A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1815 – December 31, 1815

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January 1, 1815: News of the Treaty of Ghent reaches the Congress of Vienna. It significantly raises the importance of the British position, since it now can field many more troops in Europe.
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January 1, 1815: Lowell Mason (22) enters upon duties as choir director at the Independent Presbyterian Church, Savannah, Georgia.
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January 2, 1815: Writing from Newark, New Jersey, Andrew Law (65) petitions the US House of Representatives for a renewal of his patent of 12 May 1802. It will not be granted.
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January 3, 1815: The Most Serene Republic of Genoa is attached to Sardinia.
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January 3, 1815: A secret alliance is signed between Britain, Austria, and France at Vienna. They are worried about Russian expansion.
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January 5, 1815: The Lord of the Isles by Walter Scott is published.
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January 5, 1815: The final report of the Hartford Convention is made public. It proposes seven constitutional amendments stemming from the experience of the New England states in the War of 1812. They stop short of advocating secession. None of the amendments will ever be enacted.
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January 5, 1815: La gioventù di Enrico quinto, an opéra comique by Louis Joseph Ferdinand Hérold (23) to words of Landriani and the composer after Pineux-Duval, is performed for the first time, in Teatro del Fondo, Naples. It is Hérold’s first work for the stage and is very warmly received.
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January 7, 1815: At the Congress of Vienna, France is admitted as an equal member to the directing Council of Four (Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia).
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January 8, 1815: War of 1812: British troops attack United States forces at Chalmette, 14 km southeast of New Orleans. In 30 minutes, 2,000 British soldiers are killed or wounded. Only one general officer survives. The Americans suffer 13 killed and 57 wounded. Unfortunately for all, the war ended two weeks ago.
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January 9, 1815: War of 1812: Royal Navy vessels begin eight days of bombardment of Fort St. Philip, southeast of New Orleans.
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January 10, 1815: Great Britain declares war on the King of Kandy, on the island of Ceylon.
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January 13, 1815: Bavaria adheres to the secret alliance of 3 January.
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January 16, 1815: At a meeting of the eight signatories of the Treaty of Paris in Vienna, Great Britain proposes an end to the international slave trade.
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January 18, 1815: After three years of accusations, recriminations and demands, Ludwig van Beethoven (44) reaches an agreement with the estate of Prince Kinsky. He will be paid part of his promised annuity and all the money not paid since the devaluation. His second setting of An die Hoffnung op.94 will be dedicated to Princess Kinsky for her graciousness and understanding.
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January 18, 1815: British forces withdraw from Louisiana by sea.
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January 19, 1815: Hannover adheres to the secret alliance of 3 January.
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January 21, 1815: The assembled leaders in Vienna attend a requiem mass in St. Stephen’s Cathedral for Louis XVI, organized by Talleyrand, on the 22nd anniversary of the king’s death. The music is conducted by Antonio Salieri (64).
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January 22, 1815: Great Britain and Portugal sign a treaty on the slave trade. No subject of Portugal will purchase any slaves on the coast of Africa north of the equator. In return, Britain cancels a £600,000 debt owed by Portugal.
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January 23, 1815: The Netherlands adheres to the secret alliance of 3 January.
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January 25, 1815: Ludwig van Beethoven (44) plays the piano at a concert to celebrate the birthday of the Tsarina at the Congress of Vienna. He accompanies the vocalist Franz Wild before a glittering royal audience. It is his last public performance as pianist.
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January 30, 1815: The United States Library of Congress is re-established after its destruction during the War of 1812 with the acquisition of Thomas Jefferson’s personal collection of 6,457 volumes.
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February 1, 1815: The Duke of Wellington arrives at the Congress of Vienna as the British representative replacing Viscount Castlereagh.
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February 2, 1815: Representatives of 32 German states, unrecognized at the Congress of Vienna, demand an immediate congress of Germany to consider a constitution. It will never happen.
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February 2, 1815: The Duke of Wellington makes his first public appearance in Vienna, at a ball in the Redoutensaal. Everyone is fascinated to know him and there is a large crush around him.
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February 6, 1815: The legislature of the State of New Jersey grants a charter to John Stevens “to erect a Rail-Road from the River Delaware, near Trenton, to the Raritan, at or near New Brunswick.” It is the first railroad charter in the United States.
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February 8, 1815: The eight signatories of the Treaty of Paris sign a statement on the slave trade, in Vienna. They call it immoral and dedicate themselves to its eradication. There is no enforcement provision.
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February 8, 1815: The Five Powers in Vienna finally agree on Saxony and Poland.  Russia will receive Poland while 40% of Saxony goes to Prussia.
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February 8, 1815: War of 1812: British forces from Louisiana capture Mobile, Mississippi Territory.
