A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1821 – December 31, 1821

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January 1, 1821: Portuguese troops in Belém, Brazil rebel and set up a liberal government.
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January 8, 1821: King Ferdinando reaches Laibach (Ljubljana) from Naples where he will meet with other rulers of Europe.
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January 8, 1821: Kenilworth by Walter Scott is published by Constable & Co in Edinburgh.
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January 9, 1821: Mirandola, a tragedy with music by Henry R. Bishop (34) to words of Cornwall, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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January 15, 1821: The publication of Fantaisie with Variations on Au Clair de la lune op.48 by Muzio Clementi (68) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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January 17, 1821: The government of New Spain gives permission to settle in Texas to 300 US citizens, provided that they are Catholic and descended from Europeans.
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January 21, 1821: The Russian expedition of Thaddeus von Bellingshausen sights an island 450 km off the mainland of Antarctica. He calls it Peter I Island after Peter the Great.
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January 23, 1821: The Nautilus sails from Hampton Roads, Virginia for Africa with 33 blacks intent on creating a colony for freed slaves in West Africa. The ship is owned by the American Colonization Society.
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January 24, 1821: The Cortes decides to create a liberal constitution for Portugal.
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January 25, 1821: Erlkönig, a song by Franz Schubert (23) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time in a public hall, the Musikverein, Vienna.
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January 26, 1821: This date marks the first recorded instance of a Schubertiad. 14 friends gather in the Vienna rooms of Franz von Schober. The drinking and merry-making go on until 03:00.
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January 26, 1821: The Congress of Laibach (Ljubljana) opens. Present are Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia, Emperor Franz of Austria as well as special representatives of King Louis XVIII of France and King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia. Great Britain is represented only by its ambassador to Vienna who will act as an observer. Also present are King Ferdinando of The Two Sicilies and the Duke of Modena. Other Italian sovereigns have sent representatives. The subject is the peace of Europe, in particular, unrest in Italy.
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January 27, 1821: Antonio Salieri (70) signs a second recommendation for Franz Schubert (23).
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January 27, 1821: Lalla Rukh, a festspiel by Gaspare Spontini (46) to words of Spiker after Moore, is performed for the first time, in the Royal Palace, Berlin.
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January 28, 1821: The Russian expedition of Thaddeus von Bellingshausen discovers Alexander Island off Antarctica.
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January 29, 1821: Spanish generals at Asnapuqio, near Lima, depose Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela y Sánchez Muñoz de Velasco, marqués de Viluma, replacing him with General José de la Serna e Hinojosa.
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February 1, 1821: The publication of two Capriccios for piano op.47 by Muzio Clementi (69) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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February 1, 1821: Sagt, woher stammt Liebeslust, a lied for soprano, alto, female chorus, and guitar by Carl Maria von Weber (34), is performed for the first time, as part of Der Kaufmann von Venedig, a play by Schlegel after Shakespeare, in the Dresden Hoftheater.
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February 3, 1821: Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (10) dates the manuscript to his earliest known composition, a Polonaise in A flat.
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February 3, 1821: Die Soldatenliebschaft, a singspiel by Felix Mendelssohn to words of Casper, is performed for the first time with orchestra, in a specially constructed theatre in the Mendelssohn home, Berlin. It is the composer’s twelfth birthday. See 11 December 1820.
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February 3, 1821: Two days after Friedrich Kalkbrenner (35) is denied status of a subscriber, Muzio Clementi (69) resigns from the London Philharmonic Society. He calls their action a “flagrant insult.”
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February 7, 1821: Men from the American sealer Cecilia go ashore at Hughes Bay in Graham Land. Though ashore only for an hour, they are the first men in recorded history to set foot on the continent of Antarctica.
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February 8, 1821: Franz Schubert’s (24) song Sehnsucht D.636 to words of Schiller is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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February 9, 1821: The ministers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia inform the government of the Two Sicilies that the recent revolution is endangering the peace of Europe and an Austrian army is proceeding to the country to restore absolutism.
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February 10, 1821: Child of the Mountain, or The Deserted Mother, an opera by Anton Philipp Heinrich (39) to words of McMurtrie, is performed for the first time, in the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia.
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February 14, 1821: Carl Loewe (24) becomes musical director for the City of Stettin (Szczecin). He will work in Stettin for the next 45 years.
