January 1, 1833: Concert Piece op.113 for clarinet, basset horn, and piano by Felix Mendelssohn (23) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
January 2, 1833: Il furioso nell’isola di San Domingo, a melodramma by Gaetano Donizetti (35) to words of Ferretti after an anonymous play on the Don Quixote story, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Valle, Rome. It is an immediate success.
January 3, 1833: Great Britain seizes control of the Falkland Islands, landing troops and ejecting the Argentine administration.
January 5, 1833: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) petitions his employers in Weimar that he be absolved of the requirement to wear a servant’s uniform. They will agree, but it will be applicable only when he gives performances outside Weimar.
January 7, 1833: Tänze für den Berliner Künstlerball for orchestra by Otto Nicolai (22) are performed for the first time, in Berlin.
January 8, 1833: The Boston Academy of Music is organized on the 41st birthday of its inspiration, Lowell Mason.
January 8, 1833: A month of voting in the British general elections concludes. It is the first British election since electoral reform. The Whig government of Earl Grey continues its large majority, winning 441 of 658 seats.
January 10, 1833: Die erste Walpurgisnacht, a cantata for chorus and orchestra by Felix Mendelssohn (23) to words of Goethe, is performed publicly for the first time, in Berlin. The press is mixed. See 11 October 1832.
January 13, 1833: Clara Wieck (13) plays her Caprices en forme de valse pour le piano op.2 for the first time, in a private concert given in her father’s house. She also plays what might be the first performance of any solo piano music by Robert Schumann (22), two of the op.3 studies after Paganini (50). See 27 January 1835.
January 17, 1833: Michael Faraday reads his paper Relation by Measure of Common and Voltaic Electricity to the Royal Society in London. In it, he announces the basic laws of electrolysis.
January 17, 1833: Richard Wagner (19) moves from Leipzig to Würzburg to work as a chorus director and coach for his brother Albert.
January 19, 1833: Ferdinand Hérold dies of tuberculosis in Paris, Kingdom of France, aged 41 years, eleven months, and 22 days. His mortal remains will be laid to rest in Cimitière Père-Lachaise, Paris.
January 20, 1833: Today’s performance of Ferdinand Hérold’s still running successful opera Le pré aux clercs is cancelled. The composer died yesterday.
January 21, 1833: The Gentlemen’s Glee Club at Manchester awards two prizes in a composition contest. The prize for a serious glee is awarded to Henry R. Bishop (46) for his Where shall we make her grave?. It is the first time he has entered a composition competition.
January 22, 1833: A vote taken by the Berlin Singakademie elects Karl Rungenhagen director by 148-88 over a reluctant Felix Mendelssohn (23). Presumably Mendelssohn’s age and ethnic origin are held against him.
January 30, 1833: Prince Otto, son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, arrives off Nafplio in a British warship. He is there to take the throne of Greece.
February 3, 1833: Hector Berlioz (29) writes to his father asking permission to marry Harriet Smithson. It will be refused.
February 6, 1833: 18-year-old Prince Otto, son of King Ludwig I of Bavaria, steps ashore and becomes King Othon I of Greece under regency. Spyridon Ioannou Trikoupis becomes President of the Ministerial Council of Greece.
February 12, 1833: The revised and completed Symphony in g minor by Robert Schumann (22) is performed completely for the first time, in Schneeberg, 20 km southeast of Zwickau.
February 13, 1833: Responding to a request from the music critic Ludwig Rellstab for a biographical sketch, Felix Mendelssohn (24) replies that nothing noteworthy has happened in his life other than his birth.
February 15, 1833: Joseph Pease, the first Quaker elected to the British Parliament, is allowed to take his seat on affirmation, rather than taking the traditional oath.
February 16, 1833: Faust, a ballet by Adolphe Adam (29) to a scenario of Deshayes, is performed for the first time, in King’s Theatre, London.
February 17, 1833: Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha replaces Resid Mehmed Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
February 20, 1833: A contingent of Russian troops arrives in Constantinople to aid the Turks against Egypt.
February 27, 1833: Today is the day on which Joseph Smith will claim he received the word of Wisdom in Kirtland, Ohio.
