A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1822 – December 31, 1822

Event icon
January 1, 1822: The National Assembly of Greece adopts a constitution in Piada near the ancient city of Epidavros. Alexandros Mavrokordatos becomes nominal president of Greece. Corinth is named the provisional capital.
Performance icon
January 2, 1822: Der Kiffhäuserberg, a romantische Oper by Heinrich August Marschner (26) to words of Kotzebue, is performed for the first time, in Zittau.
Event icon
January 4, 1822: The Brothers Grimm date the forward to the third volume of their Kinder und Hausmärchen.
Event icon
January 5, 1822: Mexico proclaims the annexation of Central America.
Event icon
January 7, 1822: The first group of former slaves from North America reaches Bassa (Liberia) by way of Sierra Leone.
Event icon
January 8, 1822: Ramón López Pelegrín replaces Francisco de Paula Escudero as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
January 12, 1822: Prince Pedro refuses his recall to Portugal. Portuguese regular troops in Rio de Janeiro attempt to force him to go. Thousands of militia gather to oppose the regulars in support of Pedro.
Event icon
January 14, 1822: Louis Spohr (37) arrives in Kassel to take up his position as Hofkapellmeister.
Event icon
January 14, 1822: A standoff between Portuguese regulars and local militia ensues in Rio de Janeiro over Prince Pedro's refusal to return to Portugal.
Event icon
January 19, 1822: The first detailed review of a song by Franz Schubert (24) appears in the Vienna Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung.
Event icon
January 24, 1822: José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz replaces Ramón López Pelegrín as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
January 26, 1822: Turks in Acrocorinth surrender to Greek rebels. Soon, they will be killed by the Greeks.
Performance icon
January 28, 1822: Zoraida di Granata, a melodramma eroico by Gaetano Donizetti (24) to words of Merelli, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Argentina, Rome, to some success.
Event icon
January 30, 1822: Ramón López Pelegrín replaces José Gabriel de Silva y Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
February 5, 1822: The brutal and rebellious Albanian ruler Ali Pasha of Janina (Ioánnina, Greece) is murdered by agents of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II. His head is sent to the Sultan in Constantinople.
Event icon
February 6, 1822: The Chinese ship Tek Sing strikes rocks in the Gaspar Strait off Sumatra and sinks. About 1,600 people are lost while around 190 are saved.
Event icon
February 6, 1822: The Paris Opéra in the Salle Le Peletier uses gas lighting for a production for the first time.
Event icon
February 9, 1822: Panama is incorporated into New Granada as the Department of the Isthmus.
Event icon
February 9, 1822: President Jean-Pierre Boyer of Haiti leads his troops into Santo Domingo against little opposition. Hispaniola is now unified.
Event icon
February 10, 1822: Carl Maria von Weber (35) leaves Dresden for Vienna, worried enough about his health to leave a farewell note for his wife in a sealed envelope in case he does not return.
Performance icon
February 11, 1822: Am Geburtstag des Kaisers for solo voices, chorus and orchestra by Franz Schubert (25) to words of Deinhardstein, is performed for the first time, in the Theresianum, Vienna.
Performance icon
February 14, 1822: Montrose, or The Children of the Mist, an opera by Henry R. Bishop (35) and others, to words of Pocock, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
February 15, 1822: After a month of standoff, Portuguese regulars finally obey the orders of Prince Pedro and take ship for Portugal. Brazil is heading towards independence.
Performance icon
February 16, 1822: Zelmira, a dramma by Gioachino Rossini (29) to words of Tottola after Dormont de Belloy, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples. It is well received.
Event icon
February 19, 1822: Portuguese troops take control of Salvador, Brazil.
Event icon
February 23, 1822: Boston, Massachusetts is incorporated as a city.
Event icon
February 28, 1822: Francisco Martínez de la Rosa replaces Ramón López Pelegrín as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
March 2, 1822: Maria Szymanowska (32) departs Warsaw for her first extensive concert tour as pianist, in Russia.
Performance icon
March 3, 1822: Franz Schubert’s (25) song Geist der liebe D.747 to words of Matthesson is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna.
Performance icon
March 6, 1822: King Ferdinando attends the last performance of the run of Zelmira by Gioachino Rossini (30). It is Rossini’s farewell to Naples and he is given resounding expressions of appreciation from the king and audience.