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February 16, 1821: Publication of the Piano Concerto op.85 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (42) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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February 18, 1821: Three crew members of the Essex are rescued by a British whaler, 90 days after their ship was destroyed. They survived by consuming the bodies of their shipmates.
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February 20, 1821: Don John, or The Two Violettas, an operatic drama with music by Henry R. Bishop (34) to words of Reynolds after Beaumont and Fletcher, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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February 23, 1821: In a small room above the Spanish Steps in Rome, John Keats dies of tuberculosis at the age of 25. His tombstone will read: Here lies One Whose Name was writ in Water.
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February 23, 1821: Two survivors of the Essex are rescued near the coast of South America by another Nantucket whaler, 95 days after their ship was destroyed by a whale. They survived by consuming the bodies of their shipmates.
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February 24, 1821: Matilde Shabran ossia Bellezza, e cuor di ferro, a melodramma giocoso by Gioachino Rossini (28) to words of Ferretti after Hoffmann and Boutet de Monvel, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Apollo, Rome, conducted by Nicolò Paganini (38). The work encounters a mixed reception.
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February 24, 1821: In Iguala, southeast of Mexico City, royalist General Augustín de Iturbide, insurgent leader Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña, and other rebels agree on the Plan of Iguala. Mexico will declare independence with three guarantees (Tres Garantías): the predominance of Roman Catholicism, total independence (save for symbolic rule by the Spanish royal family), and reconciliation between the various ethnic groups in the country.
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February 26, 1821: Portuguese troops in Rio de Janeiro revolt against King João. His son, Dom Pedro, swears allegiance to the liberal constitution in his father’s name.
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February 27, 1821: Landgrave Wilhelm I of Hesse-Kassel dies in Kassel and is succeeded by his son Wilhelm II.
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March 2, 1821: Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca replaces Juan Javat as First Secretary of State of Spain.
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March 4, 1821: Eusebio Bardají y Azara replaces Joaquín Anduaga Cuenca as First Secretary of State of Spain.
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March 5, 1821: A force of about 4,500 mostly Slavs under Alexander Ypsilantis, a Greek officer in the Russian army, crosses the Moldavian frontier from Russia with the intention of liberating Greece from Turkish control.
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March 7, 1821: Austrian troops defeat the constitutional army of the Two Sicilies at Rieti, 65 km northeast of Rome. This effectively ends the liberal revolution in the country.
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March 7, 1821: Two works by Franz Schubert (24), Das Dörfchen D.641, a vocal quartet to words of Bürger, and Gesang der Geister über den Wassern D.714 for male octet to words of Goethe, are performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.  It is also the first public performance of his Erlkönig which causes a sensation.  More and more of his music will now be published and performed.
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March 8, 1821: Gruppe aus dem Tartarus D.583, a song by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Schiller is performed for the first time, in the Musikverein, Vienna.
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March 9, 1821: The Portuguese Cortes adopts 36 articles declaring the principles on which a constitution will be based.
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March 9, 1821: Ode for the Anniversary of the Accession of George IV by Henry R. Bishop (34) is performed for the first time, in London.
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March 10, 1821: A liberal revolution begins in Piedmont led by army officer Santorre di Santarosa. They desire a constitution and to place Carlo Alberto Carignan on the throne.
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March 10, 1821: Royalist Augustín de Iturbide and rebel Vicente Guerrero agree to join their forces at Acatempan, near Teloloapan, Mexico in the Ejército de las Tres Garantías (Army of the Three Guarantees).
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March 11, 1821: Sardinian liberals issue a manifesto calling for a unified Italy.
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March 13, 1821: In the face of a liberal revolution, King Vittorio Emanuele of Sardinia abdicates in favor of his brother, Carlo Felice, who is presently in Modena. Carlo Felice’s cousin, Carlo Alberto becomes regent until his return. Carlo Felice grants a new constitution.
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March 14, 1821: Incidental music to Wolff’s play Preciosa by Carl Maria von Weber (34) is performed for the first time, in the Königliche Hofbühne, Berlin to great success with the public.
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March 15, 1821: Die beiden Pädagogen, a comic operetta by Felix Mendelssohn (12) to words of Casper after Scribe, is performed for the first time, in Berlin to celebrate the birthday of the composer’s mother.