February 27, 1833: Gustave III, ou Le bal masqué, an opéra historique by Daniel Auber (51) to words of Scribe, is performed for the first time, in the Paris Opéra.
March 1, 1833: While descending from her cabriolet in Paris, Harriet Smithson catches her skirt, twists her foot on the step and fractures both bones in her leg, just above the ankle. Two bystanders catch her and carry her into her house. “Her cries of agony lasted for two days.”
March 2, 1833: US President Andrew Jackson signs a Force Bill, giving him the authority to intervene militarily and force South Carolina to adhere to the federal tariff, and the Tariff Compromise of 1833, slowly lowering tariffs to levels acceptable to South Carolina. South Carolina will repeal the Nullification Act.
March 4, 1833: Les souvenirs de Lafleur, an opéra comique by Fromental Halévy (33) to words of Carmouche and de Courcy, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre de la Bourse, Paris.
March 5, 1833: Delegates from the Presbyterian, Congregationalist, and Baptist denominations in Britain move to form the United Committee of Dissenters to press for reform of laws which favor the Church of England.
March 7, 1833: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (28) arrives in Venice during his sojourn in Italy. He is very impressed.
March 7, 1833: Isambard Kingdom Brunel is appointed engineer for the soon-to-be-built Great Western Railway.
March 9, 1833: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) meets Queen Adelaide at Windsor Castle. He plays the organ for her and plays for her and King William in the evening.
March 11, 1833: John Field (50) plays a second command performance before King Leopold of Belgium in Brussels.
March 12, 1833: String Quartet D.810 “Tod und das Mädchen” by Franz Schubert (†4) is performed publicly for the first time, in Berlin. See 1 February 1826.
March 14, 1833: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) begins a new tour of London as a conductor, directing Der Freischütz at the King’s Theatre.
March 15, 1833: South Carolina rescinds its Ordinance of Nullification, thus ending the constitutional crisis.
March 16, 1833: Beatrice di Tenda, a tragedia lirica by Vincenzo Bellini (31) to words of Romani after Tedaldi-Fores, is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice. It is not successful and Bellini is faulted. Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (28) remembers “Despite all Pasta's efforts in the part of Beatrice, the work was not a success.”
March 16, 1833: The Maid of Cashmere, a ballet-opera by Henry R. Bishop (46) to words of Fitzball after Scribe, is performed for the first time, in Drury Lane Theatre, London. It is a reworking of Auber’s (51) Le dieu et la bayadère.
March 17, 1833: Several prominent African-Americans found the Phoenix Society in New York to support the education of young black men and women in the city.
March 17, 1833: Gaetano Donizetti’s (35) melodramma Parisina, to words of Romani after Byron is performed for the first time, at Teatro della Pergola, Florence to an enthusiastic reception.
March 20, 1833: The New Orleans Bee carries the announcement that Edward Gottschalk, father of Louis Moreau Gottschalk (3), after suffering bankruptcy, is leaving the country and is selling his house and all its contents, including seven slaves.
March 22, 1833: A German Zollverein is created by Prussia, specifically excluding Austria. It will become effective on 1 January 1834.
March 24, 1833: A setting of the Stabat mater D.383 (translated by Klopstock) for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Franz Schubert (†4) is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
April 1, 1833: Valentín Gómez Farías replaces Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez as acting President of Mexico.
April 2, 1833: King William grants royal assent to the Coercion Act for Ireland. It empowers the Lord Lieutenant to impose curfews, suppress meetings, and try by court martial.
April 3, 1833: Pro-democracy students attack the main police station in Frankfurt-am-Main in an attempt to free political prisoners and begin a general republican uprising. Failing to attract public support, the uprising collapses.
April 5, 1833: Robert Schumann (22) writes to a friend reporting “I have a numb, broken finger on my right hand…I can hardly use the hand at all for playing.” The situation has been getting worse for over a year and may be the result of using a homemade device for strengthening certain fingers, or the ingestion of mercury, the treatment for syphilis.
April 5, 1833: A setting of the Stabat mater for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, with music partly by Gioachino Rossini (41) is performed for the first time, in the Chapel of San Felipe el Real, Madrid. See 7 January 1842.
