A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1834 – December 31, 1834

Event icon
January 1, 1834: A customs union between 18 German states, headed by Prussia, goes into effect.
Event icon
January 5, 1834: The Gazette musicale appears for the first time, in Paris. One of its founders is Franz Liszt (22).
Event icon
January 10, 1834: The arrival in London of the famous travelling waxwork exhibition of Madame Tussaud is announced in The Times.
Event icon
January 15, 1834: Francisco Martínez de la Rosa replaces Francisco Cea Bermúdez as Prime Minister of Spain.
Event icon
January 21, 1834: Richard Wagner (20) moves back to Leipzig from Würzburg.
Performance icon
January 23, 1834: Une bonne fortune, an opera by Adolphe Adam (30) to words of Féréol (pseud. of Second) and Edouard, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris.
Event icon
February 1, 1834: Followers of Giuseppe Mazzini invade Savoy at several points from Switzerland and France. Forewarned, royal authorities easily squelch the insurrection and many of Mazzini’s followers, including Giuseppe Garibaldi, go into exile.
Performance icon
February 2, 1834: Die drei Wünsche, a singspiel by Carl Loewe (37) to words of Raupach, is performed for the first time, in the Berlin Schauspielhaus.
Event icon
February 13, 1834: Delegates meet in London to form the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, the first national workers association.
Event icon
February 16, 1834: A new law goes into effect in France giving local officials wide authority to refuse permits to sell newspapers and pamphlets.
Event icon
February 17, 1834: Representatives of Spain and the United States sign the Van Ness Convention in Madrid. Spain agrees to pay a lump sum of 12,000,000 reales to settle all US claims against it.
Event icon
February 22, 1834: César Franck (11) wins the First Prize in piano at the Royal Conservatory of Liège.
Event icon
February 24, 1834: In defiance of the law of 16 February, three newspapers are sold in the Place de la Bourse, Paris. Scuffles ensue for hours, ended by mounted police. Further arrests continue tomorrow.
Event icon
February 24, 1834: Six Dorset farm workers are arrested for joining in an illegal association to protest their pitiful pay. They will become known as the Tolpuddle Martyrs.
Performance icon
February 27, 1834: Rosmonda d’Inghilterra, a melodramma serio by Gaetano Donizetti (36) to words of Romani, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Pergola, Florence.
Performance icon
March 3, 1834: The Seventh Day, a cantata by Henry R. Bishop (47) to words of Milton is performed for the first time, at the Philharmonic Society, London.
Event icon
March 6, 1834: The town of York in Upper Canada is incorporated as the City of Toronto.
Event icon
March 10, 1834: The Düsseldorf Theatrical Association constitutes itself to bring theatre and opera to the city. In charge of directing the operas will be Felix Mendelssohn (25).
Event icon
March 16, 1834: While Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (29) is in Berlin with his sister, they receive word that their father has died. They immediately return to Russia. It is Glinka’s first return to his homeland in almost four years.
Event icon
March 18, 1834: The Tolpuddle Martyrs arrested on 24 February are sentenced in a Dorchester court to seven years transportation to Australia.
Event icon
March 21, 1834: Le Tribunal de Première Instance de la Seine orders that the annuity promised to Gioachino Rossini (42) by King Charles X be paid in perpetuity.
Death icon
March 24, 1834: Duke Alexius of Anhalt-Bernburg dies in Ballenstedt, Anhalt and is succeeded by his son, Alexander.
Event icon
March 28, 1834: US President Andrew Jackson is censured by the Congress for failing to turn over cabinet documents relating to the dismantling of the Bank of the United States.
Event icon
April 3, 1834: Robert Schumann’s (23) periodical Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift für Musik is published for the first time, in Leipzig.
Performance icon
April 7, 1834: Felix Mendelssohn’s (25) overture Melusine, or the Mermaid and the Knight is performed for the first time, in London. It will become known as Die schöne Melusine.
