A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1814 – December 31, 1814

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January 1, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussian forces under Field Marshal Blücher cross the Rhine at Kaub.
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January 1, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Emperor Napoléon replies favorably to the allied offer of 15 December.  They offered peace if France would return to their pre-1792 borders.

Prussian forces under Field Marshal Blücher cross the Rhine at Kaub.

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January 3, 1814: The four powers in Vienna ask the Swiss cantons to meet and write a constitution. Aristocratic cantons will meet in Lucerne. Democratic cantons will meet in Zürich.
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January 4, 1814: The Mexican insurgents who survived the action of 24 December attempt to regroup at Puruarán but are once again set upon and scattered by royalist forces.
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January 4, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: The response from Paris having not reached the allies in Frankfurt, they decide on an ultimatum that France must be reduced to its 1792 borders.
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January 5, 1814: The Spanish Cortes returns to Madrid.
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January 11, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoléon’s brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, King of Naples, defects to the Allies. He promises an army of 30,000 men for the Allies in return for an Austrian guarantee of his throne and an increase of territory.
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January 14, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: By the Treaty of Kiel, Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in return for Pomerania and Rügen and gains all territory lost to Britain except Helgoland, along with 1,000,000 thalers. Denmark must produce 10,000 men for the Allies. Greenland is formally recognized as a possession of Denmark.
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January 17, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Austrian and Russian forces reach the Langres Plateau, north of Dijon.
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January 18, 1814: British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh reaches Basel, three weeks out from London, the present residence of Tsar Alyeksandr, King Friedrich Wilhelm, and Count von Metternich.
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January 21, 1814: Emperor Napoléon orders that Pope Pius VII be moved from confinement at Fontainebleau to Savona, near Genoa.
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January 21, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Modena and Reggio are occupied by Neapolitan troops.
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January 22, 1814: Militia under Andrew Jackson are scattered by Creeks at Enotachopco, Alabama.
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January 22, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussian troops cross the Meuse.
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January 23, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussian troops cross the Marne.
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January 25, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoléon leaves Paris to take command of its defense at Châlons-sur-Marne, 150 km east of the capital.
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January 26, 1814: Edmund Kean opens as Shylock at the Drury Lane Theatre, London to enormous success.
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January 27, 1814: Creek Indians attack United States forces in Camp Defiance, Alabama. The attack fails but the Indians inflict heavy casualties.
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January 28, 1814: Elena, a dramma eroicomico per musica by Johann Simon Mayr (50) to words of Tottola, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Fiorentini, Naples.
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January 28, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Ministers of the four most important allies meet together for the first time, in Basel.
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January 29, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops attack the Prussians at Brienne, 170 km southeast of Paris. Both of the opposing commanders, Napoléon and Blücher, narrowly escape capture. The fight leaves 7,000 casualties and the French are forced to retreat south.
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February 1, 1814: The Mt. Mayon volcano on Luzon erupts, killing 1,200 people.
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February 1, 1814: On the day it is published The Corsair, a poem by Lord Byron, sells 10,000 copies.
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February 1, 1814: L’oriflamme de Charles Martell, an opéra comique by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (50), Henri Montan Berton, Rodolphe Kreutzer, and Ferdinando Paer to words of Étienne and Baour-Lormian, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. It will later be called L’oriflamme. It is produced as part of a government effort to rally support for the Emperor and nation as the Allies invade France.
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February 1, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: A combined Allied force of Russians, Prussians, Austrians, Bavarians and other Germans attack the French at La Rothière in a driving blizzard. The weather and some Allied blunders allow Napoléon to make an orderly retreat. The fight causes 12,000 casualties.

Neapolitan troops occupy Tuscany.

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February 1, 1814: The comic opera The Farmer’s Wife with music by Henry R. Bishop (27) and several others, to words of Dibdin, Jr., is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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February 2, 1814: The Spanish Cortes passes restrictions on King Fernando VII should he be released by the French.
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February 2, 1814: Luigi Cherubini (53) is named a lieutenant in the “corps de musique” of the National Guard in Paris.
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February 3, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: As Napoléon reaches Troyes, 145 km southeast of Paris, the citizens barricade their houses refusing to aid his army. Ministers of the four allies meet in Châtillon-sur-Seine.
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February 5, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Preliminary peace talks between the French and the Allies begin at Châtillon-sur-Seine. The Allies offer the French their 1792 boundaries. The French find this unacceptable.
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February 5, 1814: Der Götterbund, an allegorical drama by Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (22) to words of Kley, is performed for the first time, for the birthday of the composer’s mother.
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February 9, 1814: The Duchies of Modena and Reggio are restored to sovereignty under Duke Francesco IV.
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February 10, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces attack the Russians at Champaubert, capturing General Olssufiev and allowing only one-fifth of his army to escape.

Peace talks at Châtillon-sur-Seine are suspended. The allies meet amongst themselves at Troyes.

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February 11, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops clash with Russians and Prussians at Montmirail, 90 km east of Paris. The Allies are forced to retreat, leaving 6,000 total casualties.
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February 12, 1814: Bayard à Mézières, ou La siège de Mézières, an opéra comique with music by Luigi Cherubini (53), Adrien Boieldieu (38), and two others to words of Chazet and Dupaty, is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
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February 14, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops attack and crush a combined Prussian-Russian force at Vauchamps leaving 7,600 total casualties. The Allies retreat west.