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February 11, 1815: News of the Treaty of Ghent reaches the United States.
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February 11, 1815: War of 1812: British forces capture Fort Bowyer (Mobile County, Alabama)
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February 11, 1815: After months of sometimes acrimonious debate, a final agreement on Poland and Saxony is signed at the Congress of Vienna. The Posen district is returned to Prussia while Galicia reverts to Austria. Krakow and the surrounding 1,000 sq.km. becomes a free city. The remaining 127,000 sq km of the old Duchy of Warsaw becomes the Kingdom of Poland under the Russian Tsar. In return for giving up most of its claims, Prussia receives 40% of Saxony, the Duchy of Westphalia, Swedish Pomerania and the west bank of the Rhine. In return for its concessions, Austria receives the Tyrol, Salzburg, the Adriatic Provinces, and certain assurances in Italy.
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February 14, 1815: British forces enter and occupy the city of Kandy (Sri Lanka).
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February 15, 1815: Viscount Castlereagh departs Vienna for London.
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February 17, 1815: In support of British agriculture, a bill is introduced into the House of Commons (the Corn Bill) which would restrict the import of foreign grain. It will also raise the price of bread.
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February 17, 1815: The United States Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent.
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February 19, 1815: Violin Concerto no.7 by Louis Spohr (30) is performed for the first time, in Vienna. It is judged among the best in that form yet composed.
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February 20, 1815: War of 1812: USS Constitution captures HMS Cyane and HMS Levant 500 km off Madeira.
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February 22, 1815: A large concert is given in Boston with massed choirs and instrumentalists to celebrate Washington’s Birthday and the Treaty of Ghent. The event will inspire the founding of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society. See 15 March 1815.
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February 24, 1815: Robert Fulton dies in New York City at the age of 49.
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February 25, 1815: Luigi Cherubini (54) departs Paris to present his new compositions to the Royal Philharmonic Society in London.
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February 26, 1815: Napoléon, three generals, and a thousand men sail from Elba making for France.
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March 1, 1815: 17:00 Napoléon reenters France near Antibes, near Nice.
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March 2, 1815: The Kandyan Convention is signed in the Audience Hall of the royal palace in Kandy by representatives of The Kingdom of Kandy and the British Empire. The Dominion of Kandyan Provinces (Ceylon) is vested in the Sovereign of the British Empire.
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March 2, 1815: Napoléon reaches Castellane.
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March 3, 1815: Napoléon reaches Barême.
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March 3, 1815: The United States declares war on Algiers.
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March 4, 1815: Napoléon reaches Digne.
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March 5, 1815: At its twelfth meeting, most of the issues before the “Swiss Committee” of the Congress of Vienna are resolved.
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March 5, 1815: Franz Mesmer dies in Meersburg, Switzerland at the age of 80.
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March 6, 1815: Mobs block entrances to the House of Commons as the Corn Bill goes into committee. Troops are called in. Members attempt to conduct business but are shouted at and ridiculed incessantly. Mobs do damage to the residences of the Chief Justice and the Lord Chancellor. Several other houses are vandalized and looted. The process is repeated over several nights.
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March 7, 1815: 800 men provide the first armed resistance to Napoléon, at Laffrey. He identifies himself as their emperor and invites them all to shoot him if they desire. They respond by throwing down their weapons and kneeling before him. Together, they go on to take Grenoble.
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March 7, 1815: News of Napoléon’s escape from Elba reaches Metternich and the Congress of Vienna. This evening the Quadruple Alliance decide to fight him.
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March 10, 1815: Napoléon and his army reach Lyon and receive a tumultuous welcome.
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March 10, 1815: News reaches the Congress of Vienna that Napoléon has landed in France.
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March 10, 1815: In a London teeming with troops to keep order, the third reading of the Corn Bill easily passes the House of Commons.
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March 10, 1815: Publication of Six Polonaises op.70 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (36) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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March 13, 1815: A joint declaration by Austria, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain and Sweden at the Congress of Vienna names Napoléon as an international outlaw and binds them together to fight him.
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March 14, 1815: 04:15 Josephine Caroline Lang is born in Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria, second of two children born to Theobald Lang, waldhornist in the court orchestra, and Regina Hitzelberger, a coloratura soprano.
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March 14, 1815: Troops sent by King Louis XVIII to subdue Napoléon go over to his side at Auxerre, 150 km southeast of Paris.
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March 15, 1815: In an attempt to aid Napoléon, King Joachim Murat of Naples launches an offensive against the Austrians.
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March 15, 1815: Bostonians Gottlieb Graupner, Asa Peabody, and Thomas Webb send out circulars inviting all to join a group to form “a correct taste in Sacred Musick.” See 20 April 1815.