Event icon
April 9, 1834: After the French government attempts to suppress trade unions, unarmed republican workers in Lyon meet at the city court house to protest. They battle with police for six days. Over 500 people are killed.
Event icon
April 10, 1834: Hector (30) and Harriet Smithson Berlioz move to Montmartre. She is pregnant.
Performance icon
April 11, 1834: Concerto da camera op.10/2 by Valentin Alkan (30) is performed for the first time, in Bath.
Event icon
April 13, 1834: Just before a republican insurrection is set to begin in Paris, their leader, Théophile Guillard de Kersausie, is arrested by police. Many disheartened workers go home. The ensuing action lasts only until tomorrow morning before being suppressed by authorities. 69 people are killed. Scores are arrested. In the midst of the fighting, government forces kill twelve civilians in a house in the Rue Transnonain, an act which horrifies the public.
Performance icon
April 18, 1834: Szenen aus Mozarts Leben, a Singspiel by Albert Lortzing (32) to his own words, is performed for the first time, in Münster.
Event icon
April 21, 1834: 16-year-old Ernestine von Fricken arrives in Leipzig to take lessons with Friedrich Wieck. She will form an emotional relationship with Robert Schumann (23).
Event icon
April 22, 1834: St. Helena becomes a British Crown Colony.
Event icon
April 22, 1834: The end of the monopoly for the British East India Company goes into effect. Any British subject is allowed to trade any legal goods between the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan.
Event icon
April 22, 1834: Great Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal form the Quadruple Alliance to support liberal governments in Iberia and to deter the Holy Alliance of Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Event icon
April 25, 1834: After witnessing a performance of Bellini’s (32) Norma, Giacomo Meyerbeer (42) writes to his wife from Modena. “I tremble and shake at the thought of my new opera (Les Huguenots) being directly compared with this Norma, since it is apparently to be given in Paris at almost the same time as my new opera.”
Performance icon
April 26, 1834: Incidental music for Immermann’s play Andreas Hofer by Felix Mendelssohn (25) is performed for the first time, in Düsseldorf.
Event icon
April 28, 1834: As part of an effort to oversee the advancement of French industry, King Louis-Philippe visits Erard’s in Paris. Franz Liszt (22) is present and plays music for the occasion.
Event icon
April 28, 1834: Nicolò Paganini (51) debuts as a solo violist in London. Critics advise him against persisting.
Event icon
April 28, 1834: For the first time, Robert Schumann (23) mentions the music of Hector Berlioz (30) in the Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift für Musik.
Event icon
May 1, 1834: King Leopold I of Belgium announces that a railway system will be built throught his country centered on Mechelen.
Performance icon
May 5, 1834: The last movement of the Concerto for piano and orchestra no.1 by Clara Wieck (14) is performed for the first time, in the Leipzig Gewandhaus, the composer at the keyboard and Felix Mendelssohn (25) conducting. See 9 November 1835.
Event icon
May 6, 1834: Sikh forces capture Peshawar, 230 km southeast of Kabul.
Performance icon
May 8, 1834: Felix Mendelssohn’s (25) Rondo brillant in E flat for piano op.29 is performed for the first time, in London.
Event icon
May 16, 1834: Publication of Oberons Zauberhorn op.116, a fantasy for piano and orchestra by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (55) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
Performance icon
May 19, 1834: Infelice op.94 for soprano and orchestra by Felix Mendelssohn (25) is performed for the first time, in London.
Death icon
May 20, 1834: Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette dies in Paris at the age of 76.
Event icon
May 24, 1834: King Louis-Philippe of France gives royal assent to a law making it a crime to give aid and comfort to an insurrection or insurrectionists without actually taking part in the rebellion.
Performance icon
May 24, 1834: Lestocq, ou L’intrigue et l’amour, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (52) to words of Scribe, is performed for the first time, in Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
Event icon
May 26, 1834: King Miguel I (Dom Miguel) of Portugal surrenders and abdicates at Evoramonte, 110 km east of Lisbon. He will be forced into exile and the 15-year-old Maria II is restored to the throne.