Austrians take Parma after it was abandoned by the French.

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February 14, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Russian troops capture Soissons, 90 km northeast of Paris, but are forced to retreat.
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February 17, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces attack various German units at Mormant and Valjovan sending them reeling in disarray.

Peace talks at Châtillon-sur-Seine resume after a week hiatus.

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February 18, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces attack the Prussians at Montereau, 70 km southeast of Paris, and force them to withdraw. The battle causes 8,500 total casualties.
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February 21, 1814: A man wearing a British uniform lands at Dover with the news that Napoléon is dead and the Bourbon monarchy restored. He spreads the news from Dover to London. Three men will be convicted of perpetrating the hoax to raise the prices of government bonds, although one of them, Lord Cochrane, will be pardoned in the 1830s.
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February 21, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Emperor Napoléon, at Nogent-sur-Seine, writes a letter to Austrian Emperor Franz offering a separate peace. Nothing will come of it.
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February 24, 1814: The Wandering Boys, or The Castle of Olival, a romantic drama by Henry R. Bishop (27) to words of Pocock, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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February 24, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoléon reenters Troyes to general rejoicing.
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February 27, 1814: Symphony no.8 by Ludwig van Beethoven (43) is performed for the first time, in the Redoutensaal, Vienna. The response is warm but not uproarious. One member of the violin section is Louis Spohr (29).
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February 27, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: British forces defeat the French at Orthez, opening up southwest France to invasion.
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March 2, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces retake Parma after abandoning it to the Austrians.
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March 3, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: The French garrison at Soissons surrenders to Prussians and Russians.
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March 5, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: After pushing back the French, Allied forces take possession of Troyes.
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March 7, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops engage a combined Prussian-Russian force at Craonne, 123 km northwest of Paris. After a battle marked by blunders on both sides, the Allies retreat north to Laon.
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March 7, 1814: Luigi Cherubini’s (53) Chant guerrier is performed for the first time, as part of the patriotic play La Rançon de Du Guesclin by Arnault, in Paris.
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March 9, 1814: Samuel Wesley’s Organ Concerto in C is performed for the first time, at Covent Garden. It was intended for a concert on 4 March but was not ready. Wesley finished it 5 March and he and Vincent Novello spent the night copying parts. The manuscript date is 8 March.
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March 9, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Russia, Austria, Prussia and Great Britain publish a joint treaty at Chaumont, 223 km southeast of Paris. They pledge to continue the war as long as necessary and never conclude a separate peace. The treaty is backdated to 1 March. It creates the four countries as arbiters of the future, to the exclusion of lesser powers.

Prussian troops make a surprise attack on the French at Laon and send them into headlong flight.

French forces in the south fall back to Lyon.

Austrians once again take Parma from the French.

A British force including Lord William Bentinck lands at Livorno and makes for Lucca.

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March 10, 1814: Pope Pius VII is released from detention at Savona, near Genoa.
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March 10, 1814: Die Eselshaut, oder Die blaue Insel, a feenspiel by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (35) to words of Geway, is performed for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna.
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March 11, 1814: Anthony Philip Heinrich marries Wilhelmina Otto in St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia, USA on his 33rd birthday.
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March 12, 1814: The tiny Argentine navy captures Martín García Island in the Rio de la Plata.
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March 12, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: British troops capture Bordeaux. Louis Antoine, Duc de Angoulême, nephew of Louis XVI, arrives in the city by sea from England.
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March 13, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Russian forces make a surprise night attack on French positions at Reims, 128 km northeast of Paris. The French repel the attack, inflicting heavy casualties.
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March 14, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Lord William Bentinck, British Minister in Sicily, calls on all Italians to rise against the French.
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March 15, 1814: Englishman Lord Bentinck meets with King Joachim Murat in Reggio Emilia.  He demands that the King withdraw his troops from Tuscany or he will remove them himself and lead his troops into the Kingdom of Naples.
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March 17, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Lucca is occupied by Neapolitan troops.

Prussians defeat the French at Fismes.

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March 19, 1814: Pope Pius VII departs captivity in Savona, heading for Rome.
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March 19, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: The peace conference at Châtillon-sur-Seine dissolves without result.
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March 21, 1814: Melodies of Different Nations for piano by Muzio Clementi (62) is published in London.
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March 21, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: After two days of fighting, Allied troops force the French from the field at Arcis, 137 km east of Paris.
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March 22, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: A letter from Emperor Napoléon to Empress Marie Louise, in which he outlines his strategic plans, is captured by Russian troops.

French troops abandon Lyon.