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March 18, 1821: Military leaders from the Two Sicilies capitulate to an invading Austrian army at Capua.
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March 20, 1821: The Inquisition is abolished in Portugal. The Banco de Lisboa is established.
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March 22, 1821: Hector Berlioz (17) receives a Bachelier ès lettres (baccalaureate degree) at Grenoble.
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March 23, 1821: Austrian troops enter Naples to restore King Ferdinando to absolutism sparking widespread uprisings throughout the country.  Guglielmo Pepe, leader of the liberal revolt, flees into exile.
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March 25, 1821: Sporadic, unconnected uprisings occur in Greece against Turkish rule.
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March 31, 1821: Erlkönig D.328, a song by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Goethe, is published by Cappi and Diabelli to great success.
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April 3, 1821: Maranhão adheres to the liberal government of Belém, Brazil.
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April 6, 1821: Germanos, Metropolitan of Patras, declares the independence of Greece at the Monastery of Agia Lavra near Kalvrita.
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April 8, 1821: Austrian forces defeat the Piedmontoise followers of Carlo Alberto at Novara, 45 km west of Milan.
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April 9, 1821: Giorgios Mavromihalis declares the independence of Greece from the Ottoman Empire. He will form a government.
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April 11, 1821: A Vision of Judgement by Poet Laureate Robert Southey is published. It tells of the triumphal entry of King George III into heaven.
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April 15, 1821: A new royalist army moving south invests Jujuy, Argentina.
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April 16, 1821: The island of Spetses declares for the Greek revolt.
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April 16, 1821: The Boston English Classical School opens. It is the first public high school in the United States. (Now known as Boston English High School)
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April 18, 1821: The island of Psara declares for the Greek revolt.
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April 19, 1821: The British Parliament passes a bill to build a steam rail line from Darlington to Stockton-on-Tees. It is an attempt to develop a remote coal area.
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April 21, 1821: Benderli Ali Pasha replaces Seyyid Ali Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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April 22, 1821: King João of Portugal appoints his son Dom Pedro as his regent in Brazil.
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April 22, 1821: Franz Schubert’s (24) male vocal quartet Die Nachtigall D.724 to words of Unger is performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.
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April 22, 1821: In response to unrest in his Romanian lands and a massacre of Turks by Greeks in the Morea, Ottoman Sultan Mahmut II orders that the Ecumenical Patriarch Gregorios be hanged in front of his palace in Constantinople, today, Easter Sunday. The Archbishops of Adrianople, Thessaloniki, and Tirnovo are also hanged. This precedes widespread massacres of Christians by Turks in Thessalia, Macedonia, and Anatolia.
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April 23, 1821: A Polonaise in A flat by Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (11) is performed for the first time, by the composer and his teacher, Wojciech Zywny.
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April 23, 1821: Francisco de Paula Escudero replaces Eusebio Bardají y Azara as First Secretary of State of Spain.
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April 23, 1821: The leading edge of a royalist army is wiped out by rebels in Léon, Argentina.
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April 25, 1821: Carlo Felice returns to Piedmont and takes over the throne from the regent, his cousin Carlo Alberto. He annuls Carlo Alberto’s constitution.
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April 26, 1821: King João and the Portuguese court depart Brazil for Portugal.
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April 28, 1821: The island of Idra declares for the Greek revolt.
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April 30, 1821: Gretchen am Spinnrade D.118, a song by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Goethe, is published by Cappi and Diabelli to great success.
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April 30, 1821: Haci Salih Pasha replaces Benderli Ali Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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May 1, 1821: Iturbide’s army enter Léon, Mexico.
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May 1, 1821: Blanche de Provence, ou La cour de fées, an opera by Luigi Cherubini (60), Adrien Boeildieu (45), Henri-Montan Berton, Rodolphe Kreutzer, and Ferdinando Paer to words of Théaulon de Lambert and de Rancé, is performed for the first time, at the Palais des Tuileries, Paris.
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May 2, 1821: Les Arts rivaux, a scène lyrique by Adrien Boieldieu (45) and Berton to words of Chazet, is performed for the first time, at the Hôtel de Ville, Paris.
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May 2, 1821: Carl Maria von Weber (34) and his wife, Caroline Brandt, arrive in Berlin from Dresden for the premiere of Der Freischütz.