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March 16, 1815: The Kingdom of the Netherlands (present Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg) is established under King Willem I.
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March 18, 1815: Marshal Michel Ney goes over to Napoléon’s side, bringing his strength to over 20,000. Ignorant of this, King Louis XVIII opens the new National Assembly.
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March 19, 1815: The French royal family flees Paris for Belgium.
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March 20, 1815: The council of eight approves the recommendations of the Swiss Committee at the Congress of Vienna. They will be placed before the Swiss Diet.
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March 20, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Napoléon enters Paris unopposed. He installs himself at the Tuileries Palace and assumes control of the government. Benjamin Constant de Rebeque will serve as Prime Minister.
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March 20, 1815: The Corn Bill passes the House of Lords, inspiring new protests and denunciations.
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March 21, 1815: The name of the Académie Royale de Musique (Paris Opéra) is changed to the Académie Impériale de Musique.
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March 22, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Neapolitan troops under Joachim Murat occupy Rome.
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March 23, 1815: King Louis XVIII crosses the border into Belgium and takes up residence in exile in Ghent.
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March 23, 1815: The Corn Law receives royal assent.
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March 23, 1815: War of 1812: USS Hornet captures HMS Penguin off Tristan da Cunha.
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March 25, 1815: A treaty of alliance between Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia against Napoléon is signed in Vienna. His rule over Elba is declared ended.
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March 26, 1815: The estate of Prince Kinsky resumes annuity payments to Ludwig van Beethoven (44).
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March 28, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The news of Napoléon’s entry into Paris reaches Vienna.
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March 29, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The Duke of Wellington departs Vienna to take command of his army in the Netherlands.
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March 30, 1815: Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha replaces Hursid Ahmed Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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March 30, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoléon and former King of Naples, proclaims the independence of Italy in Rimini and declares war on Austria.
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March 31, 1815: The Congress of Vienna attaches Elba to Tuscany.
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April 3, 1815: Luigi Cherubini (54) conducts the premiere of his Overture in G with the Royal Philharmonic Society in London.
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April 4, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The Duke of Wellington reaches Brussels from Vienna to take command of the army.
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April 6, 1815: American prisoners of war held in Dartmoor Prison in Devon demonstrate against their continued detention and the bad food. They are fired on by the guards. Seven are killed, 60 wounded.
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April 7, 1815: The Noble Outlaw, a comic opera by Henry R. Bishop (28) to words of Mrs Opie after Fletcher, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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April 8, 1815: The Russian Minister to France, Pavel Butyagin, hands Tsar Alyeksandr a copy of the 3 January secret alliance against him, in Vienna. Napoléon gave it to Butyagin in hopes that it will break up the alliance against him. It does not.
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April 10, 1815: After five days of rumblings, Mt. Tombora explodes on Sumbawa Island in the Dutch (temporarily British) East Indies (Indonesia). A crater is produced 8 km in diameter and the height of the island is lowered by 1,200 meters. 92,000 people are killed and the resulting dust cloud covers the world.
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April 10, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Austria declares war on Naples for occupying Rome, Florence, and Bologna.
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April 11, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington assumes command of the allied armies in Flanders.
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April 12, 1815: Ferdinand Hérold (24) arrives in Bologna for a stay of 12 days. While there, he will meet Gioachino Rossini (23).
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April 15, 1815: After a temporarily successful uprising in Bologna, Gioachino Rossini’s (23) Inno dell’Indipendenza to words of Giusti is performed for the first time, in the presence of Joachim Murat in Teatro Contavalli, directed by the composer.
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April 16, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Austrian forces recapture Bologna from the revolutionaries. Gioachino Rossini (23), composer of Inno dell’Indipendenza, now has a police record.
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April 19, 1815: Prince Lobkowitz agrees to pay his share of the annual stipend to Ludwig van Beethoven (44) at the new rate, as the composer has demanded.
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April 20, 1815: Switzerland closes its border with France.
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April 20, 1815: Bostonians Gottlieb Graupner, Asa Peabody, and Thomas Webb lead a group of amateur singers to ratify a formal constitution called The Boston Handel and Haydn Society. It is the first such group in the United States.
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April 21, 1815: The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach becomes the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach under Grand Duke Carl August.
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April 23, 1815: Meeting in Takovo, a revolutionary council proclaims the Second Serbian Uprising against Turkish rule.
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May 1, 1815: Luigi Cherubini (54) conducts the premiere of his Symphony in D with the Royal Philharmonic Society in London.
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May 3, 1815: Napoléon’s letters to the Austrians are opened by Prince Metternich in the presence of assembled allied diplomats. They promise peace with Austria if it will break with the allies. Metternich assures the ministers that no such thing will ever happen.