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March 24, 1814: In an attempt to create divisions in Spain, Emperor Napoléon releases King Fernando VII at Báscara.
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March 25, 1814: Prince Willem Frederik decrees the creation of the Netherlands Bank.
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March 25, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: The Allies force the French to retreat at La-Fère-Champenoise. Contact between Napoléon and Paris is cut off.
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March 27, 1814: United States forces defeat Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River (Tallapoosa County, Alabama). Over 600 people are killed, 146 wounded, 300 native women and children captured. Chief Red Eagle surrenders thus ending the Creek uprising.
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March 29, 1814: King Frederik VI of Denmark allows Jews born in the country to live there legally and engage in any profession they choose.
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March 29, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: As two Allied armies converge on Meaux, 40 km east of Paris, Empress Marie-Louise and her son, the King of Rome, quit the city, heading south, along with members of the court and the Regency Council.
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March 30, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Allied troops reach the outskirts of Paris. Joseph Bonaparte and other high notables flee the city, heading for Orléans.
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March 31, 1814: Fromental Halévy (14) interrupts his piano practice to join his brother watching Cossacks march past his home.
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March 31, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: The French defenders of Paris agree to an armistice. Allied armies, led by Tsar Alyeksandr, enter the French capital. The Tsar takes up residence in the home of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. There are rumors that the Elysée Palace is mined.

Emperor Napoléon takes up residence in Fontainebleau.

