, 1836: Betly, ossia La capanna svizzera, a dramma giocosa by Gaetano Donizetti (38) to his own words after Scribe and Mélesville, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Nuovo, Naples.
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August 30, 1836: Two brothers named Allen buy 2,700 hectares of land at the meeting of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou in Texas. They plan a town, to be named after the first President of Texas, Sam Houston.
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September 1, 1836: Paris police capture eleven members of a cell of the Société des Familles, a radical republican group, along with a cache of ammunition and 13 daggers.
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September 1, 1836: Christian missionaries Marcus Whitman and Henry Spalding and their wives arrive at Fort Walla Walla. They have traveled overland for seven months from upstate New York. This begins the American settlement of the Oregon Territory.
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September 7, 1836: Emperor Ferdinand of Austria becomes King Ferdinand V of Bohemia.
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September 7, 1836: Louis Matthieu, Comte Molé replaces Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers as Prime Minister of France. Thiers resigned after his proposal of an invasion of Spain in support of the liberal Queen María Cristina was refused by King Louis-Philippe.
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September 9, 1836: In the woods near the Krontal spa north of Frankfurt, Felix Mendelssohn (27) proposes marriage to Cecile Jeanrenaud. She agrees. Mendelssohn was encouraged by her mother.
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September 9, 1836: Frédéric Chopin (26) proposes marriage to Maria Wodzinska, the sister of his boyhood friends, in Dresden. He is given some grounds for hope. (This may not have happened)
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September 9, 1836: Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson is published in Boston.
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September 10, 1836: Frédéric Chopin (26) departs Marienbad (Mariánské Lázne) where he saw Maria Wodzinska and her mother. He may or may not have proposed to her. Chopin’s destination is Leipzig. He will never see Maria Wodzinska again.
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September 10, 1836: José Manuel Inácio da Cunha Faro Meneses Portugal da Gama Carneiro e Sousa, conde de Luminares replaces Antonio José de Sousa, Manuel e Meneses Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marques e conde de Vila-Flor as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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September 12, 1836: A surprise visit by Frédéric Chopin (26) to Robert Schumann (26) today in Leipzig inspires Schumann to complete his Études symphoniques. Chopin presents Schumann with a copy of his new Ballade in g minor. Chopin, Schumann, and Clara Wieck (15) spend most of the day at the piano.
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September 21, 1836: La fille du Danube, a ballet by Adolphe Adam (33) to a scenario by Taglioni and Desmares, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. It is his first work for the Opéra.
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September 28, 1836: The French metric system is introduced by law in Greece.
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October 1, 1836: Lowell Mason (44) signs a new contract with the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. Mason will receive all profits from the church music collection after $2,000 for two years. For the next two years he will receive one-third of the profits, the society two-thirds.
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October 2, 1836: HMS Beagle returns to England after a four-and-a-half year voyage. Among the travelers is Charles Darwin.
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October 13, 1836: Le postillon de Lonjumeau, an opera by Adolphe Adam (33) to words of Leuven and Brunswick (pseud. of Lhérie), is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris.
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October 16, 1836: Franz Liszt (24), Marie d’Agoult and their daughter Blandine return to Paris from Geneva, taking up residence in the Hôtel de France.
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October 18, 1836: The Imperial censors return Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka’s (32) A Life for the Tsar to the office of Imperial Theatres, requiring certain changes be made.
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October 19, 1836: The inaugural meeting of the Church Rate Abolition Society takes place in London. They desire to end tax support of local churches.
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October 21, 1836: The Trauerkantate on the death of Maria Malibran for chorus and orchestra by Otto Nicolai (25), to words possibly by Bonnetti, is performed for the first time, in Bologna.
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October 22, 1836: Sam Houston is inaugurated the first president of the Republic of Texas.
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October 24, 1836: Gioachino Rossini (44) leaves Paris for Italy. He will not move back to the French capital for 19 years.
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October 24, 1836: A soiree takes place at the Paris apartment of Franz Liszt (25) and his mistress Marie d’Agoult to celebrate their recent return from Switzerland. Among the guests are Frédéric Chopin (26) and Aurore Dupin Dudevant (George Sand) who meet for the first time. It was Sand who repeatedly asked Liszt to arrange the meeting. She appears in men’s clothing, as is her wont. Their first impressions are quite different. Chopin finds Sand “repulsive” while Sand finds Chopin “noble.”
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October 24, 1836: Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts receives a patent for friction matches.
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October 25, 1836: In the presence of the royal family and 150,000 others, the obelisk of Luxor is raised in the new Place de la Concorde.
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October 28, 1836: The federation of Peru and Bolivia is proclaimed by Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz.
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October 30, 1836: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte attempts to overthrow the French monarchy in an unsuccessful bloodless putsch in Strasbourg. He will be banished to the United States by King Louis-Philippe.
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November 1, 1836: Protesting against forced removal, Seminoles in Florida under Osceola begin an armed struggle.
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November 2, 1836: The Imperial censors approve of Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka’s (32) A Life for the Tsar.
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November 4, 1836: Giacomo Meyerbeer’s (45) opera Robert le diable is produced in Calcutta, in French.
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November 4, 1836: José Bernardino de Portugal e Castro, marques de Valença, conde de Vimioso replaces José Manuel Inácio da Cunha Faro Meneses Portugal da Gama Carneiro e Sousa, conde de Luminares as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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November 5, 1836: Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira replaces José Bernardino de Portugal e Castro, marques de Valença, conde de Vimioso as Prime Minister of Portugal.