Performance icon
March 6, 1822: The first movement of the Piano Concerto no.7 by John Field (39) is performed for the first time. See 25 December 1832.
Event icon
March 7, 1822: Gioachino Rossini (30) departs Naples making for Vienna. He is accompanied by Isabella Colbran and three male singers.
Event icon
March 8, 1822: US President James Monroe sends a message to Congress proposing recognition of the new Latin American republics.
Performance icon
March 12, 1822: L’esule di Granata, a melodramma semiserio by Giacomo Meyerbeer (30) to words of Romani, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan. The response is mixed.
Event icon
March 16, 1822: In the sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin of the Pillar, in her villa at Castenaso, near Bologna, the coloratura Isabella Colbran marries the opera composer Gioachino Rossini (30). The couple are traveling from Naples to Vienna.
Event icon
March 17, 1822: The French government institutes further press restrictions. The sale of newspapers is forbidden unless they are approved by the state.
Event icon
March 22, 1822: A Turkish fleet arrives at the Greek island of Chios.
Event icon
March 22, 1822: Gioachino Rossini (30), his new wife Isabella Colbran and three other musicians reach Vienna from Naples.
Event icon
March 24, 1822: American William Church receives a British patent for the first typesetting machine.
Performance icon
March 27, 1822: Gioachino Rossini (30) witnesses a performance of Der Freischütz at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna conducted by the composer. It does not seem likely, however, that he and Weber (35) meet at this time.
Event icon
March 31, 1822: Turkish troops on Chios begin the destruction of the island. Over the next four months, tens of thousands of Greek residents of the island will be killed.
Performance icon
April 4, 1822: Maria Szymanowska (32) gives her second concert in St. Petersburg, at Philharmonic Hall.
Event icon
April 7, 1822: After some initial success, royalist troops are forced to flee by Simón Bolívar’s army at Bomboná, west of Pasto, Colombia.
Event icon
April 7, 1822: At Macacona, north of Ica, Peru, rebel forces are set upon by royalists who take a thousand prisoners.
Event icon
April 8, 1822: An anti-Catholic riot takes place in Philadelphia.
Performance icon
April 13, 1822: A performance of Zelmira begins a Rossini (30) festival at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna. The festival will include six different Rossini operas and last from April to July.
Event icon
April 13, 1822: In The Euterpeiad or Musical Intelligencer, John Rowe Parker first calls Anthony Philipp Heinrich (41) the “Beethoven of America.” It is a name the composer will adopt.
Performance icon
April 17, 1822: Frühlingsgesang D.740, a vocal quartet by Franz Schubert (25) to words of Schober, is performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.
Event icon
April 22, 1822: Turkish troops capture the Island of Chios, kill many of the Christian inhabitants and sell the rest into slavery.
Performance icon
April 22, 1822: After three successful concerts in St. Petersburg, Johann Nepomuk Hummel (43) performs once again in Riga. It is so successful that he has to do another one on 26 April.
Performance icon
April 24, 1822: Maria Szymanowska (32) performs at the court of Tsar Alyeksandr I in St. Petersburg.
Event icon
April 24, 1822: Eugène Delacroix’ painting The Barque of Dante is first exhibited at the Paris Salon.
Performance icon
April 29, 1822: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (43) gives a concert in Königsberg and tomorrow will improvise on the organ of the Burgkirche. Thus ends his only tour of Russia.
Performance icon
May 2, 1822: Maria Szymanowska (32) performs before the Russian royal family at the Noblemen’s Club in Moscow.
Event icon
May 3, 1822: The Roman Catholic Society for the Propagation of the Faith is founded in Lyon.
Event icon
May 4, 1822: The United States Congress appropriates funds for establishing relations with several Latin American nations.
Event icon
May 7, 1822: The Church of St. Pancras is consecrated in London. The Greek Revival structure is a design by William and Henry Inwood.
Event icon
May 7, 1822: Die Rose D.745, a song by Franz Schubert (25) to words of von Schlegel, is published in the Zeitschrift für Kunst, Vienna.
Event icon
May 8, 1822: Publication of the Quintet for Piano and Strings op.87 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (43) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
Event icon
May 8, 1822: The Liszt family departs Raiding to move to Vienna where Franz (10) may pursue serious musical study. They are being funded by several Hungarian noblemen from Pressburg (Bratislava).