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April 1, 1814: The French Senate meets, called by Talleyrand. With 64 of the 140 members present, they vote to dethrone Napoléon and restore the Bourbons, naming a provisional government consisting of Talleyrand and four others.
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April 1, 1814: The heirs of Ambrosius Kühnel (he died last 13 August) sell his Leipzig music publishing house, the Bureau de Musique, to a bookseller named Carl Friedrich Peters, who appends his name to the firm’s title.
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April 2, 1814: Empress Marie Louise and her son reach Blois, soon to be joined by three of her brothers-in-law, Joseph, Jérôme and Louis Bonaparte.
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April 3, 1814: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent is named the leader of a provisional government for France following the deposing of Emperor Napoléon I.
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April 3, 1814: The name of the Académie Impériale de Musique (Paris Opéra) is changed to the Académie de Musique.
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April 4, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Emissaries from Emperor Napoléon travel from Fontainebleau to the Rue St. Florentin, Paris carrying his offer of abdication in favor of his son. They meet with Tsar Alyeksandr.
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April 5, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: After wavering for a while, Tsar Alyeksandr refuses the offer of Emperor Napoléon. The emissaries are told Napoléon must abdicate unconditionally. The Tsar offers him a kingdom. Early in the afternoon, Elba is decided upon.
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April 5, 1814: The name of the Académie de Musique (Paris Opéra) is changed to the Académie Royale de Musique.
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April 6, 1814: Napoléon is informed of the decisions of yesterday. He agrees in principle to abdicate. The French Senate declares the throne vacant and invites Louis Stanislas Xavier, brother of Louis XVI to occupy it, thus restoring the Kingdom of France.
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April 6, 1814: A unified diet of the Swiss cantons, both aristocratic and democratic, meets at Zürich to create a constitution.
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April 7, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Lucca is occupied by Austrian troops.
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April 10, 1814: British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh and Austrian Foreign Minister Prince von Metternich arrive in Paris to represent their respective countries. They meet with Tsar Alyeksandr and work out the conditions of abdication. This is presented to Talleyrand and the provisional government who accept them.
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April 10, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: British forces capture Toulouse.
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April 11, 1814: Emperor Napoléon I signs the instrument of abdication in the Palace of Fontainebleau. He renounces the throne in the name of all his family and descendants. The island of Elba is made a separate jurisdiction and he is given sovereignty over it. The Duchies of Parma and Piacenza are restored by Austria. Maria Luigia (former Empress Marie Louise of France) becomes Duchess.
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April 11, 1814: The Piano Trio “Archduke” op.97 by Ludwig van Beethoven (43) is performed for the first time, in the Saal des Hotels zum Römischen Kaiser, Vienna, the composer at the keyboard.
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April 11, 1814: “Germania,” the finale of a pasticcio called Die gute Nachricht, by Ludwig van Beethoven (43), is performed for the first time. The overture, a quartet “Ein Jüngling in den Besten Jahren”, duet “Kehre wieder, holde Taube”, and trio “Kommt, Freunde, blicket all hinauf” are by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (35). The work celebrates the occupation of Paris.
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April 11, 1814: Sadak and Kalasrade, or The Waters of Oblivion, an Asiatic spectacle with music by Henry R. Bishop (27) to words of Farley, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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April 12, 1814: Charles Burney dies in Chelsea at the age of 88.
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April 13, 1814: Napoléon attempts to poison himself, but although it causes great pain, the poison proves ultimately ineffective. He will survive.
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April 14, 1814: Charles-Philippe de France, comte d’Artois is named Lieutenant-general of the Kingdom, thus succeeding Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent as Head of State for France.
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April 14, 1814: Royalist forces reoccupy Acapulco. The rebels holding it ran away after hanging 100 royalists and setting fire to the city.
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April 15, 1814: The Spanish National Guard, a citizen army, is created.
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April 15, 1814: Prince Karl von Lichnowsky, Beethoven’s (43) first Vienna patron, dies of a stroke in Vienna.
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April 15, 1814: Des Teutschen Vaterland for male voices and winds by Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (22) to words of Arndt is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
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April 16, 1814: Prince Eugène, French Viceroy of Italy, signs an armistice for the whole peninsula and departs Milan heading for France.
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April 16, 1814: Gaspare Spontini (39) petitions King Louis XVIII for directorship of the king’s private music and the Théâtre-Italien.
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April 16, 1814: The Treaty of Fontainebleau is ratified. Napoléon retains the title of Emperor and is given sovereignty over the island of Elba. He receives 2,000,000 francs per year and 600 soldiers. Empress Marie Louise receives the Duchy of Parma, to be passed on to her son.
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April 18, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Viscount Wellington and Marshal Soult sign an armistice covering southwestern France.
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April 20, 1814: Napoléon takes leave of his Imperial Guard at Fontainebleau. He then joins a retinue of 14 carriages to transport him to the coast.
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April 20, 1814: A mob attacks the Italian Senate in Milan, torturing the Finance Minister to give up the treasury to them.
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April 20, 1814: Rebel vessels begin a blockade of the royalist garrison in Montevideo.
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April 21, 1814: A five-man provisional government takes over in Lombardy.
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April 23, 1814: War of the Sixth Coalition: Representatives of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Spain sign a full armistice with France.
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April 24, 1814: After an exile of 23 years, King Louis XVIII arrives in France from Britain at Calais. He is greeted by cheering throngs and a service of thanksgiving at the cathedral.
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April 25, 1814: The Principality of Piedmont is restored to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
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April 26, 1814: The Most Serene Republic of Genoa is restored by the Allies. Girolamo Francesco Luciano Serra becomes President of the provisional government.
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April 27, 1814: The Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Principality of Piombino are restored to sovereignty. Ferdinando III returns to become Grand Duke of Tuscany.
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April 27, 1814: Napoléon’s retinue arrives at Fréjus.
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April 28, 1814: HMS Undaunted sails from the Mediterranean port of St.-Raphaël with Napoléon aboard. Fearing retribution from the French navy, he opts for a British vessel.