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May 3, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: After two days of fighting, Neapolitans under Joachim Murat are routed by the Austrians at Tolentino, 75 km east of Perugia. His army dissolves and he will sail for France to help Napoléon.
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May 6, 1815: Nicolò Paganini (32) is arrested and imprisoned in Genoa. He is charged with abducting and “abusing the innocence” of Angiolina Cavanna, the 17-year-old daughter of a poor tailor. They had gone together from Genoa to Parma last October but Paganini left her in December when he found she was pregnant.
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May 9, 1815: Tired of the rival rebel factions battling each other, Simón Bolívar boards a British ship and sails for Jamaica.
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May 11, 1815: A Spanish expedition of over 10,000 men reaches Caracas. General Pablo Morillo y Morillo reestablishes colonial rule.
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May 12, 1815: King Joachim Murat of Naples proclaims a constitution at Pesaro, dating it 30 March.
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May 14, 1815: Nicolò Paganini (32) signs a document agreeing to pay damages to the father of Angiolina Cavanna.
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May 15, 1815: Nicolò Paganini (32) is released from the tower in Genoa but abrogates his agreement to pay damages to the father of Angiolina Cavanna.
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May 15, 1815: King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia creates the Grand Duchy of Posen out of the Polish lands under his control.
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May 17, 1815: King Ferdinando departs Sicily to return to Naples.
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May 18, 1815: Saxony signs a treaty of peace with Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Most of Saxon territory is ceded to Prussia.
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May 18, 1815: King Joachim Murat of Naples returns to the city after his military adventures.
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May 19, 1815: King Joachim Murat of Naples rides out of the city heading for France, which he will reach on 25 May.
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May 20, 1815: Nicolò Paganini (32) sues Ferdinando Cavanna for extortion.
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May 20, 1815: Representatives of King Joachim Murat of Naples sign a convention at Casalanza, near Capua.  He recognizes Ferdinando as King, proclaims peace and an amnesty for political prisoners.
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May 21, 1815: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia creates the Kingdom of Poland under his rule.
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May 21, 1815: 300 British sailors disembark in Naples.
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May 22, 1815: Prince Leopoldo di Bordone of Salerno, younger brother of King Ferdinando IV of Naples, enters Naples accompanied by Austrian generals. The king is restored to the throne.
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May 22, 1815: King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia orders a commission be empanelled to draw up a constitution for the country.
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May 22, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Austrian troops capture Rome.
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May 23, 1815: King Ferdinando of Naples publishes an amnesty for all employees of the previous regime, including Giovanni Paisiello (75).
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May 24, 1815: The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung reports that Antonio Salieri (63) has recovered from a “serious illness.”
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May 25, 1815: “Principles of the Constitution of the Polish Kingdom” written by Adam Czartoryski, are published in Vienna. They guarantee the independence of Poland, an independent judiciary, and civil rights for peasants and Jews.
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May 25, 1815: Prussia annexes the Duchy of Aremberg, the Principality of Rheina-Wolbeck, the Counties of Rietberg, Salm-Horstmar, and Steinfurt, the southern part of Münster, and the City of Dortmund. Essen, Paderborn, and Minden are returned to Prussia. Part of northern Münster is transferred to Hannover.
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May 26, 1815: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia and King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia depart Vienna for the allied military headquarters at Heilbronn.
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May 30, 1815: Having traveled from Naples through Rome and Venice, Ferdinand Hérold (24) reaches Vienna. The uncertain political situation makes the trip a nervous one.
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May 30, 1815: The East Indiaman Arniston, carrying wounded British soldiers home from Ceylon, strikes ground at Waenhuiskrans, South Africa. Of the 378 on board, only six make it to shore.
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June 1, 1815: Samuel Wesley (49) is elected to full membership of the new Philharmonic Society.
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June 1, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: A massive celebration takes place on the Champ de Mars, Paris, overseen by Napoléon. It is advertised as a ceremony to announce the results of the plebiscite on the Additional Act to the Imperial Constitution (99.9993% for Napoléon). Its true significance is to demonstrate that Napoléon is back in charge.
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June 4, 1815: Denmark trades Pomerania and Rügen to Prussia for part of the Duchy of Lauenburg.
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June 6, 1815: After falling out with Caroline Brandt (she was jealous of an actress), Carl Maria von Weber (28) leaves Prague sooner than expected. He goes to Munich.
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June 7, 1815: As Austrian troops quit Rome, the temporal power of the Pope is restored. Pope Pius VII reenters Rome after seeking refuge from Napoléon in Genoa.
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June 7, 1815: Telemachus, a ballad opera with music by Henry R. Bishop (28) to words of Graham, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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June 7, 1815: King Ferdinando IV disembarks at Portici, near Naples, to resume his throne.