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November 5, 1836: At the home of Frédéric Chopin (26) in Paris, Franz Liszt (25), Marie d’Agoult, Adam Mickiewicz, Albert Gryzmala, and Ferdinand Denis gather for an evening of music.
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November 6, 1836: Charles Bourbon, former King Charles X of France, dies in Görz (Gorizia) at the age of 79.
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November 7, 1836: When François Letellier, the organist of St. Louis Cathedral, New Orleans is required to fill in for a missing bass soloist at high mass, he calls on his pupil, Louis Moreau Gottschalk (7) to take his place at the manuals while he plays the pedals. None of the congregation can tell the difference.
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November 7, 1836: The Euterpe Concert Society performs Hector Berlioz’ (32) Les Francs-Juges in Leipzig. It is the first time that Berlioz’ music has been heard in Germany.
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November 9, 1836: Frédéric Chopin (26) again spends an evening in the company of George Sand, Franz Liszt (25), and Marie d’Agoult, this time at the home of Count Marliani in Paris.
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November 10, 1836: George Sand, Franz Liszt (25), and Marie d’Agoult again dine at the home of Frédéric Chopin (26) in Paris.
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November 11, 1836: Feeling threatened by the recent confederation, Chile declares war on Peru-Bolivia.
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November 14, 1836: Esmeralda, an opera by Louise Bertin (31) to words of Hugo, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. It does not succeed. Critics are widely mixed.
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November 18, 1836: William Schwenck Gilbert is born in London.
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November 19, 1836: Gaetano Donizetti’s (38) dramma lirico L’assedio di Calais to words of Cammarano after DuBelloy is performed for the first time, at Teatro San Carlo, Naples. The work, produced for the name day of the Neapolitan queen mother, is well received.
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November 22, 1836: Nicolò Paganini (54) is elected a member of the Philharmonic Society of Casal Montferrato.
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November 24, 1836: Richard Wagner (23) marries Christine Wilhelmine (Minna) Planer, an actress, in the Tragheimer Kirche near Königsberg (Kaliningrad).
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November 28, 1836: A royal charter is granted to University College, London.
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December 4, 1836: The manifesto for the Democratic Society in Poland is published. It calls for an independent, democratic republic.
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December 4, 1836: Daniel Read dies in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, aged 79 years and 18 days. His earthly remains will be laid to rest in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven.
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December 7, 1836: A month of voting in the United States presidential election concluding today ensures the victory of Vice President Martin Van Buren over several Whig Party candidates including former Senator and General William Henry Harrison, Senator Daniel Webster, and Senator Hugh White.
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December 9, 1836: A Life for the Tsar, an opera by Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (32) to words of Rosen, Sollogub, Kukolnik, and Zhukovsky, is performed for the first time, in the Bolshoy Theatre, St. Petersburg before Tsar Nikolay and other members of the royal family. “The opera was a complete success and I was in a state of intoxication.” Glinka is called to the Imperial box to meet the Tsar. The night will be viewed as the birth of Russia as an art music power.
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December 10, 1836: The Lisbon government prohibits the slave trade in all Portuguese dominions, although they have no real power to enforce their decree.
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December 12, 1836: Teatro La Fenice in Venice is almost totally destroyed by fire.
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December 13, 1836: Frédéric Chopin (26) sees George Sand for the third time, at a social gathering in his Paris home. Instead of her usual men's clothes, she wears a dress of white and red, the Polish colors. Chopin and Franz Liszt (25) play a Sonata for piano-four hands by Moscheles. Also attending are Marie d’Agoult, Eugène Delacroix, and Heinrich Heine.
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December 14, 1836: The first section of the London & Greenwich Railway opens from London to Deptford.
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December 15, 1836: In a benefit for the actor Frédéric Lemaître at the Théâtre des Variétés, Harriet Smithson plays Ophelia in the mad scene from Hamlet. It is her last performance before a paying audience.
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December 17, 1836: The second series of Sketches by Boz by Charles Dickens is published.
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December 21, 1836: L’ambassadrice, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (54) to words of Scribe, is performed for the first time, at Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
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December 25, 1836: The throne of Austria is placed in regency of a Ministers of State Conference because of the mental illness of Emperor Ferdinand I.
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December 25, 1836: At a dinner to honor Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (32), Alyeksandr Pushkin improvises a stanza on the honoree. Glinka later sets it, and others performed this evening, to music.
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December 27, 1836: François Meunier, an unemployed man, fires into a carriage carrying King Louis-Philippe and three of his sons on their way to the opening of Parliament. A bystander attempts to stop Meunier and the bullet enters the carriage harmlessly. Aside from a few cuts from flying glass, nobody is hurt. Palace guards instantly seize Meunier. He will be sentenced to deportation.
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December 28, 1836: British colonists arrive on the mainland of southern Australia to found a settlement at Holdfast Bay (now called Adelaide). They proclaim the new colony of South Australia.
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December 28, 1836: Spain establishes diplomatic relations with Mexico.
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December 29, 1836: Johann Baptist Schenk dies at Kumpfgaße 13 in Vienna, Austrian Empire, aged 83 years and 29 days.  His mortal remains will be laid to rest in St. Marx Cemetery, Vienna.