Event icon
May 28, 1834: All monasteries, backers of King Miguel, are abolished in Portugal.
Event icon
June 1, 1834: Former King Miguel of Portugal boards a British ship at Sines, 90 km south of Lisbon, and is taken into exile in Genoa, thence to Austria.
Event icon
June 7, 1834: Generals Theodoros Kolokotronis and Dimitris Plapoutas are sentenced to death for opposing the rule of King Othon. They will be pardoned next year.
Performance icon
June 9, 1834: Rural Felicity, a comic opera with music by Henry R. Bishop (47) to words of Buckstone, is performed for the first time, in the Little Theatre in the Haymarket, London.
Performance icon
June 10, 1834: Captivity of Judah, an oratorio by William Crotch (58) to words of Schomberg and Owen, is performed for the first time, at ceremonies installing the Duke of Wellington as Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Also heard is the premiere of Crotch’s ode When these are days of old to words of Keble.
Event icon
June 10, 1834: Richard Wagner’s (21) first published essay, “Die deutsche Oper,” appears in Zeitung für die elegante Welt, Leipzig.
Event icon
June 12, 1834: Ioannis Kolettis replaces Alexandros Nikolaou Mavrokordatos as President of the Ministerial Council of Greece.
Event icon
June 14, 1834: Isaac Fischer of Springfield, Vermont receives a US patent for sandpaper.
Event icon
June 15, 1834: As part of an uprising against Muhammad Ali, Arabs enter the Jewish district of Safed (Tzfat) and begin 33 days of killing and destruction. Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues are torched and destroyed. An estimated 500 Jews are killed, although many manage to escape the carnage.
Event icon
June 15, 1834: Austrian Chancellor Prince von Metternich grants permission for the publication in Zagreb of a political newspaper and literary magazine in Croatian, despite Hungarian opposition.
Event icon
June 15, 1834: Members of the Königstadt Theatre Orchestra read through Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel’s (28) Overture in C at the Mendelssohn residence in Berlin. At one point, the conductor, Julius Amadeus Lecerf, hands her the baton and bids her to take over, which she does.
Event icon
June 21, 1834: Elections to the French legislature result in a large majority for conservatives.
Event icon
June 21, 1834: Cyrus Hall McCormack receives a US patent for his grain reaping machine, changing the face of agriculture.
Event icon
June 25, 1834: Pope Gregory XVI issues the encyclical Singulari nos, which attacks the ideas of Father Lamenais. Lamenais advocated liberalism and the separation of church and state.
Performance icon
June 28, 1834: William Crotch (58) makes his last public appearance, playing the organ at the Handel Festival in Westminster Abbey.
Event icon
July 4, 1834: Today begins nine days of rioting by anti-abolitionists in New York City.
Event icon
July 4, 1834: Publication of Die Schule des Legato und Staccato op.335 by Carl Czerny (43) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
Event icon
July 11, 1834: In a week of rioting since Independence Day, 60 homes and six churches owned by Blacks have been destroyed by Whites in New York City.
Event icon
July 11, 1834: Fresh from absolutist defeat in Portugal, Don Carlos arrives in Elizondo to join partisans who have already proclaimed him King Carlos V of Spain. He is supported by the Roman Catholic Church, conservatives and Basques. Queen Isabella is supported by Spanish liberals, Great Britain, and France.
Event icon
July 15, 1834: Lord Napier, Superintendent of Trade sent by His Majesty’s government to replace the British East India Company, arrives off Macao.
Event icon
July 15, 1834: The Spanish Inquisition is ended by decree of the regent, Queen María Cristina.
Event icon
July 16, 1834: William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne replaces Charles, Earl Grey as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Event icon
July 18, 1834: Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard replaces Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie as Prime Minister of France.