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June 8, 1815: The Congress of Vienna closes. Great Britain keeps Malta, Helgoland, and most overseas conquests. The Bourbons, Braganças, the Pope, and Italian princes are all restored. Switzerland is declared neutral. The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg are united. The Duchy of Warsaw goes to Russia. Lombardy and Venice are awarded to Austria. Prussia is granted the Rhineland and part of Saxony. Hanover gains East Friesland and Hildesheim. Krakow is made an independent republic. The charter of the German Confederation is signed creating a loose union of 34 sovereign states and four free cities with a Federal Diet in Frankfurt-am-Main under the presidency of Austria.
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June 9, 1815: Publication of the Piano Sonata op.90 by Ludwig van Beethoven (44) is announced.
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June 9, 1815: The Act of the Congress of Vienna is signed by representatives of Austria, France, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, in the Imperial Palace. The Spanish ambassador, although invited to sign, refuses to do so because Parma has been transferred to the rule of Napoléon’s wife. Spain will accept the treaty in 1817. Minor countries are invited to accede at a later date.
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June 12, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Napoléon departs Paris for Soissons.
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June 12, 1815: Representatives of the Kingdom of Naples sign a treaty of alliance with Austria in Vienna.
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June 13, 1815: Prince Metternich departs Vienna for the allied headquarters at Heilbronn.
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June 14, 1815: The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin becomes a Grand Duchy. Duke Friedrich Franz I takes on the title of Grand Duke.
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June 14, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Napoléon reaches the border with the Low Countries at Beaumont.
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June 15, 1815: The first Burschenschaft is formed at Jena. This student organization, its motto “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland,” will become the basis of the German Nationalist Movement.
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June 15, 1815: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (36) gives the first of two very well received performances at the Deutsches Theater, Pest.
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June 15, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Napoléon’s army crosses the Sambre at Charleroi and Marchiennes making for Brussels, 50 km to the north, and beating back Prussian resistance.

At a ball hosted by the Duchess of Richmond in Brussels, the Duke of Wellington receives word that Napoléon has crossed the Belgian frontier.

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June 16, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Despite heavy losses, the French beat back Prussian (and other German) forces at Ligny, while the British/Dutch repel the French at Quatre-Bras. The day’s fighting causes over 25,000 casualties.  Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick, dies in the fighting at Quatre-Bras.  He is succeeded by his eleven-year-old son, Karl II, under regency.
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June 17, 1815: USS Constellation defeats the Algerian flagship Mashuda off Gibraltar. Admiral Reis Hammida and 30 crew members are killed.
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June 17, 1815: King Ferdinando IV of Naples returns to the city.
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June 18, 1815: Carl Maria von Weber (28) arrives in Munich.
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June 18, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: An allied (mostly British) force, later reinforced by Prussians, trounces the main French army at Waterloo, 15 km south of Brussels, forcing them to make a hasty, sometimes precipitous retreat. Fighting between French and Prussians at Wavre is inconclusive. The day costs 88,000 casualties.
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June 20, 1815: Pursuant to the decision of the Congress of Vienna, a Polish kingdom, in personal union with Russia, is proclaimed in Warsaw.
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June 21, 1815: Quedlinburg is reintegrated into Prussia. The Counties of Stolberg-Rossla and Stolberg-Wernigerode are annexed by Prussia.
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June 21, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Napoléon arrives in Paris. The Chambers detach themselves from the Emperor and call for his abdication.

News of Waterloo reaches London.

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June 22, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: After a demand from the legislature, Emperor Napoléon I abdicates his throne for a second time, in favor of his son. A five-man Commission of Government takes over. Joseph, comte Fouché, duc d’Otrante becomes acting Prime Minister.
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June 23, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The new French government sends emissaries to the allies asking for an immediate armistice. They also ask that the Bourbon family not be returned to the throne and Napoléon’s son be recognized as the new monarch. This will be refused.
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June 24, 1815: A dead child is removed from the womb of Angiolina Cavanna. Medical evidence shows that Nicolò Paganini (32) could not be the father.
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June 26, 1815: Baden joins the German Confederation.
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June 26, 1815: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (36) gives the second of two very well received performances at the Deutsches Theater, Pest.
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June 26, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: Over the last two days royalist mobs, urged on by the Catholic Church, rise in the streets of Marseille, killing 200 Bonapartists and Protestants.
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June 28, 1815: The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz becomes a Grand Duchy. Duke Karl II Ludwig Friedrich takes on the title of Grand Duke.
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June 28, 1815: Robert Knauth (Franz) is born at Brunoswarte 13 in Halle, Kingdom of Prussia, the son of Christoph Franz Knauth, a salt-wagon loading foreman. The family name will be changed in 1847.
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June 30, 1815: Algeria agrees to peace with the United States.