Event icon
May 9, 1822: Four songs by Franz Schubert (25) are published by Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna as his op.8: Der Jüngling auf dem Hügel to words of Hüttenbrenner, and Sehnsucht, Erlafsee and Am Strome, all to words of Mayrhofer.
Performance icon
May 11, 1822: The Law of Java, a musical drama by Henry R. Bishop (35) to words of Colman, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Performance icon
May 12, 1822: Gaetano Donizetti’s (24) dramma La zingara to words of Tottola is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Nuovo, Naples. The composer will later remark that “the public was certainly not stingy with compliments.”
Death icon
May 17, 1822: Duke Emil Leopold August of Saxe-Gotha dies in Gotha and is succeeded by his brother Friedrich IV.
Event icon
May 19, 1822: Augustín de Itúrbide is named Emperor of Mexico by the Congress.
Event icon
May 21, 1822: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe receives a copy of Ludwig van Beethoven’s (51) Meeresstille un glückliche Fahrt, a cantata composed to Goethe’s words. It was sent by the composer.
Event icon
May 24, 1822: A South American army under General José Antonio de Sucre defeats the Spanish and Loyalist defenders of Quito on the slopes of Mount Pichincha, thus ensuring the independence of Ecuador.
Event icon
May 25, 1822: Spanish forces within Quito surrender to General Sucre.
Performance icon
May 27, 1822: Nurmahal, oder Das Rosenfest von Kaschmir, a lyrisches Drama mit Ballet by Gaspare Spontini (47) to words of Herklots after Moore, is performed for the first time at the Royal Opera House, Berlin.
Event icon
June 6, 1822: A great cyclone strikes Bengal killing around 50,000 people and 100,000 cattle.
Event icon
June 8, 1822: After the fall of Quito, the loyalist garrison at Pasto, Colombia surrenders and Simón Bolívar’s army enters unopposed.
Event icon
June 10, 1822: The Aaron Manby travels from London to Le Havre, thence up the Seine to Paris on its maiden voyage. It is the first steamship made of iron.
Event icon
June 14, 1822: Charles Babbage presents his paper “Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables” to the Royal Astronomical Society. He proposes what he calls a “difference engine,” a machine to calculate polynomials, a rudimentary computer.
Event icon
June 19, 1822: The United States recognizes the Republic of Colombia.
Event icon
June 21, 1822: Greek forces capture the Acropolis.
Event icon
June 24, 1822: King George IV grants royal assent to a modification of the Navigation Act, allowing greater trade with Europe, the United States, and West Indies. Also granted royal assent is the Vagrant Act, designed to curb prostitution.
Death icon
June 25, 1822: Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann dies in Berlin at the age of 46.
Performance icon
June 29, 1822: La lettera anonima, a dramma per musica by Gaetano Donizetti (24) to words of Genoino, is performed for the first time, in Teatro del Fondo, Naples.
Event icon
July 2, 1822: Denmark Vesey is hanged in Charleston, South Carolina. A free black, he was the leader of a planned slave revolt which was betrayed before it was put into action.
Event icon
July 6, 1822: The Mendelssohn family, including Fanny (16) and Felix (13) depart Berlin for a journey to Switzerland.
Event icon
July 7, 1822: Spanish Royal Guards form at Pardo and march to Madrid with a muddled program, to take control of the government.
Event icon
July 8, 1822: Spanish Royal Guards are defeated in Madrid by troops and liberal militia loyal to the ministry.
Death icon
July 8, 1822: Percy Bysshe Shelley is drowned at the age of 29 while sailing in a storm with a friend off Viareggio, Duchy of Lucca. His body washes onto the beach and is cremated on the spot. All is consumed, save his heart. His wife Mary will carry it with her in a silken shroud for the rest of her life.
Event icon
July 10, 1822: Santiago Usoz Mozi replaces Francisco Martínez de la Rosa as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
July 10, 1822: The Kingdom of Guatemala is renamed the United Provinces of the Center of America.
Event icon
July 11, 1822: Nicolás María Garelli Battifira replaces Santiago Usoz Mozi as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Performance icon
July 15, 1822: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (18) graduates from St. Petersburg University Boarding School. At the ceremony he plays the Piano Concerto in a minor by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (43).