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May 3, 1821: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (42) gives a concert in Berlin. While in the city, he makes the acquaintance of royal Kapellmeister Gaspare Spontini (36).
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May 5, 1821: The Manchester Guardian appears for the first time.
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May 5, 1821: The Journal des débats announces that Luigi Cherubini (60) and Adrien Boieldieu (45), among others, are named Chevaliers in the Order of St. Michael.
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May 5, 1821: Napoléon Bonaparte dies in exile on St. Helena, officially of stomach cancer, but possibly murdered by slow arsenic poison.
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May 7, 1821: Due to rising debts the Africa Company is dissolved and Sierra Leone, Gambia and the Gold Coast are absorbed by the British Crown. The Gold Coast is made a crown colony.
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May 9, 1821: The earthly remains of Napoleon Bonaparte are laid to rest on St. Helena, 8,039 km south of Paris.
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May 12, 1821: Rebels defeat a royalist force near Guatire, east of Caracas.
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May 12, 1821: The Congress of Laibach (Ljubljana) closes after deciding on measures against revolutions in Italy and Greece. The final protocol is agreed to by Russia, Austria, and Prussia but not Great Britain and France. Their denunciation of the Greek rebellion encourages the Turks to further repressive measures.
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May 14, 1821: Rebel forces capture Tacna, Peru.
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May 14, 1821: A rebel army enters Caracas as royalist citizens flee aboard a fleet of ships.
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May 14, 1821: Olympia, an opera by Gaspare Spontini (46) to words of Dieulafoy and Briffaut, translated by Hoffmann, is performed for the first time, in the Berlin Opera. The audience includes Carl Maria von Weber (34), in town for the premiere of Der Freischütz. This is the German version of Olympie. See 22 December 1818.
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May 15, 1821: King Ferdinando returns to Naples to resume absolutism.
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May 15, 1821: Music to Reynolds’ (after Shakespeare) play The Tempest by Henry R. Bishop (34), is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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May 20, 1821: Iturbide’s army captures Valladolid (Morelia, Mexico).
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May 24, 1821: Piauí adheres to the liberal government of Belém, Brazil.
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May 24, 1821: Royalists attack rebels at Márquez, Venezuela. The attack is repulsed but the rebels thereupon retreat back to Caracas.
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May 26, 1821: Rebel forces abandon Caracas.
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May 29, 1821: Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna publish four songs by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Goethe as his op.3: Schäfers Klagelied, Heidenröslein, and the second settings of Meeresstille and Jägers Abendlied. They also publish three other of Schubert’s songs as his op.4: Der Wanderer to words of Schmidt von Lübeck , Morgenlied to words of Werner, and the first setting of Wandrers Nachtlied to words of Goethe.
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May 30, 1821: Vincenzo Bellini (19) and a fellow student, Francesco Florimo, publicly proclaim “Long Live our King Ferdinand, consecrated by God and by Right” on the King’s name day, at Teatro San Carlo, Naples. They were suspected of being involved with the recent uprising of the Carbonari, and they are required to make this proclamation after a confession.
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May 31, 1821: The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is consecrated in Baltimore. It is the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in the United States.
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May 31, 1821: James Boyd of Boston receives a US patent for a fire hose of cotton web lined with rubber.
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June 3, 1821: Emperor Iyoas II Hezqeyas of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by his brother Gigar Iyasu.
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June 7, 1821: A group of Greek landowners meets in Argos and declares itself the government of the Peloponnesus.
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June 12, 1821: Egypt annexes Sudan.
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June 18, 1821: 19:00 Carl Maria von Weber’s (34) romantic opera Der Freischütz to words of Kind after Apel and Laun is performed for the first time, at the opening of the rebuilt Berlin Schauspielhaus to great success. In the audience is an interested 12-year-old named Felix Mendelssohn. Within the next two years, Der Freischütz will be staged in all the important theatres of Germany.
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June 19, 1821: Turkish troops defeat rebel Romanians under Alexander Ypsilantis at Dragasani, 150 km west of Bucharest. Ypsilantis will be captured after he escapes into Austrian territory.
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June 20, 1821: A duet and aria for Ferdinand Hérold’s (30) Das Zauberglöckchen (La clochette) by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Théaulon de Lambert translated by Treitsche, is performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.