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July 1, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The new French government resolves to surrender to the allies.
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July 3, 1815: Peace is concluded between the United States and Bey Omar of Algiers. The Bey agrees to halt exacting tribute and to release all prisoners of war.
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July 3, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The French government prepares 18 articles known as the Convention of Paris.

Napoléon reaches the Atlantic port of Rochefort, 128 km north of Bordeaux, hoping to escape to the United States.

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July 4, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: French Minister of War Louis Davout carries the Convention of Paris to the allies at the Neuilly bridge where it is signed by all parties.
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July 6, 1815: Whig leader Samuel Whitbread, depressed by the apparent death of the ideals of the French Revolution, kills himself in his London home with a razor to the neck.
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July 6, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: The Duke of Wellington and Marshall Blücher enter Paris at the head of the allied army. Blücher pronounces his demand of 100,000,000 francs and new uniforms for all of his 110,000 troops to the city leaders. British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh reaches Paris to negotiate the second Peace of Paris.
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July 8, 1815: The name of the Académie Impériale de Musique (Paris Opéra) is changed to the Académie Royale de Musique.
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July 8, 1815: Napoléon boards the French ship La Saale to be transported to the United States. But the ship is unable to sail from Rochefort because of the presence of HMS Bellerophon.
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July 8, 1815: Les Cent-Jours: King Louis XVIII returns to the Tuilleries from Ghent and reestablishes a government for the Kingdom of France.
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July 9, 1815: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent replaces Joseph, comte Fouché, duc d’Otrante as Prime Minister of France.
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July 9, 1815: After nine years, Frankfurt-am-Main is reconstituted as a free city.
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July 12, 1815: The Apothecaries Act receives Royal Assent. It is the first attempt to regulate the medical profession in Britain. Physicians in general practice must obtain a certificate before practicing medicine.
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July 15, 1815: Fearful of royalists, Napoléon surrenders to the captain of a British warship, HMS Bellerophon, off Rochefort.
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July 15, 1815: Es ist vollbracht, the finale of a pasticcio called Die Ehrenpforten, by Ludwig van Beethoven (44), is performed for the first time.
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July 24, 1815: King Louis XVIII of France orders the arrest of 57 high ranking political and military officials of the Empire on charges of treason. This is seen as the beginning of the White Terror by royalists and reactionaries against anyone associated with the First Republic or the First Empire, as well as Protestants.
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July 31, 1815: The British government announces that Napoléon will be banished to St. Helena.
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July 31, 1815: Willem of Orange-Nassau is enthroned as King of a united Netherlands and Belgium in Brussels.
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August 1, 1815: Geologist William Smith publishes the first geological map of a large area, the British Isles. It is seen as the beginning of modern geology.
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August 2, 1815: During the White Terror, royalists murder Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune in Avignon.
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August 5, 1815: Austria demands the return of all the art works taken by Napoléon from its lands, including northern Italy.
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August 7, 1815: Napoléon is transferred to HMS Northumberland for transport to St. Helena.
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August 7, 1815: The Holy Governing Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church orders the publication of 3,600 copies of Simple chant for the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom traditionally used at the Imperial Court from the earliest times. It is a two-part setting of commonly used chants by Dmitry Stepanovich Bortnyansky (64).
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August 10, 1815: British forces occupy Guadeloupe once again.
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August 15, 1815: During the White Terror, royalists murder Maréchal de camp Jean-Pierre Ramel in Toulouse.
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August 19, 1815: Charles Angélique François Huchet, Comte de la Bédoyère, aide-de-camp of Emperor Napoléon I, is shot by firing squad at Grenelle.
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August 24, 1815: Voting for the first legislature under King Louis XVIII concludes in France. Royalists hold 350 seats while the opposition gains 50.
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August 24, 1815: Two numbers for a farce called Der traverstirte Aeneas by Carl Maria von Weber (28), Mein Weib ist capores J.183 and Frau Lieserl, juhe! J.184, are performed for the first time, in Prague.
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August 25, 1815: Franz Schubert (18) applies for the position of director of the elementary school attached to the monastery of the Scottish Order in Vienna. He will not be successful.
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August 25, 1815: Choeur et couplets pour la St. Louis and Vive le roi! for solo voice and piano to words of Desaugiers by Luigi Cherubini (54) are performed for the first time, in Paris in honor of King Louis XVIII on his birthday.
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August 26, 1815: The Clarinet Quintet J.182 by Carl Maria von Weber (28) is performed for the first time, in Munich.
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September 1, 1815: Württemberg joins the German Confederation.
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September 1, 1815: A new royalist army lays siege to Cartagena.
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September 7, 1815: Carl Maria von Weber (28) arrives back in Prague intent on ending his relationship with the Estates Theatre.