Event icon
July 16, 1822: Turks defeat Greek rebels at Peta in Epirus.
Event icon
July 21, 1822: Augustín de Iturbide is crowned Emperor of Mexico.
Event icon
July 22, 1822: The British Parliament passes one of the first animal rights laws, the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act, designed to protect farm animals.
Event icon
July 22, 1822: After three months devoted to his music, Gioachino Rossini (30) departs Vienna. Prince Metternich, a great admirer, has engaged Rossini to be the “official composer” of the Verona Conference coming up in November.
Event icon
July 23, 1822: Santiago Usoz Mozi replaces Nicolás María Garelli Battifira as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
July 26, 1822: The two great liberators of South America, Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín, meet in Guyaquil. They discuss strategy and a postwar South America but can not agree to join forces.
Event icon
July 28, 1822: After traveling through Darmstadt, Heidelberg, and Stuttgart, the Mendelssohn family, including Fanny (16) and Felix (13), reach Switzerland.
Event icon
July 30, 1822: Der Wachtelschlag D.742, a song by Franz Schubert (25) to words of Sauter, is published in the Zeitschrift für Kunst, Vienna.
Event icon
July 31, 1822: The provinces of Quito, Guyaquil, and Cuenca become part of Gran Colombia.
Event icon
August 5, 1822: Evaristo Fernández San Miguel y Valledor replaces Santiago Usoz Mozi as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Death icon
August 12, 1822: British Foreign Secretary Lord Castlereagh cuts his own throat with a pen knife, at his estate in Kent. He has been showing signs of madness for some time.
Event icon
August 13, 1822: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia forbids all secret societies including the Masons.
Event icon
August 13, 1822: An earthquake in Antioch, Syria kills over 20,000 people.
Event icon
August 15, 1822: King George IV begins a two-week visit to Scotland, the first by a reigning monarch since the 17th century.
Performance icon
August 21, 1822: Hector Berlioz (18) witnesses a performance of Gluck’s (†34) Iphigénie en Tauride at the Paris Opéra. By the end, he has decided that he will give up his medical studies and become a composer.
Death icon
August 21, 1822: William Herschel dies in Slough at the age of 83.
Event icon
August 25, 1822: Antonio Salieri (72) writes to Prince Esterházy asking him to support his young composition student Franz Liszt (10).
Event icon
September 4, 1822: Jean Baptiste Séraphin Joseph, comte de Villèle becomes Prime Minister of France.
Event icon
September 5, 1822: An earthquake in Aleppo (Halab) in the Ottoman Empire kills 22,000 people.
Event icon
September 7, 1822: Dom Pedro, left as regent of Brazil by his father, King João VI of Portugal, summarily proclaims the independence of Brazil on the banks of the River Ipircinga near São Paulo.
Event icon
September 8, 1822: After defeating a rebel army yesterday, royalists occupy Maracaibo.
Event icon
September 9, 1822: Publication of Die Kunst des Fingersatzes...in einer Sammlung classischer Compositionen by Carl Czerny (31) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
Event icon
September 11, 1822: The Roman Catholic College of Cardinals rules that "the printing and publication of works treating of the motion of the earth and the stability of the sun, in accordance with the opinion of modern astronomers, is permitted." It will be ratified by Pope Pius VII on 25 September. This removes Galileo’s works from the Index.
Event icon
September 20, 1822: José de San Martín resigns at Protector of Peru and sails for Chile. He plans to retire to his farm near Menoza, Argentina.
Event icon
September 20, 1822: A Turkish fleet enters the Gulf of Nafplio and is stopped by Greek ships. Six days of fighting ensue.
Event icon
September 23, 1822: A liberal constitution for Portugal is promulgated. João VI takes the oath as constitutional monarch.
Event icon
September 25, 1822: After six days of attempting to force their way through the Greek ships in the Gulf of Nafplio, the Turkish fleet withdraws.
Event icon
September 27, 1822: Jean-François Champollion reads his Lettre à M.Dacier relative à l’alphabet des hyeroglyphes phonetiques to the Royal Academy of Inscriptions. Based on the Rosetta Stone and other inscriptions, he describes the beginning of the deciphering of ancient Egyptian writing. He has also begun the study of Egyptology.
Event icon
September 27, 1822: A hurricane comes ashore at Charleston, South Carolina and moves north into Virginia. Over 300 people, many of them slaves, are killed.