Event icon
July 21, 1834: Lord Napier lands at Canton (Guangzhou) with the intention of dealing with the local Viceroy. He takes up residence with British merchants. His secretary attempts to deliver a letter to Viceroy Lu K’un but no Chinese official will receive it.
Death icon
July 25, 1834: Samuel Taylor Coleridge dies in Highgate, London at the age of 61.
Event icon
July 27, 1834: Jean Baptiste, comte Drouet d’Erlon becomes the first Governor General of the French Possessions in the North of Africa.
Event icon
July 31, 1834: An ecclesiastical reform commission is set up by the liberal government of Portugal. It will pass judgment on the actions of the clergy in the recent civil war.
Event icon
August 1, 1834: As of today, slavery is abolished in the British Empire. Approximately 700,000 souls are liberated.
Performance icon
August 2, 1834: Richard Wagner (21) debuts as opera conductor with a performance of Mozart’s (†42) Don Giovanni in Lauchstädt, Thuringia.
Event icon
August 4, 1834: Barthélemy Théodore, chevalier de Theux de Meylandt replaces Jean Louis Joseph Lebeau as head of government for Belgium.
Event icon
August 5, 1834: The Ecclesiastical Reform Commission for Portugal finds all clergymen currently absent from their churches or monasteries to be traitors.
Performance icon
August 7, 1834: Samuel Wesley (68) gives his last public performance, accompanying his own anthem All go unto one place, in Exeter Hall, London. It is a funeral anthem for his recently departed brother Charles.
Event icon
August 11, 1834: The Ursuline Convent is burned to the ground by an anti-Catholic mob in Charlestown, Massachusetts. All the nuns and girls residing therein escape.
Event icon
August 12, 1834: A mob of about 500 whites invades a black neighborhood in Philadelphia and riots for three days. Several blocks are destroyed by fire.
Event icon
August 14, 1834: King William gives royal assent to the Poor Law Amendment Act. It reforms the delivery of relief for the poor, creating a directing authority not under parliamentary control. It also aims to make relief less desirable than holding a job.
Birth icon
August 14, 1834: Harriet Smithson Berlioz gives birth to a son, Louis-Clément-Thomas, at their home in Montmartre.
Event icon
August 15, 1834: The South Australia Act receives Royal Assent, providing for the establishment of a colony there separate from New South Wales.
Event icon
August 15, 1834: The Additional Act is approved in Brazil. The Council of State is abolished and much greater power is given to provincial assemblies.
Event icon
August 16, 1834: In Canton (Guangzhou), Viceroy Lu K’un restricts trade with foreigners.
Event icon
August 20, 1834: The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union is dissolved. Its founder, Robert Owen, transforms what is left into the British and Foreign Consolidated Association of Industry, Humanity, and Knowledge.
Event icon
August 24, 1834: The Sociedade Filarmonica is established in Rio de Janeiro.
Event icon
August 25, 1834: The Women of Algiers in Their Apartment by Eugène Delacroix is exhibited at the Paris Salon.
Event icon
September 2, 1834: Viceroy Lu K’un stops all trade with foreigners in Canton (Guangzhou).
Event icon
September 5, 1834: Great Britain and Russia agree to respect the independence of Persia.
Event icon
September 7, 1834: Royal Navy vessels force their way up the Pearl River at Canton (Guangzhou). Three Chinese forts are put out of commission.
Event icon
September 7, 1834: During his first week back in St. Petersburg, Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (30) meets Maria Ivanovna Petrovna, his future wife, for the first time.
Event icon
September 20, 1834: Queen Maria II of Portugal comes of age and the regency over her is ended.
Event icon
September 20, 1834: A hurricane strikes Dominica killing about 230 people.
Event icon
September 23, 1834: The hurricane that hit Dominica comes ashore at Santo Domingo. In all, the storm kills 400 people.