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June 23, 1821: Rebels attack loyalists at Calvario Hill, west of Caracas. They are virtually wiped out.
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June 24, 1821: South American forces under Simón Bolívar defeat Spanish and Loyalist troops at Carabobo on Lake Maracaibo, insuring the independence of Venezuela.
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June 25, 1821: Konzertstück J.282 for piano and orchestra by Carl Maria von Weber (34) is performed for the first time, in Berlin. During this program, Weber accompanies the renowned French violinist Alexandre Boucher in his Variations on a Norwegian Air, but after beginning, Boucher motions Weber to stop playing and he takes off into a lengthy and bizarre solo flight. Unable to get back to the original piece, he drops his violin, embraces Weber and shouts “Ah grand maître! que j'aime, que j'admire!”
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June 28, 1821: Simón Bolívar enters Caracas in triumph.
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June 29, 1821: Rebel forces capture the port of La Guaira.
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June 30, 1821: Liberals in Portugal publish a proposed constitution before the arrival of King João from Brazil.
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June 30, 1821: An Emma D.113, a song by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Schiller, is published in the Zeitschrift für Kunst, Vienna.
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July 3, 1821: King João VI of Portugal returns to his native country from exile in Brazil.
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July 4, 1821: Silvestre Pinheiro Ferreira becomes Secretary of State (prime minister) of Portugal.
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July 4, 1821: News of Napoléon’s death is published in London.
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July 5, 1821: General Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo deposes the Viceroy of New Spain, Juan Ruíz de Apodaca y Eliza López de Letona y Lasquetty, conde de Venadito and begins to organize the defense of Mexico City.
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July 6, 1821: Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuates Lima, largely because of disease and malnutrition.
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July 7, 1821: Emma, ou La promesse imprudente, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (39) to words of Planard, is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
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July 9, 1821: Rebel troops enter Lima.
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July 9, 1821: Five songs by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Goethe are published by Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna as his op.5: Raslose Liebe, Nähe des Geliebten, Der Fischer, Erster Verlust, and Der König in Thule.
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July 10, 1821: The United States takes formal possession of Florida in ceremonies at Saint Augustine.
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July 11, 1821: Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (17) receives a Bible because of his success in his examinations. It is inscribed, “From the St. Petersburg University Boarding School to Mikhail Glinka, for good conduct and achievement in scripture, Russian language and literature, statistics, mathematics, and Latin.”
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July 13, 1821: Andrew Law is “taken speechless at the dinner table…[and] taken to his bed” and dies in Cheshire, Connecticut, USA, aged 72 years, three months and 22 days. (Crawford, 246) His mortal remains will be laid to rest in Hillside Cemetery in Cheshire.
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July 18, 1821: Banda Oriental (Uruguay) is annexed by Brazil.
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July 18, 1821: Michelle Ferdinande Pauline Garcia (Viardot) is born at 83 rue de Richelieu in the 2me Arrondissement of Paris, Kingdom of France, the last of three children born to Manuel del Popolo Vicente Garcia, a singer and composer, and María Joaquina Sitchès, a singer.
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July 19, 1821: George IV is crowned King of Great Britain and Ireland in Westminster Abbey. His estranged wife, Queen Caroline, attempts to gain admission but is refused. She leaves, amidst some name-calling from the onlookers. Tonight she attends a pageant of the coronation at Drury Lane Theatre. After returning home, the Queen becomes very ill with some kind of digestive ailment.
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July 21, 1821: Carl Maria von Weber’s (34) deteriorating health prompts him to make a last will and testament in Dresden.
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July 26, 1821: Russia severs relations with the Ottoman Empire due to the latter’s refusal to guarantee the safety of its Christian subjects.
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July 28, 1821: After royalist troops evacuate Lima, the citizenry proclaim the independence of Peru and give José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras the title of “Protector.”
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August 4, 1821: The Saturday Evening Post begins publication as a weekly newspaper.
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August 8, 1821: Queen Caroline, estranged wife of King George IV of Great Britain, dies at her home, Cambridge House, in London.
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August 8, 1821: Don Juan (cantos iii-v) by George Gordon, Lord Byron is published.
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August 10, 1821: Missouri becomes the 24th state of the United States.
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August 12, 1821: King George IV arrives at Howth for a three-week visit to Ireland. It is a triumphal stay, with many Catholics anticipating emancipation from it.