April 9, 1833: The Town Meeting of Peterborough, New Hampshire votes to use tax money to buy books for the library, thus making the first state supported public library in the United States, perhaps in the world.
April 9, 1833: Two choruses for male voices for Immermann’s (after Calderón de la Barca) play Der standhafte Prinz by Felix Mendelssohn (24) are performed for the first time, in Düsseldorf.
April 13, 1833: Otto Nicolai (22) gives his first concert in Berlin as composer, singer and pianist. Several works are premiered, including the Symphony no.1, Variationen über Webers “Schlaf Herzenssöhnchen” op.19 for soprano and piano, and his scene and aria Tell auf der Strasse nach Küssnacht op.22.
April 14, 1833: Sergei Uvarov, Russian Minister of Education, publishes the Doctrine of Official Nationality. All Russians must agree to three ideas: orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality.
April 14, 1833: Hector Berlioz’ (29) Intrata di Rob-Roy Macgregor for orchestra is performed for the first time, in the Paris Conservatoire. It fails.
April 18, 1833: Hymnus zum Dürerfest for chorus and brass by Otto Nicolai (22) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
April 24, 1833: Jacob Ebert and George Dulty receive a US patent for a soda fountain.
April 29, 1833: Don Carlos, brother of King Fernando of Spain, refuses to acknowledge Fernando’s daughter Isabella as heir.
May 2, 1833: Giacomo Meyerbeer (41) is made a member of the Senate of the Prussian Academy of Arts. The letter officially informing him of this will not be sent until 18 February 1834.
May 2, 1833: L’Europe Littéraire, a newly founded magazine organized to foster the ideals of Romanticism, sponsors the first of a series of concerts in Paris showcasing the Romantic movement in music. Six of the eight works programmed are by Hector Berlioz (29).
May 2, 1833: Musikantenprügelei for four male voices by Felix Mendelssohn (24), to words of Reinick, is performed for the first time, in Düsseldorf.
May 6, 1833: On board a steamship in Alexandria, Virginia, former naval officer Robert Randolph punches President Andrew Jackson in the face. Randolph was expelled from the service for misappropriation of funds. Jackson does not press charges.
May 6, 1833: Faced with Russian intervention, Egypt accedes to the Peace of Kütahya (200 km southeast of Constantinople) with the Sultan. Turkey cedes Syria and Aden to Egypt along with an acceptance of Egyptian independence.
May 7, 1833: Johannes Brahms is born in an apartment at 60 Speckerstraße in the Free City of Hamburg, second of three children born to Johann Jakob Brahms, a professional musician, and Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen, a seamstress, the daughter of a tailor.
May 11, 1833: Lady of the Lake strikes ice and goes down east of Newfoundland. Somewhere between 170 and 260 lives are lost. Around 30 will be rescued.
May 12, 1833: Trio concertante for viola, guitar, and cello by Nicolò Paganini (50) is performed for the first time, in London.
May 13, 1833: Symphony no.4 “Italian” by Felix Mendelssohn (24) is performed for the first time, in London, directed by the composer. Nicolò Paganini (50) is among the listeners. He asks Mendelssohn to play Beethoven (†6) sonatas with him. Vincenzo Bellini (31) is also there and the two composers meet. Although the London public is growing increasingly fond of Mendelssohn, the criticisms of the symphony are mixed.
May 15, 1833: Edmund Kean dies at Richmond at the age of 44.
May 16, 1833: Antonio López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón replaces Valentín Gómez Farías as President of Mexico.
May 16, 1833: Rondo Chromatique op.12 for piano by Charles-Valentin Alkan (19) is performed for the first time, by the composer in Paris.
May 17, 1833: In response to queries about the remaining concerts this season, the directors of the Philharmonic Society, London write to Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) that “they cannot avail themselves of your assistance.”
May 17, 1833: In London, Felix Mendelssohn (24) learns from his publisher, Novello, that his Lieder ohne Worte has sold 50 copies.
May 18, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) departs London on his third trip to England, making for Düsseldorf.
May 21, 1833: An armistice is concluded between the Netherlands and Belgium.