Death icon
September 24, 1834: Dom Pedro, leader of the Portuguese liberal cause, dies of consumption, aged 36. He defeated his absolutist brother Dom Miguel four months ago. Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês e conde de Palmela replaces him as Prime Minister.
Performance icon
September 25, 1834: Le chalet, an opera by Adolphe Adam (31) to words of Scribe and Mélesville after Goethe, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris.
Event icon
September 28, 1834: Six-and-a-half years after departing for Vienna, Nicolò Paganini (51) leaves Paris for Genoa and home. During this short time, Paganini has achieved fame and recognition as the greatest violin virtuoso of the age.
Event icon
September 29, 1834: The Last Days of Pompeii by Edward Bulwer-Lytton is published in London.
Death icon
September 29, 1834: Duke Friedrich of Saxe-Altenburg dies in Altenburg and is succeeded by his son Joseph.
Event icon
September 29, 1834: Giacomo Meyerbeer (43) signs a contract to produce Les Huguenots.
Event icon
October 2, 1834: While in Leipzig, Felix Mendelssohn (25) visits Friedrich Wieck who presents his daughter Clara (14). She plays some of her own music, some Chopin (24) and some music by a student of Wieck, Robert Schumann (24). Mendelssohn is favorably impressed by Clara.
Event icon
October 2, 1834: All Portuguese clergymen appointed under the former King Miguel are removed from their posts.
Death icon
October 8, 1834: 04:40 François-Adrien Boieldieu dies peacefully of “consumptive laryngitis” at Jarcy, Seine-et-Oise, Kingdom of France, aged 58 years, nine months and 22 days.
Event icon
October 9, 1834: Felix Mendelssohn (25) enters upon duties as Intendant of the Düsseldorf Opera.
Event icon
October 11, 1834: On the day after the Journal des Débats has reprinted a story by Hector Berlioz (30), the composer appears at the newspaper office to thank the editor. The editor offers him a job as music writer. Berlioz accepts and will begin in January.
Event icon
October 11, 1834: Samuel Sebastian Wesley (24) wins a glee contest by the Manchester Gentlemen’s Glee Club (for the second time) with his At That Dread Hour to words of Linley.
Death icon
October 11, 1834: British Chief Superintendent of Trade Lord Napier dies of a fever at Macao.
Event icon
October 13, 1834: A state funeral service for François-Adrien Boieldieu is held at Les Invalides. His mortal remains are laid to rest in Père Lachaise Cemetery. His heart will transported to his birthplace, Rouen, for burial.
Event icon
October 16, 1834: The Palace of Westminster is almost entirely destroyed by fire.
Performance icon
October 18, 1834: Buondelmonte, a tragedia lirica by Gaetano Donizetti (36) to words of Salatino, is performed for the first time, at Teatro San Carlo, Naples. The opera was to have been Maria Stuarda but when the censors objected to the tragic ending two weeks ago, Salatino took the libretto of Bardari and rewrote it. Donizetti then quickly fit his music to the new words. Needless to say, the production is a disaster and receives only one performance. See 30 December 1835.
Event icon
October 21, 1834: Seminoles on the south bank of the Alachua River (Florida) are informed that they are to be transported west of the Mississippi.
Event icon
October 27, 1834: A royal decree strips Don Carlos of any right to the Spanish throne.
Performance icon
October 28, 1834: Music by Felix Mendelssohn (25) for celebrations surrounding the opening of the Stadt-Theater in Düsseldorf is performed for the first time
Performance icon
October 28, 1834: Manfred, a dramatic poem with music by Henry R. Bishop (47) to words of Byron, is performed for the first time, in Drury Lane Theatre, London.
Event icon
November 2, 1834: Felix Mendelssohn (25) resigns his position as opera conductor in Düsseldorf.
Performance icon
November 9, 1834: Two works for male vocal quartet and orchestra by Hector Berlioz (30) are performed for the first time, in the Paris Conservatoire: Sara la baigneuse to words of Hugo and La belle voyageuse to words of Moore translated by Goumet. See 13 December 1840 and 22 October 1850.