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August 12, 1821: Rebels under General Sucre defeat royalists at Yaguachi, east of Guyaquil.
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August 16, 1821: The Paris Opéra moves into new quarters in the Rue Le Peletièr. The old theatre in the Rue de Richelieu was demolished after the Duc de Berry was killed there on 13 February 1820.
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August 19, 1821: The city of Navarino (Pylos) surrenders to Greek rebels. Despite a pledge of safe passage to Egypt, the Greeks run amok, killing 3,000 Turkish inhabitants. Only about 150 escape.
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August 21, 1821: German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck gives the first of four talks before the Academy of Sciences in Berlin where he describes his recent experiments. He has discovered that two unlike metals joined at two different points with each point at different temperatures will produce an electrical circuit. This phenomenon, later called the Seebeck Effect, is the beginning of thermoelectricity.
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August 21, 1821: Captain Brown of the British ship Eliza Francis, discovers Jarvis Island, naming it after the owners of his ship.
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August 21, 1821: The Freedom of the City is conferred upon Henry R. Bishop (34) by the City of Dublin.
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August 23, 1821: Three songs by Franz Schubert (24) are published by Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna as his op.6: Memnon and Antigone und Oedip to words of Mayrhofer, and Am Grabe Anselmos to words of Claudius.
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August 24, 1821: The last Viceroy of New Spain, General Juan O'Donojú, signs the Treaty of Córdoba. Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico as a constitutional monarchy.
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August 30, 1821: Franz Schubert’s (24) female chorus Der 23. Psalm D.706, (tr. Moses Mendelssohn), is performed for the first time, in the Gundelhof, Vienna.
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September 1, 1821: José de San Martín lands at Pisco, 200 km south of Lima, and declares against Spain.
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September 1, 1821: This month’s issue of the London Magazine includes the first installment of Thomas de Quincey’s Confessions of an English Opium-Eater.
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September 3, 1821: Chiapas declares its independence from Spain.
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September 3, 1821: A hurricane strikes directly into New York harbor and passes on into New England.
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September 4, 1821: Michael Faraday creates the first electric motor, a wire in mercury revolving around a magnet. It is the beginning of electromagnetic technology.
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September 7, 1821: Carl Loewe (24) marries Julie von Jacob in Halle.
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September 7, 1821: Filipe Ferreira de Araújo e Castro replaces Silvestre Pinheiro Ferreira as Secretary of State (prime minister) of Portugal.
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September 12, 1821: Sucre’s rebel army is almost wiped out by royalists at Huachi, near Ambato, Ecuador.
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September 15, 1821: Representatives of landowners and clergy meet in Guatemala City and proclaim the independence of the Kingdom of Guatemala (Chiapas, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua).
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September 16, 1821: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia claims the west coast of North America from the Bering Sea to latitude 51° north. He further bans foreign ships to come within 185 km of the coast.
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September 18, 1821: A setting of Psalm 19 for two solo voices, chorus and piano by Felix Mendelssohn (12) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
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September 18, 1821: Amherst College is founded in Amherst, Massachusetts.
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September 25, 1821: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia declares a monopoly on all hunting, fishing, and trading in Russian America and adjacent waters.
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September 27, 1821: Augustín de Iturbide enters Mexico City in triumph, Viceroy Juan O'Donojú having opened the city without a fight.
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September 28, 1821: Augustín de Iturbide takes on the title of President of the Regency of the Empire.
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September 29, 1821: The Cortes orders the return of Dom Pedro to Portugal from Brazil.
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September 29, 1821: The Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music, compiled by Lowell Mason (29), is announced in the leading American music journal, The Euterpeiad.
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September 29, 1821: Jeanne-Louise Dumont (17) marries Aristide Farrenc, music publisher, musician, and composer, in Paris.
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September 30, 1821: The Cortes places Brazil under direct rule from Portugal.
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October 1, 1821: Royalists in Cartagena, Colombia surrender the city to besieging rebels.
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October 4, 1821: A setting of the Mass by Vincenzo Bellini (19) is performed for the first time, in the church of San Francesco d’Assisi, Catania.
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October 5, 1821: The publication of twelve Monferrinas for piano op.49 by Muzio Clementi (69) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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October 5, 1821: Greek rebels capture Tripolitza in the Morea and massacre Turks living there. 8,000 people are killed.