May 21, 1833: The directors of the Philharmonic Society, London change their decision of four days ago and invite Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) to perform at an upcoming concert.
May 22, 1833: A conservative constitution in Chile establishes Roman Catholicism as the state religion.
May 23, 1833: The Weihnachts-Ouverture über den Choral “Vom Himmel hoch, da komm’ ich her” for chorus, orchestra, and organ by Otto Nicolai (22) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
May 24, 1833: Hans Heiling, a grosse romantische Oper by Heinrich August Marschner (37) to words of Devrient, is performed for the first time, in the Berlin Hofoper, the composer conducting. It is an overwhelming success.
May 25, 1833: Turkey, under pressure from Russia, acknowledges an autonomous status for Serbia with a hereditary prince.
May 26, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) conducts Handel’s (†74) Israel in Egypt at Düsseldorf, the first of a series of Handel oratorio performances in Mendelssohn’s arrangements. These will greatly advance the popularity of Handel’s music in Germany.
June 3, 1833: The first clipper ship, the Ann Mckinn, is launched in Baltimore.
June 5, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) arrives in London from Düsseldorf accompanied by his father. It is Felix’s fourth visit to England.
June 13, 1833: Il fato, a cantata by Gaetano Donizetti (35) to words of Ferretti composed for the name day of Count Lozano, is performed for the first time, in Rome.
June 16, 1833: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) arrives at Ostende, having departed England for the last time.
June 23, 1833: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) ends his last tour to northern climes on his return to Weimar.
June 27, 1833: Prudence Crandall is arrested in Canterbury, Connecticut for opening a school to educated African-Americans.
July 1, 1833: While visiting Portsmouth with his son Felix (24), Abraham Mendelssohn injures his leg. It will take a month for him to recover enough to return to Berlin.
July 5, 1833: Naval forces of Portuguese absolutists are defeated by liberals off Cape St. Vincent.
July 5, 1833: Nicéphore Niépce dies in Chalon-sur-Saône at the age of 68.
July 6, 1833: Publication of the Etudes op.10 by Frédéric Chopin (23) is advertised in the Paris press.
July 8, 1833: Russia and Turkey conclude the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (the summer residence of the Sultans near Constantinople). Turkey is required to close the straits if requested by Russia, in return for Russian military intervention on behalf of Turkey if needed.
July 22, 1833: Ali-Baba, ou Les quarantes voleurs, an opéra by Luigi Cherubini (72) to words of Scribe and Mélesville (pseud. of Duveyrier), is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. During the first act, one audience member, Hector Berlioz (29), shouts “Ten francs for an idea!” In each subsequent act he raises his bid.
July 23, 1833: The British Parliament passes the Jewish Civil Disabilities Act, lifting restrictions on Jews to vote and hold public office. Felix Mendelssohn (24) is present for the debate and vote.
July 24, 1833: The army of Portuguese liberals enters Lisbon.
July 26, 1833: A cantata for the name day of Anna Carnevali by Gaetano Donizetti (35) is performed for the first time, in Rome.
July 28, 1833: Dom Pedro, leader of the liberal cause, enters Lisbon.
July 28, 1833: Through the efforts of Minister of Public Instruction François Pierre Guillaume Guizot, the Primary Education Law is enacted. It requires every municipality to maintain a primary school.
July 29, 1833: William Wilberforce dies in London at the age of 73.
August 2, 1833: Pedro de Alcântara (Dom Pedro) replaces José António de Oliveira Leite de Barros, conde de Basto as Prime Minister of Portugal.
August 4, 1833: The Orthodox Church of Greece declares unilateral autocephaly. This will not be recognized by Constantinople until 1850.
August 5, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) and his father depart England for Rotterdam after a stay of six weeks. It is Felix’s fourth trip to England.
August 5, 1833: A small settlement on the southern end of Lake Michigan is incorporated as a village. It is called Chicago.
August 20, 1833: The convict ship Amphitrite, carrying over 100 female convicts, strikes ground in a gale near Boulogne, Pas-de-Calais. Of the 136 souls on board, only three are saved.
August 28, 1833: Slavery is abolished in the British Empire, effective 1 August 1834.