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April 28, 1814: The Sovereign Principality of Elba is created, to be ruled over by Napoléon.
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April 28, 1814: Lionel and Clarissa, an opera by Henry R. Bishop (27) to words of Bickerstaffe, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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May 2, 1814: King Joachim Murat returns to Naples from the North.
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May 3, 1814: King Louis XVIII arrives in Paris and takes the throne of France.
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May 4, 1814: Napoléon arrives in his new domain, Elba, to cheering crowds.
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May 4, 1814: King Fernando VII of Spain abolishes the constitution of 1812. He appoints José Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y Manrique, duque de San Carlos as First Secretary of State.
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May 4, 1814: Mansfield Park by Jane Austen is published.
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May 6, 1814: 04:00-05:00 Georg Joseph Vogler dies of a stroke in Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse, aged 64 years, ten months, and 21 days. At the time of his death he is penniless, having been ruined by his attempt to construct the Triorganon.  His earthly remains will be laid to rest in the Friedhof am Kapellplatz, Darmstadt.
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May 9, 1814: Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia enter into a conference in Paris to deal with the postwar world.
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May 9, 1814: Georg Martin Adolf von Henselt is born at Penzendorfer Straße 13 in Schwabach, Kingdom of Bavaria, the son of a cotton manufacturer.
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May 10, 1814: Spanish liberal leaders are arrested in Madrid.
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May 11, 1814: Forces of King Fernando VII enter Madrid to restore absolutism.
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May 11, 1814: Arthur Wellesley, Viscount Wellington is created the Duke of Wellington.
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May 13, 1814: Pierre Louis, Duc de Blacas d’Aulps becomes Prime Minister of France.
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May 14, 1814: A service takes place in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, in memory of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. All the allied leaders attend except Tsar Alyeksandr.
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May 14, 1814: Royalist warships sail out from Montevideo to attack blockading rebels. The battle, which lasts for three days, results in a rebel victory and the blockade continues.
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May 16, 1814: A Sinfonia in F by William Crotch (38) is performed for the first time, in London.
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May 17, 1814: A national convention at Eidsvoll proclaims a constitution for Norway and Prince Christian-Frederik of Denmark is elected King. However, the country will soon be forced to accept union with Sweden. One of the delegates present is Edvard Hagerup, grandfather of Edvard Hagerup Grieg.
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May 17, 1814: Austrian troops enter and occupy Fort-Hercule (Monaco).
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May 20, 1814: King Vittorio Emanuele of Sardinia reenters Turin for the first time in 16 years. He attempts to replace everyone in his administration in their old posts. The laws of 1770 are reinstituted and everyone of French descent is ordered out of the country.
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May 21, 1814: Adrien Boieldieu’s (38) opéra comique Le béarnais, ou Henri IV en voyage to words of Sewrin is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
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May 23, 1814: The third version of Fidelio oder Die eheliche Liebe, an opera by Ludwig van Beethoven (43) to words of Sonnleithner, reworked by Treitschke, is performed for the first time, at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna. The overture used is from Beethoven’s music for The Ruins of Athens. The Fidelio overture will not be used until 26 May. This time, the opera is a success. Franz Schubert (17) is in the audience. See 20 November 1805 and 29 March 1806.
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May 24, 1814: The Papal States are returned to the Pope. They were annexed by Napoléon in 1809. In return, the Pope recognizes the French annexation of Avignon. Pope Pius VII enters Rome after four years of confinement by Napoléon.
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May 28, 1814: A royalist army marching towards Caracas is defeated by rebels under Simón Bolívar on the Plains of Carabobo.
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May 29, 1814: Former Empress Josephine dies in Paris of natural causes at the age of 50.
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May 30, 1814: The First Treaty of Paris is signed, placing the French boundaries at those of 1 January 1792 and restoring the Bourbon dynasty. France renounces all claims to the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. Tobago, Saint Lucia, and Île de France are ceded to Britain. Santo Domingo is granted to Spain. Austrian rule is reestablished in Istria. The twelve-year dispute over the possession of Malta ends in favor of Great Britain. It becomes a crown colony. A secret clause calls for the independence of the German states and their union in a federation. It is agreed to hold a Congress in Vienna starting 1 October. Signatories are Austria, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain, and Sweden.
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May 31, 1814: The independence of the City of Hamburg is restored for a second time.
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June 4, 1814: King Louis XVIII issues the Constitutional Charter claiming hereditary right to the throne of France with a permanent bicameral parliament.
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June 6, 1814: The Duchy of Guastalla is returned to sovereignty by the allies under Duchess Maria Luigia (former Empress Marie Louise of France).
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June 6, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr, King Friedrich Wilhelm and Prince von Metternich arrive at Dover for an official visit to England in celebration of the defeat of Napoléon.
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June 9, 1814: At a dinner with the Prince-Regent in Carlton House, King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia, the Earl of Liverpool and Viscount Castlereagh are invested as Knights of the Garter.
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June 12, 1814: Emperor Franz I of Austria is proclaimed King of Lombardy, which he annexes.
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June 13, 1814: Angéla ou L’atelier de Jean Cousin, an opéra comique by Adrien Boieldieu (38) to words of Montcloux d’Epinay, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
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June 13, 1814: The Grand Alliance, a patriotic interlude by Henry R. Bishop (27) to words possibly by Farley, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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June 15, 1814: A joint Austrian-Bavarian administration takes over in Birkenfeld.
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June 15, 1814: Ministers meeting in London decide to move the meeting of the Congress of Vienna from 1 July to 15 August.
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June 15, 1814: A royalist army destroys the rebels at La Puerta, southwest of Caracas. Surviving rebels retreat to the city.
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June 15, 1814: Johann Nepomuk Hummel’s (35) singspiel Die Rückfahrt des Kaisers to words of Veith is performed for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna.
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June 16, 1814: Emperor Franz I returns to Vienna amidst joyful festivities and a public holiday.
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June 17, 1814: The Principality of Monaco is restored by the Allies, protected by France. Honoré IV is Prince of Monaco.
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June 23, 1814: The royalist garrison of Montevideo surrenders to besieging Argentine rebels.