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October 10, 1821: A contract is signed between Lowell Mason (29) and George K. Jackson of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. Mason’s tune book will be issued under the name of the society.
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October 15, 1821: The publication of three Piano Sonatas op.50 by Muzio Clementi (69) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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October 16, 1821: The Spanish formally surrender the city of Cumaná, Venezuela to rebels.
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October 17, 1821: The British West African Territories are established as a union of Gambia, Sierra Leone, and the Gold Coast.
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October 25, 1821: The Kyrie and Gloria from the Missa Solemnis by Ludwig van Beethoven (50) are performed for the first time, in the Landständischer Saal, Vienna. See 7 April 1824.
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October 26, 1821: Hector Berlioz (17) receives a passport for domestic travel at the Grenoble Town Hall. Before the month is out, he will use it to travel to Paris to study the art of medicine.
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November 2, 1821: Carl Friedrich Zelter arrives in Weimar from Berlin along with his daughter and a promising young student named Felix Mendelssohn (12). He wants them both to make the acquaintance of Goethe.
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November 4, 1821: In Weimar, Felix Mendelssohn (12) meets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe for the first time. In spite of the vast difference in their ages, the two begin a strong friendship over the next two weeks. Felix has brought several songs by his sister Fanny (15) on Goethe texts. The poet is delighted and will compose a poem for Fanny in gratitude. Also present is the Weimar Kapellmeister Johann Nepomuk Hummel (42).
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November 6, 1821: Robert Schumann (11) plays the piano part for a performance of Friedrich Schneider's oratorio Die Welgericht in the Marienkirche, Zwickau.
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November 11, 1821: At a musical gathering at Goethe’s house in Weimar, visiting musicians play through Felix Mendelssohn’s (12) Piano Quartet in D, led by his teacher Carl Friedrich Zelter. Goethe, who heard the seven-year-old Mozart, states that Mendelssohn’s accomplishment at such a young age “borders on the miraculous.” Comparisons to Mozart begin to fly.
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November 16, 1821: Hector Berlioz (17) enrolls at the Faculté de Médecine of the Académie de Paris of the Université Royale de France.
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November 18, 1821: Franz Schubert’s (24) song Der Wanderer D.493 to words of Schmidt von Lübeck is performed for the first time, in the Gasthof ‘zum römischen Kaiser’, Vienna.
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November 27, 1821: Three songs of Franz Schubert (24) are published by Cappi and Diabelli, Vienna as his op.7: Die abgeblühte Linde and Der Flug der Zeit to words of Széchényi, and Der Tod und das Mädchen to words of Claudius.
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November 28, 1821: Panama is declared independent of Spain.
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November 29, 1821: Music to Reynolds’ (after Shakespeare) play Two Gentlemen of Verona by Henry R. Bishop (35), is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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December 1, 1821: 24 members declaring themselves a Greek “national assembly” meet at Argos. They begin writing a constitution.
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December 1, 1821: The Republic of San Domingo is established independent of Spain and nominally part of Gran Colombia.
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December 3, 1821: The 17th Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place between 3 July 1820 and 10 August 1821. Federalists gain a handful of seats from the Republicans but are still in a small minority 155-32. Republicans dominate the Senate 44-4.
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December 6, 1821: The Powell Group (South Orkney Islands) are sighted by British sealers George Powell and Nathaniel Brown Palmer and claimed for Great Britain.
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December 6, 1821: Incidental music to von Kleist’s play Prinz Friedrich von Homburg by Heinrich August Marschner (26) is performed for the first time, in Dresden.
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December 8, 1821: Der Blumen Schmerz D.731, a song by Franz Schubert (24) to words of Mayláth, is published in the Zeitschrift für Kunst, Vienna.
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December 15, 1821: US Navy officers force the local king to sell Cape Mesurado (near present Monrovia, Liberia) to the American Colonization Society. The society will found a colony for freed slaves on the site.
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December 19, 1821: The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupts in Iceland. It will go on for 14 months.
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December 27, 1821: At a benefit for Gioachino Rossini (29) in the Teatro San Carlo, Naples, attended by King Ferdinando, the royal family, ministers and many members of the nobility, the composer’s cantata La riconoscenza to words of Genoino is performed for the first time.