August 28, 1833: The Government of India Act receives Royal Assent. The British East India Company ceases to be a commercial entity but retains its government and administrative functions.
August 29, 1833: The British Factory Act passes Parliament. It forbids children under nine years of age from working in factories and limits children aged 9-13 to a nine hour day.
August 29, 1833: Hector Berlioz (29) writes to Harriet Smithson telling her that he will call on her in two days and that they will go to be married. If she refuses, he will leave within the week for Berlin.
September 3, 1833: The New York Sun begins publication. It is the first successful penny daily newspaper in the United States.
September 4, 1833: Publication of the Fantasia op.123 for piano and the Fantasia on Themes from Mozart’s “The Marriage of Figaro” op.124 for piano by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
September 5, 1833: I wish to tune my quiv’ring lyre, a glee by Samuel Sebastian Wesley (23) to words of Anacreon translated by Byron, is performed for the first time, in a contest by the Manchester Gentlemen’s Glee Club. Wesley will win the contest.
September 7, 1833: The Royal William arrives in Gravesend from Pictou, Nova Scotia and becomes the first ship to cross the Atlantic almost entirely under steam power. It carries coal and seven passengers.
September 9, 1833: Torquato Tasso, a melodramma by Gaetano Donizetti (35) to words of Ferretti, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Valle, Rome to a warm reception.
September 15, 1833: The concert scene Hero and Leander by Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (27) is performed for the first time, at the Mendelssohn residence in Berlin.
September 18, 1833: Meeting in Münchengrätz, Bohemia (Mnichovo Hradište, Czech Republic), Tsar Nikolay of Russia and Prince von Metternich of Austria agree to prop up the Ottoman Empire, or if it collapses, to partition it.
September 18, 1833: Le proscrit, ou Le tribunal invisible, an opera by Adolphe Adam (30) to words of Carmouche and Saintine, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris.
September 19, 1833: Publication of 24 Etudes op.125 for piano by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (54) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
September 22, 1833: Queen Maria of Portugal returns to Lisbon.
September 23, 1833: Maria II is once again proclaimed Queen of Portugal under the regency of her father, Dom Pedro.
September 25, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) arrives in Düsseldorf to take up his position as music director.
September 26, 1833: A liberal constitution is granted to Hannover by King Wilhelm (William IV of Britain).
September 29, 1833: King Fernando VII of Spain dies in Madrid and is succeeded by his three-year-old daughter Isabella II under the regency of Queen María Cristina. An ideological civil war begins in Spain with liberals taking control of the government and the Carlists beginning to organize an armed revolt.
October 1, 1833: Felix Mendelssohn (24) enters upon duties as the director of music in Düsseldorf. His duties include directing the choral and orchestral societies of the city and music for Catholic services.
October 3, 1833: Hector Berlioz (29) marries Harriet Constance Smithson, an actress, in the chapel of the British embassy in Paris. Franz Liszt (21) is a witness as are Ferdinand Hiller and Heinrich Heine. The service is in both English and French to accommodate the happy couple who still lack fluency in each other’s language.
October 7, 1833: George Stephenson files the first patent for a high-speed steam locomotive.
October 15, 1833: Meeting in Berlin, Emperor Franz of Austria, King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, and Tsar Nikolay of Russia agree to the principle of intervention to support absolutism, mutual aid in the event of war, and preservation of the Ottoman Empire.
October 17, 1833: The death of Robert Schumann’s (23) sister-in-law Rosalie precipitates an acute anxiety attack through this night. “I was seized by an idee fixe : the fear of losing my mind.” Later, when seeking medical advice, he will be told “Find yourself a woman; she’ll cure you in no time.”
October 20, 1833: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (29) and Fyodor Gedeonov depart Prague for Berlin where they will arrive in a few days.
October 24, 1833: Alexandros Nikolaou Mavrokordatos replaces Spyridon Ioannou Trikoupis as President of the Ministerial Council of Greece.
November 1, 1833: This month’s issue of Frazer’s Magazine begins the serialization of Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlyle. It will continue through next August.