Performance icon
October 3, 1822: A new overture and a chorus, Wo sich die Pulse, by Ludwig van Beethoven (51) are performed for the first time, for the opening of the Josephstadttheater, Vienna, conducted by the composer. They are attached to Beethoven’s Die Ruinen von Athen which has been adapted by Carl Meisl as Die Weihe des Hauses.
Event icon
October 4, 1822: In a private ceremony in Frankfurt, Abraham and Lea Mendelssohn are baptized into the Protestant faith. Their four children were baptized in 1816.
Event icon
October 7, 1822: The Mendelssohn family makes a visit to Goethe’s home in Weimar. It is the second meeting with the poet for Felix (13). Fanny (16) plays Bach and her Goethe songs for him. When Felix plays, the poet remarks, “You are my David, and if I am ever ill and sad, you must banish my bad dreams by your playing…”
Event icon
October 8, 1822: The Galunggung volcano on Java erupts sending mudflows which kill over 4,000 people and destroy over 100 villages.
Event icon
October 12, 1822: Dom Pedro, son of King João VI of Portugal, is proclaimed constitutional emperor of Brazil.
Event icon
October 12, 1822: The Galunggung volcano on Java erupts for a second time, blowing the top off the mountain and spewing rock and ash into the air.
Event icon
October 15, 1822: The Vision of Judgment by George Gordon, Lord Byron is published in The Liberal. It is a biting satire on Southey’s A Vision of Judgement published last year, and its sycophantic prostration at the feet of King George III.
Event icon
October 20, 1822: The London Sunday Times is published for the first time.
Event icon
October 20, 1822: The Congress of Verona convenes to continue the absolutist ideals of the Congress of Laibach of last year. Present are Emperor Franz I of Austria, Tsar Alyeksandr I of Russia, King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, and all the leaders of Italy except the Pope.
Event icon
October 21, 1822: Hector Berlioz (18) begins his journey from La Côte-St.-André to Paris after summer vacation. His father expects that he will resume his medical studies.
Performance icon
October 22, 1822: The Piano Concerto in a minor by Felix Mendelssohn (13) is performed for the first time, in a private setting in Berlin. The soloist is the composer’s sister, Fanny (16).
Performance icon
October 26, 1822: Gaetano Donizetti’s (24) melodramma semiseria Chiara e Serafina, o Il pirata to words of Romani after Pixérécourt is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
Event icon
October 30, 1822: The Caledonian Canal is opened joining the east and west sides of Scotland from Inverness to Loch Linnhe.
Event icon
October 30, 1822: Franz Schubert (25) dates the score to the two movements of the Symphony no.8 “Unfinished”.
Event icon
October 31, 1822: With the help of loyal troops, Emperor Agustín I of Mexico dissolves Congress.
Event icon
November 1, 1822: Fire begins in Canton (Guangzhou) and will destroy much of the city.
Performance icon
November 3, 1822: Ludwig van Beethoven’s (51) Gratulations-Menuet WoO 3 is performed for the first time, in Vienna for the name day of Carl Friedrich Hensler, new director of the theatre in Josephstadt.
Event icon
November 10, 1822: At a meeting of the Philharmonic Society of London, the members vote to offer £50 to Ludwig van Beethoven (51) for a new symphony.
Event icon
November 11, 1822: Hamdullah Abdullah Pasha replaces Haci Salih Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
Event icon
November 14, 1822: Publication of the Variations for piano and cello op.9 by Jan Václav Vorísek (31) is advertised in the Wiener Zeitung.
Death icon
November 19, 1822: Sultan Sulaiman of Morocco dies and is succeeded by his nephew Abd ar-Rahman.
Event icon
November 21, 1822: Owing to political unrest, the faculty of the Paris College of Medicine is dismissed and the college is closed. Hector Berlioz (18), a student for little more than a year, thus ends his regular studies of medicine.
Event icon
November 23, 1822: Fanny Mendelssohn (17) completes the composition of her first piece of chamber music, a piano quartet in A flat.
Performance icon
November 24, 1822: Gioachino Rossini’s (30) cantata La Santa Alleanza to words of Rossi is performed for the first time, in the Arena, Verona, commissioned by Prince Metternich for the Congress of Verona as a celebration of the Holy Alliance.