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June 24, 1814: Un lieto brindisi, a cantata campestre by Ludwig van Beethoven (43) to words of Bondi, is performed for the first time, in Vienna, to honor the name day of Giovanni Malfatti.
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June 25, 1814: Austria regains sovereignty over Tirol.
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June 26, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr departs Britain, at Dover.
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June 27, 1814: Johann Friedrich Reichardt dies of a stomach ailment in Giebichenstein, near Halle, in occupied Saxony, aged 61 years, seven months and two days, his work largely forgotten.  His earthly remains will be laid to rest in the cemetery of the Bartholomäus-Kirche in Halle.
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July 3, 1814: War of 1812: American forces and their Indian allies cross the Niagara River and capture the British garrison of Fort Erie.
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July 5, 1814: War of 1812: US troops defeat British forces at the Chippawa River near Niagara.
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July 6, 1814: The Quadriga is restored to its place on the Brandenburg Gate. This symbol of the Prussian state was removed by Napoléon in 1806 and brought back to Berlin by Marshal Blücher.
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July 6, 1814: Rebels under Simón Bolívar are defeated outside Caracas. Citizens of the capital begin fleeing the city to Barcelona.
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July 7, 1814: Austrian sovereignty is reestablished over Voralberg.
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July 7, 1814: King Friedrich August I of Saxony returns to Dresden to resume his rule.
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July 7, 1814: By order of the Regent, today is proclaimed a day of “General Thanksgiving to Almighty God” throughout the United Kingdom, for the end of the war with France.
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July 7, 1814: Sir Walter Scott publishes his novel Waverley ; or, ‘Tis Sixty Years Since anonymously. He fears that publishing a novel will damage his reputation as a poet.
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July 9, 1814: Carl Maria von Weber (27) arrives in Bad Liebenwerda, north of Dresden, for a cure. He has been struck recently with unexplained vomiting.
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July 9, 1814: Royalist forces capture Valencia, Venezuela.
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July 13, 1814: King Vittorio Emmanuele I of Sardinia creates the Royal Carabinieri.
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July 14, 1814: Henry R. Bishop (27) departs London for his first trip to the continent.
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July 18, 1814: Austrian Foreign Minister Prince von Metternich returns to Vienna from London. Singers and players from the city’s theatre perform a cantata beneath his office window, along with the overture to The Creatures of Prometheus by Ludwig van Beethoven (44).
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July 20, 1814: War of 1812: British and Indians capture Fort Shelby, near Prairie du Chien (Crawford County, Wisconsin).
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July 21, 1814: By order of King Ferdinand VII, the Inquisition is restored in Spain.
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July 22, 1814: The United States makes peace with several Indian nations (Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnee, Senecas, and Miami), former British allies, at Greenville, Ohio.
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July 23, 1814: On his first trip to the continent, Henry R. Bishop (27) arrives in Paris.
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July 25, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr arrives back in St. Petersburg from London. He has banned any secular celebrations of his return.
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July 25, 1814: George Stephenson demonstrates the first working steam locomotive, Blücher, at Killington, England. It hauls coal trucks.
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July 25, 1814: War of 1812: British and American forces clash at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane, west of Niagara Falls. Heavy losses are incurred on both sides, but no victory can be claimed by anyone. The Americans quit the field but the British and colonials do not pursue them.
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July 28, 1814: Henry R. Bishop (27) meets Luigi Cherubini (54) in Paris.
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July 29, 1814: William Wordsworth dedicates his poem The Excursion at Rydal Mount, Westmoreland.
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July 30, 1814: Hanry R. Bishop (27) meets Adrien Boieldieu (38) in Paris.
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July 31, 1814: Carl Maria von Weber (27) arrives in Berlin and finds the city in a state of nationalistic excitement with the defeat of Napoléon.
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August 1, 1814: A great celebration in honor of the Duke of Wellington takes place at Carleton House hosted by the Prince Regent.
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August 2, 1814: Liberals revolt in Cuzco calling for the implementation of the 1812 Spanish constitution. Soon, masses of Indians rally to their cause in what becomes the Pumacahua Rebellion.
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August 3, 1814: Argentine rebels reoccupy Jujuy.
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August 5, 1814: Ludwig van Beethoven’s (43) Elegischer Gesang “Sanft wie du lebtest” is performed for the first time, in the house of Baron Johann von Pasqualati, Vienna.
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August 7, 1814: During celebrations for the return of the King of Prussia in Berlin, Carl Maria von Weber (27) is thrown by the crush of the crowd under the wheels of an oncoming carriage. He is saved just in time by his friend Ludwig Tieck.
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August 7, 1814: The papal suppression of the Society of Jesus of 1773 is rescinded by Pope Pius VII.
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August 8, 1814: War of 1812: Peace negotiations between Great Britain and the United States begin at Ghent.
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August 9, 1814: General Andrew Jackson imposes a treaty ending the Creek uprising. Most of the Creek tribal lands (9,300,000 hectares) are ceded to the United States government.
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August 13, 1814: A treaty between Great Britain and the Netherlands is signed in London. All Dutch colonies taken by the British since 1803 are restored, except the Cape Colony and the South American provinces of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice (Guyana).
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August 14, 1814: By the Convention of Moss, Sweden recognizes the Norwegian constitution but in union with the Swedish throne.
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August 14, 1814: Revolutionary forces in Mexico levy the country’s first income tax, in areas they hold.
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August 14, 1814: Il turco in Italia, a dramma buffo by Gioachino Rossini (22) to words of Romani after Mazzolà, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
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August 15, 1814: War of 1812: British troops assault Fort Erie (opposite Buffalo, New York) but are repulsed.
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August 16, 1814: British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh departs Britain to attend the Congress of Vienna.
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August 17, 1814: In hot pursuit of Simón Bolívar, royalists catch up with his army at Aragua, Venezuela and crush it.
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August 19, 1814: Franz Schubert (17) passes his final examination at the Imperial teachers’ training college, Vienna.
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August 19, 1814: War of 1812: 4,000 British troops disembark at Benedict, Maryland.
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August 23, 1814: Pélage, ou Le roi et la paix, an opéra by Gaspare Spontini (39) to words of Jouy, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