November 8, 1833: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (29) begins his studies with the theorist Siegfried Dehn in Berlin. “There is no doubt that I am more indebted to Dehn than to any other of my masters.”
November 12, 1833: Alyeksandr Porfiryevich Borodin is born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, the illegitimate son of Prince Luka Stepanovich Gedianov (Gedianishvili) by Avdotya Konstantinovna Antonova, daughter of a soldier from Narva. According to common practice, the child is registered as the son of one of the Prince’s serfs, Porfiry Ionovich Borodin.
November 18, 1833: Representatives of Belgium and the Netherlands sign a treaty at Zonhoven to regulate navigation on the Scheldt River.
November 18, 1833: A newly constructed Italian Opera House at Leonard and Church Streets in Lower Manhattan is opened. It is run by Lorenzo da Ponte.
November 20, 1833: St. Vladimir University opens in Kiev as part of a general policy of Russification.
November 22, 1833: Zum Fest der heiligen Cäcilia for chorus and piano by Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (28) is performed for the first time, at the Mendelssohn residence in Berlin.
November 22, 1833: Valentin Alkan (19) plays the piano solo in Beethoven’s (†6) Triple Concerto with the Paris Conservatoire Orchestra.
November 24, 1833: A large earthquake strikes of the west coast of Sumatra causing an unknown number of deaths and a tsunami recorded as far away as the Seychelles.
November 24, 1833: A concert for the benefit of Hector Berlioz (29) and Harriet Smithson, to help pay off their (mostly her) debts, takes place at the Théâtre-Italien. Financially a success, artistically it is a fiasco. It begins an hour late. Scenes from Shakespeare and Dumas are acted by Smithson and others and the performance of (mostly) Berlioz’ music does not begin until 23:30. Franz Liszt’s (22) rendition of Weber’s (†7) Concertstück is the one bright spot of the evening. By his own admission, Berlioz conducts badly. The hour is so late, some orchestra musicians go home, as do many of the audience.
December 2, 1833: César Franck (10) begins harmony lessons with Joseph Daussoigne at the Royal Conservatory of Liège.
December 2, 1833: The 23rd Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. With the House of Representatives increased by 27 seats following the 1830 census, Democrats gain 17 seats to hold on to their majority. National Republicans gain control of the Senate.
December 3, 1833: John J. Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart found a college on donated land in Ohio and name it after their inspiration, the Alsatian minister John Frederick Oberlin. With 29 male and 15 female students, it is the first truly coeducational college in the United States.
December 6, 1833: Riots against Catholics begin after a WASP man is beaten to death by Irish immigrants in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Many Catholic homes are destroyed.
December 7, 1833: The first installment of a three part article called Der Davidsbündler appears in Der Komet. It is written by Robert Schumann (23) and includes his cast of fictional characters personifying different ideas about art, Florestan, Eusebius, Raro et.al.
December 11, 1833: Auf zum Sitz der Geister for chorus by Otto Nicolai (23) to words of Ribbeck is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
December 12, 1833: Selections from Richard Wagner’s (20) romantic opera Die Feen WWV 32 are performed for the first time, in Munich. See 10 January 1835 and 29 June 1888.
December 15, 1833: Frédéric Chopin (23), Franz Liszt (22), and Ferdinand Hiller perform JS Bach’s (†82) Concerto for three keyboards, at the Paris Conservatoire. Although reviews are positive, Hector Berlioz (30) will write, “It was heartrending, I swear, to watch three astonishing talents, full of energy, glittering with youth and vitality, apply themselves to the execution of this absurd and ridiculous psalmody.” (Zamoyski, 2010, 109)
December 22, 1833: Le roi Lear, a grand ouverture by Hector Berlioz (30) is performed for the first time, in the Paris Conservatoire. On the same program are the premieres of his songs Le jeune Pâtre Breton to words of Brizeux and Romance de Marie Tudor to words of Hugo. Nicolò Paganini (51) attends and later asks Berlioz to compose a work for him to play on the viola.
December 26, 1833: Gaetano Donizetti’s (36) melodramma Lucrezia Borgia to words of Romani after Hugo is performed for the first time, at Teatro alla Scala, Milan. Both audience and critics give the work lukewarm approval.