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September 9, 1815: John Singleton Copley dies in London at the age of 77.
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September 15, 1815: The Magpie or the Maid?, a melodrama with music by Henry R. Bishop (28) to words of Pocock after Badouin d’Aubigny and Caigniez, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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September 20, 1815: The allied powers agree that France must be compelled to return all works of art taken from them during the reign of Napoléon.
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September 20, 1815: Representatives of Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia meet in Paris to work out a new peace treaty after the removal of Napoléon. The allies issue an ultimatum, demanding that France give up two-thirds of the territory won between 1790 and 1792, plus Savoy. France must pay 600,000,000 francs in reparations and 200,000,000 francs for the construction of forts along its border to protect its neighbors. They must also pay for 150,000 allied soldiers to man various fortresses throughout France for seven years.
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September 23, 1815: Unable to persuade his king to appeal to the allies to rescind or modify their ultimatum, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent resigns as Prime Minister of France.
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September 24, 1815: Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu replaces Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent as Prime Minister of France.
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September 25, 1815: Royalist forces capture Zacatlán, Mexico.
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September 26, 1815: The Holy Alliance between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, designed to combat liberalism and maintain the Vienna accords, is signed in Paris by the three monarchs.
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September 27, 1815: As Austrian troops clear a jeering mob from the parade ground in front of the Tuileries Palace, and all nearby streets, British engineers remove the four horses of San Marco from the triumphal arch of the Carrousel. They will be returned to Venice.
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September 28, 1815: Nicolò Paganini’s (32) lawyer submits a large amount of testimony and evidence to a Genoa court as to the low moral character of Angiolina Cavanna. This will support his claim that he was the victim of a plot by her father to extort money from him. Cavanna will reduce his charge to breach of promise.
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September 29, 1815: Two celebratory works by Franz Schubert (18), Namensfeier für Franz Michael Vierthaler and Gratulations-Kantate, are performed for the first time, in the Waisenhaus, Vienna.
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October 3, 1815: After sonic booms are heard, a meteorite falls to earth in Chassigny, Haute-Marne, France. It will be determined that this is from the planet Mars.
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October 4, 1815: Elisabetta, regina d’Inghilterra, a dramma by Gioachino Rossini (23) to words of Schmidt after Federici after Lee, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples. King Ferdinando is present along with the royal family.
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October 8, 1815: Joachim Murat lands at Pizzo with a force of 250 from Corsica in an attempt to win back the throne of Naples.
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October 13, 1815: Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoléon, who attempted to reclaim the Neapolitan throne by force, is executed by firing squad in Naples.
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October 15, 1815: Napoléon reaches St. Helena and his last exile.
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October 17, 1815: A slow moving hurricane strikes Jamaica and stays for three days. 100 people are killed.
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October 17, 1815: Two numbers for a play celebrating the Battle of Leipzig by Carl Maria von Weber (28), Wer stets hinter’n ofen kroch J.186 and Wie wir voll Glut J.187, are performed for the first time, in Prague.
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October 18, 1815: To prevent its use by France to rescue Napoléon from St. Helena, Great Britain takes possession of Ascension Island. The captains of two Royal Navy vessels go ashore and formally claim the island.
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October 23, 1815: Denmark transfers Pomerania to Prussia and gets the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg in return.
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October 25, 1815: John du Bart, or The Voyage to Poland, an historical melodrama by Henry R. Bishop (28) to words of Farley and Pocock, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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October 28, 1815: Johannes Simon Mayr (52) sends his most promising pupil, Gaetano Donizetti (17), from Bergamo to Bologna to study with Padre Mattei. He simultaneously appeals to the Congregazione di Carità of Bergamo to support the boy for two years.
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November 3, 1815: A setting of the Salve regina in D by Antonio Salieri (65) is performed for the first time, in Nikolsburg.
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November 3, 1815: Royalists catch up to retreating Mexican rebels at Tezmalaca and defeat them. The guerrilla leader José María Morelos y Pavón is captured.
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November 5, 1815: Great Britain declares a protectorate over the Ionian Islands.
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November 9, 1815: At a meeting of the Royal Society in Newcastle, Humphry Davy reads a paper detailing his invention of a miners’ safety lamp. At the same time Davy created his lamp, George Stephenson invented a similar lamp quite apart from Davy.
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November 11, 1815: Was stürmet die Haide herauf?, a song for baritone and keyboard by Carl Maria von Weber (28), is performed for the first time, as a part of Gordon und Montrose, oder Der Kampf der Gefühle, a play by Reinbeck after von Diericke, in Prague.