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August 24, 1814: Viscount Castlereagh reaches Paris where he will meet with King Louis and Talleyrand before traveling on to Vienna.
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August 24, 1814: War of 1812: British forces defeat the hastily assembled defenders of Washington at Bladensburg, Maryland, just north of the capital. The British reach Washington in the evening.
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August 25, 1814: Simón Bolívar boards ship in Cumaná, Venezuela and flees the country.
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August 25, 1814: War of 1812: British troops burn Washington, the White House, Capitol and other important buildings, then return north.
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August 27, 1814: Viscount Castlereagh departs Paris for Vienna.
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August 28, 1814: Johanna Rosine (Pätz) Wagner, a widow with nine children, marries Ludwig Heinrich Christian Geyer, a portrait painter, actor and poet, in Dresden. Geyer will be Richard Wagner’s (1) mentor and de facto father.
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August 29, 1814: A cantata in honor of King Louis XVIII by Luigi Cherubini (53) to words of de Millevois is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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August 30, 1814: War of 1812: The British troops that burned Washington board ship at Benedict.
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September 1, 1814: War of 1812: 2,500 British troops from Nova Scotia arrive at Castine, Maine. The US defenders blow up their fort and run away. The British thereupon sail up the Penobscot, investing it as far as Bangor.
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September 6, 1814: War of 1812: A British and colonial force captures Plattsburgh, New York, the Americans having retreated across the Saranac River.
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September 6, 1814: War of 1812: Governor Caleb Strong of Massachusetts calls up the state militia for the defense of Maine.
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September 8, 1814: Royalists under José Tomás Bores force Bolívar and the Second Republic out of Caracas, reasserting Spanish power.
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September 8, 1814: Queen Maria Carolina of Naples and Sicily dies in Vienna at the age of 62.  She was a political force behind the throne through the Napoleonic era.
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September 9, 1814: King Louis XVIII appoints Gaspare Spontini (39) as director of the King’s Private Music and the Théâtre-Italien.
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September 10, 1814: War of 1812: British troops occupy Machias, Maine District.
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September 11, 1814: War of 1812: An American fleet under Commodore Thomas Macdonough defeats British forces under Sir George Prevost near Plattsburg on Lake Champlain. The British are forced to retreat to Canada.
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September 12, 1814: The Swiss Diet accepts the cantons of Geneva, Valais, and Neuchâtel to the confederation.
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September 12, 1814: War of 1812: British troops disembark at North Point, Maryland with the intention of taking Baltimore. Their advance is halted by the Maryland militia. British commander Major General Robert Ross is killed.
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September 13, 1814: British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh, his wife and her sister arrive in Vienna to attend the Congress.
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September 13, 1814: War of 1812: British forces take Machias, Maine, giving them control of 160 km of the coast of Maine. Many locals welcome them because it means renewed commerce with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
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September 13, 1814: War of 1812: British warships begin bombarding Fort McHenry at Baltimore.
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September 14, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr departs Moscow for Vienna.
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September 14, 1814: War of 1812: After bombarding Ft. McHenry, Baltimore for 25 hours, British forces break off their attack, the expected land attack not having occurred. While viewing the fight, Francis Scott Key pens The Star-Spangled Banner.
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September 15, 1814: Russian State Secretary Count Karl Nesselrode arrives in Vienna to attend the Congress.
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September 15, 1814: War of 1812: British gunboats and Creek Indians assault Fort Bowyer (Mobile County, Alabama) unsuccessfully.
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September 16, 1814: Grand Duke Konstantin, brother of Tsar Alyeksandr, is placed in charge of a Polish military commission in Warsaw.
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September 17, 1814: Prussian Chancellor Prince Karl August von Hardenberg arrives in Vienna to attend the Congress.
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September 17, 1814: War of 1812: Americans in Fort Erie (opposite Buffalo, New York) attack out of the fort and make significant gains against their besiegers before they are driven back into the fort.
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September 18, 1814: The first meeting is held in Vienna between the representatives of the four victorious powers: Austrian Foreign Minister Prince von Metternich, Prussian Chancellor Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh, and Russian State Secretary Count Karl Nesselrode.
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September 20, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr reaches the estate of Prince Adam Czartoryski at Pulawy. He tells a large gathering of Polish leaders that he intends to create an enlarged Polish state by adding conquered provinces to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
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September 20, 1814: 22 Swiss cantons agree on a new confederation.
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September 20, 1814: Representatives of the four allies agree on a procedural scheme for the Congress of Vienna. The Quadruple Alliance (Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia) will make all decisions concerning disposition of territories. Their decisions will first be transmitted to France and Spain, thence to the entire Congress. Five German powers will devise a scheme for German federation. Other arrangements will be decided by the Quadruple Alliance, France, and Spain.
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September 21, 1814: War of 1812: British and colonial troops raise the siege of Fort Erie.
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September 23, 1814: Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord arrives in Vienna to represent France at the Congress.
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September 25, 1814: Tsar Alyeksandr I of Russia and King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia make a ceremonial entry into Vienna to attend the Congress, accompanied by Emperor Franz I of Austria who met them outside the city.
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September 25, 1814: Franz Schubert’s (17) Mass in F D.105, composed for the centennial of the Liechtental Church, is probably performed, for the first time, directed by the composer.
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September 26, 1814: Dr Sangrado, a Spanish ballet by Henry R. Bishop (27) to a story by d’Egville, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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September 29, 1814: Ministers of the four powers hold their first official meeting at Vienna. They agree on a statement of procedure.
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September 30, 1814: Talleyrand induces the four powers to throw out the agreement of yesterday and include France and Spain (at least) in the deliberations.
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September 30, 1814: The Dog of Montargis, or The Forest of Bondy, a melodrama by Henry R. Bishop (27) to words of Harris after Pixérécourt, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