Performance icon
November 10, 1834: The new Zürich Theatre opens with a performance of Die Zauberflöte.
Performance icon
November 11, 1834: Fantaisie et variations brillantes sur des motifs de L’Opéra La Norma de Bellini op.25 for piano and strings by Otto Nicolai (24) is performed for the first time, in Leipzig.
Event icon
November 11, 1834: Clara Wieck (15) begins a concert tour of Hamburg, Hannover, and Magdeburg.
Event icon
November 13, 1834: The heart of François-Adrien Boieldieu is interred in Rouen, his birthplace, amidst much ceremony.
Event icon
November 14, 1834: Hughes Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano replaces Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard as Prime Minister of France.
Performance icon
November 14, 1834: Nicolò Paganini (52) plays his first concert in Italy since he left in 1828, in Parma.
Event icon
November 17, 1834: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington replaces William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Event icon
November 18, 1834: Edouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, Duc de Treviso replaces Hughes Bernard Maret as Prime Minister of France.
Performance icon
November 19, 1834: A setting of Psalm 115 for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Felix Mendelssohn (25) is performed for the first time, in Frankfurt.
Death icon
November 20, 1834: Dorothea (Dorette) Spohr, wife of Louis Spohr (50) for 28 years, dies in Kassel. The composer is devastated by the loss.
Performance icon
November 23, 1834: Harold in Italy, a symphony for viola and orchestra by Hector Berlioz (30) is performed for the first time, in the Salle du Conservatoire, Paris. On the same program are two songs for soprano and orchestra by Berlioz: La captive to words of Hugo and the orchestraton of Le jeune pâtre breton to words of Brizeux. See 22 December 1833.
Event icon
December 1, 1834: US President Jackson asks Congress for authority to conduct reprisals on France for not paying claims they agreed to pay under the treaty of 1831.
Performance icon
December 7, 1834: Andante spianato for piano by Frédéric Chopin (24) is performed for the first time, by the composer at a Berlioz (30) concert in the Paris Conservatoire.
Event icon
December 10, 1834: Sir Robert Peel replaces Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Event icon
December 13, 1834: King Othon makes a triumphal entry into Athens, from today the capital of Greece.
Event icon
December 17, 1834: Giacomo Meyerbeer (43) is elected a Membre associé étranger of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts de l’Institut de France.
Event icon
December 17, 1834: The Dublin & Kingstown Railway opens.  It is the first rail line in Ireland.
Event icon
December 18, 1834: The Tamworth Manifesto of Prime Minister Robert Peel appears in the British press. It becomes the clearest statement of the goals of conservatism at the time.
Event icon
December 23, 1834: British architect Joseph Aloysius Hansom registers his design of a “patent safety cab.” The Hansom Cab will become a regular feature of cities in the 19th century.
Death icon
December 23, 1834: Thomas Malthus dies in Bath at the age of 68.
Event icon
December 24, 1834: Robert Schumann (24) buys all publication rights to the Neue Leipziger Zeitschrift für Musik making him the sole owner.
Event icon
December 24, 1834: Little more than a year after he entered the Paris Conservatoire, Jacob (Jacques) Offenbach (15) is officially removed from the list of students, voluntarily.
Event icon
December 25, 1834: All liberals in Spain receive a general amnesty.
Performance icon
December 25, 1834: Franz Liszt (23) and Frédéric Chopin (24) appear jointly at Stoepel’s Music School, Paris, playing Moscheles Grand Duo for piano four hands and Liszt’s own Grosses Konzertstück über Mendelssohns Lieder ohne Worte.
Performance icon
December 26, 1834: Gaetano Donizetti’s (37) tragedia lirica Gemma di Vergy to words of Bidèra after Dumas is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
Event icon
December 31, 1834: Gaetano Donizetti (37) leaves Milan for Paris where he hopes to produce an opera at the Théâtre-Italien.