Event icon
November 27, 1822: At Newgate Prison, William Reading becomes the last person in Britain to be hanged for shoplifting.
Performance icon
November 28, 1822: An overture and five choral numbers for Den Sachsen-Sogn vermählet heute J.289, a festspiel by Robert, by Carl Maria von Weber (36), are performed for the first time, to celebrate the wedding of Prince Johann of Saxony to Princess Amalie August of Bavaria, at the Dresden Hoftheater.
Performance icon
November 28, 1822: Valentine de Milan, a drame lyrique by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (†5) to words of Bouilly and completed by Daussoigne-Méhul, is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
Event icon
November 30, 1822: Greek rebels surprise Turkish defenders and capture the castle of Nafplio.
Event icon
December 1, 1822: Dom Pedro, son of King João VI of Portugal, is crowned Emperor of Brazil.
Performance icon
December 1, 1822: Franz Liszt (11), now a piano student of Carl Czerny (31) and a composition student of Antonio Salieri (72), gives his first public concert in the Landständischer Saal, Vienna. Liszt plays the a minor piano concerto of Johann Nepomuk Hummel (44). It is very well received. The Allgemeine Zeitung will call him “a little Hercules...fallen from the clouds.”
Event icon
December 2, 1822: Richard Geyer (Wagner) (9) enters the Kreuzschule in Dresden.
Performance icon
December 3, 1822: Il vero omaggio, a cantata by Gioachino Rossini (30) to words of Rossi, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Filarmonico, Verona, commissioned by Prince Metternich for the Congress of Verona. The performance takes place before the assembled heads of state.
Performance icon
December 3, 1822: Maid Marian, or The Huntress of Arlingford, an opera by Henry R. Bishop (36) to words of Planché after Peacock and Scott, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Performance icon
December 5, 1822: Concerto in a minor for piano and strings by Felix Mendelssohn (13) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
Birth icon
December 10, 1822: 07:00 César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck is born at no.13 rue Saint-Pierre in Liège, in the Walloon District of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the second of five children (eldest of two surviving infancy) born to Nicholas-Joseph Franck, an unemployed clerk, and Marie-Catherine-Barbe Frings, the daughter of a German textile merchant.
Event icon
December 12, 1822: Jan Václav Vorísek (31) undergoes examination as one of nine candidates for the position of second court organist in Vienna. He is successful and will take up duties next month.
Event icon
December 12, 1822: The United States recognizes the independence of Mexico.
Event icon
December 13, 1822: Eight songs by Franz Schubert (25) are published by Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna: Drei Gesänge des Harfners to words of Goethe as his op.12, and Der Schäfer und der Reiter to words of Fouqué, Lob der Tränen to words of von Schlegel, and Der Alpenjäger to words of Mayrhofer, all as his op.13, and the first setting of Suleika and Geheimes, both to words of Goethe as his op.14.
Event icon
December 14, 1822: The Congress of Verona grants France a free hand in suppressing the rebellion in Spain, then adjourns without discussing Greece.
Event icon
December 14, 1822: Angry Orangemen in Dublin hurl objects at the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Marquess Wellesley as he attends a performance at the Royal Theatre.
Event icon
December 22, 1822: Ludwig van Beethoven (52) is elected an honorary member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences, Stockholm.
Performance icon
December 23, 1822: Opferlied op.121b by Ludwig van Beethoven (52) is performed for the first time, in Pressburg (Bratislava).
Event icon
December 23, 1822: General Sucre’s army defeats loyalists at Pesto, Colombia. They go on to ransack the town.
Event icon
December 24, 1822: Wilhelm Hensel presents Fanny Mendelssohn (17) with a book of poetry by his friend Wilhelm Müller. He includes his own portrait and a poem of his own.
Event icon
December 25, 1822: Lea Mendelssohn returns the Christmas present given to her daughter Fanny (17) by Wilhelm Hensel. “I didn’t want to disturb the joy of last evening by observing that I don’t find it appropriate for a young man to send his portrait to a young maiden, regardless of how it is veiled…I‘m returning your friend’s poems, so that, deprived of their decorations, Fanny may willingly and freely receive them again from you.” (Todd, Fanny Hensel, 68)
Event icon
December 29, 1822: Rebel forces capture Tacna, Peru.