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November 14, 1815: The dying Caspar Carl van Beethoven, with the help of his solicitor, draws up his will. He names his wife and his brother Ludwig (44) as co-guardians of his son. When Beethoven sees this, he demands and receives the sole guardianship of his nephew. After Ludwig leaves, Caspar Carl adds a codicil stipulating that the boy not be taken from the care of his mother.
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November 15, 1815: Caspar Carl van Beethoven dies in Vienna of tuberculosis. His will names his brother Ludwig (44) as guardian of his nine-year-old son Karl, but a codicil states that he not be taken from the care of his wife, Johanna.
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November 18, 1815: British troops surround 60 Boer rebels at Slachtenek forcing them to surrender. Five of the leaders will be hanged.
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November 20, 1815: The Second Treaty of Paris reduces French boundaries to those of 1790 and demands a 700,000,000 franc indemnity. An allied army will occupy France for no more than five years. Savoy is joined with Sardinia. Monaco is made a protectorate of Sardinia. Landau is given to Bavaria. The Saarland goes to Prussia. Serbia becomes a principality under Turkish rule. The perpetual neutrality of Switzerland is recognized. The Quadruple Alliance (Austria-Prussia-Russia-Great Britain) agrees to meet periodically to monitor the treaty. This is the final treaty of the Napoleonic era. The French Revolution is over.
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November 21, 1815: Milos Obrenovic I becomes Prince of Serbia.
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November 22, 1815: The Imperial and Royal Landrechte of Lower Austria appoints Johanna van Beethoven guardian of her son Karl and Ludwig van Beethoven (44) co-guardian.
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November 22, 1815: Muzio Clementi (63) is named treasurer of the London Philharmonic Society.
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November 27, 1815: Tsar Alyeksandr signs a constitutional charter for Poland in Warsaw.
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November 27, 1815: Royalists smash an Argentine rebel army at Sipe Sipe (Bolivia).
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November 28, 1815: Ludwig van Beethoven (44) petitions the Imperial Royal Landrechte (court for nobility and clergy) of Lower Austria to take full guardianship of his nephew Karl. See 9 January 1816.
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November 30, 1815: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (24), his brother and servant depart Paris for a trip to London.
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December 3, 1815: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (24) crosses the English Channel from Calais to Dover. It takes eight hours.
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December 4, 1815: The 14th Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place between April 1814 and August 1815. The Republicans gained five seats over the Federalists to hold a 119-64 seat advantage. Their majority in the Senate is 26-12.
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December 5, 1815: John (Johann) Maelzel receives a British patent for a device he calls a metronome. It is essentially the same device as one invented by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel of Amsterdam last year.
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December 5, 1815: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (24) and his companions arrive in London.
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December 6, 1815: Marshal Michel Ney is sentenced to death for treason by a court of Peers at the Luxembourg Palace.
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December 6, 1815: After a lengthy siege, Spanish troops enter Cartagena and institute mass executions of rebels.
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December 7, 1815: Marshal Michel Ney is executed by firing squad in a Paris street. He is the only one of Napoléon’s marshals to be put to death.
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December 15, 1815: Emma, by Jane Austen, is published.
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December 15, 1815: Gioachino Rossini (23) signs a contract with Duke Francesco Sforza Cesarini for an opera to be performed at the Nobile Teatro della Torre Argentina. It will eventually become Il barbiere di Siviglia.
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December 16, 1815: The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve is created by Prince Regent João.
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December 18, 1815: Having been removed as director of the Paris Conservatoire last year, and reinstated by Napoléon in the Spring, Bernard Sarrette is once again sacked by the royal government.
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December 19, 1815: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (24) visits Frederick Kalkbrenner (30) in London. They play for each other. Meyerbeer is impressed, by Kalkbrenner and his English piano.
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December 20, 1815: Ludwig van Beethoven (44) provides evidence to the court in Vienna why he should be given sole custody over his nephew.
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December 22, 1815: A cantata by Carl Maria von Weber (29), Kampf und Sieg, composed after the Battle of Waterloo, is performed for the first time, in Prague. The audience is small owing to a storm and the Christmas season, but they applaud loudly.
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December 22, 1815: Mexican revolutionary Father José María Morelos y Pavón is tortured and executed by a Spanish firing squad at San Cristóbal Ecatepec.
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December 24, 1815: The first concert of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society takes place at King’s Chapel, Boston. Excerpts from the works of the two namesakes are performed by about 100 men and women singers with organ and 12 other instrumentalists.
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December 25, 1815: Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt, a cantata by Ludwig van Beethoven (45) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time, in the Großer Redoutensaal, Vienna along with the premiere of his overture Namensfeier.
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December 26, 1815: Gioachino Rossini’s (23) dramma semiserio Torvaldo e Dorliska to words of Sterbini after Coudry, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Valle, Rome. It is not well received.
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December 29, 1815: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (24), his brother and servant depart London for Paris.