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October 1, 1814: Spanish troops make three furious attacks on the besieged Chilean defenders of Rancagua, 75 km south of Santiago. All are repulsed.
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October 2, 1814: A grand ball takes place in the Imperial Riding School to celebrate the opening of the Congress of Vienna, illuminated by 16,000 candles.
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October 2, 1814: The Spanish succeed in dislodging the Chilean defenders of Rancagua. Only a few hundred Chileans, under Bernardo O’Higgins, escape. The Spaniards then wreak vengeance on the wounded and non-combatants.
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October 3, 1814: British forces leave Madeira, which they have held since 1807.
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October 5, 1814: Royalist forces enter Santiago de Chile and reestablish colonial rule.
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October 6, 1814: Thousands of people join the crowned heads of Europe in food and entertainment at the Augarten park in Vienna.
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October 8, 1814: The General Court of Massachusetts votes to summon a convention to get “security against conscription, taxes & the danger of invasion.” It is the stirrings of separatism in the New England states against the War of 1812.
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October 12, 1814: By agreement of the powers at the Congress of Vienna, the Electorate of Hannover is made the Kingdom of Hannover under King Georg III (George III of Britain).
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October 12, 1814: The eight signatories to the Treaty of Paris issue a joint communiqué stating that all sessions of the Congress of Vienna are postponed until 1 November.
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October 14, 1814: A “German Committee” is formed at the Congress of Vienna made up of Austria, Bavaria, Hannover, Prussia, and Württemberg to discuss the future of Germany.
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October 17, 1814: A massive vat at a brewery in St. Giles, London explodes, sending 1,224,000 litres into the surrounding streets in a wave five meters high. Eight people are killed.
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October 18, 1814: The crowned heads of Europe, 20,000 Austrian soldiers, and thousands of citizens of Vienna celebrate a Festival of Peace in the Prater to mark the first anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig.
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October 19, 1814: Franz Schubert (17) composes his first great work, Gretchen am Spinnrade.
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October 25, 1814: The Roman Catholic Church begins the process to restore the Index.
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October 26, 1814: Pursuant to the decision of 12 October, King George III, formerly Elector of Hannover, is named King of Hannover.
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October 28, 1814: By command of Emperor Franz, Ludwig van Beethoven’s (43) Fidelio is performed for delegates to the Congress of Vienna and their wives.
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October 29, 1814: Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, is launched in New York harbor. It will be finished and delivered to the US Navy in 1816. Unfortunately, the inventor and namesake, Robert Fulton, will die next February after which the ship will be called USS Fulton.
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October 30, 1814: Antonio Salieri (64) directs a concert of 40 pianists and 20 pianos in the riding school, Vienna, attended by members of the Congress of Vienna.
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November 1, 1814: The British Governor-General of India, Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Earl of Moira, declares war on the Gurkhas of Nepal.
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November 1, 1814: The official opening of the Congress of Vienna, planned for today, is put off due to the disagreements of the members.
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November 4, 1814: The Norwegian Storting adopts amendments to the 17 May constitution which allow for the personal union of Norway and Sweden. With this accomplished, the Norwegians are allowed to keep their constitution.
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November 5, 1814: Rhode Island joins Massachusetts in calling for a regional convention.
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November 5, 1814: War of 1812: Their troops having withdrawn across the Niagara River, the Americans destroy Fort Erie.
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November 7, 1814: Le due duchesse, ossia La caccia dei lupi, a dramma semiserio per musica by Simon Mayr (51) to words of Romani, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
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November 7, 1814: War of 1812: United States forces capture Pensacola (Spanish Florida) from British forces manning it.
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November 8, 1814: War of 1812: The British in Fort Barrancas at Pensacola destroy it and depart. General Andrew Jackson leaves a garrison at Pensacola to ensure Spanish neutrality.
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November 9, 1814: Trois Nocturnes for piano by John Field (32), lately published in Leipzig, is reviewed in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung.
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November 10, 1814: Russian commander Prince Repnin turns over administration of Saxony to Prussia, hoping to get Poland in return. Russian troops begin to evacuate the kingdom.
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November 11, 1814: King Carl XIII of Sweden is elected to the Norwegian throne.
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November 12, 1814: A “Swiss Committee” is constituted at the Congress of Vienna.
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November 14, 1814: In Vienna, Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia ratifies the Treaty of Kiel, in which Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in return for Pomerania and Rügen.
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November 15, 1814: Pedro Cevallos Guerra replaces José Miguel de Carvajal Vargas y Manrique, duque de San Carlos as First Secretary of State of Spain.
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November 16, 1814: The representative of Württemberg walks out of the “German committee” at Vienna. 29 small German states demand equality for all states within a proposed German union, led by the Emperor of Austria.
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November 17, 1814: Seen as a Revolutionary institution, the Paris Conservatoire begins to feel official displeasure from the new regime. Bernard Sarrette is suspended as director.
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November 24, 1814: Due to considerable differences in the German-speaking delegations at the Congress of Vienna, the “German Committee” is suspended for five months.
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November 27, 1814: Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel donates a device he calls a cronometer to the Royal Dutch Institute of Sciences, Letters, and Arts in Amsterdam. Next year, Johann Maelzel will make small improvements and patent the device in Britain as a “metronome.”
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November 27, 1814: King Ferdinando of Naples and Sicily privately marries his mistress Lucia Migliaccio, Princess of Partanna, in Palermo.
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November 29, 1814: The Times of London becomes the first newspaper to be printed by means of steam power.
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November 29, 1814: A concert of music by Ludwig van Beethoven (43) is given for the participants in the Congress of Vienna in the Redoutensaal. This performance features the Symphony no.7, Wellington’s Victory and the premiere of his cantata Der glorreiche Augenblick to words of Weissenbach. Attenders include Emperor Franz of Austria, Tsar Alyeksandr, King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia, King Frederik VI of Denmark, King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, and the Prince of Sicily. Also attending is Jan Václav Tomásek (40), who is particularly displeased with Wellington’s Victory. Reports of the performance and the audience reaction end up in the files of the Austrian Secret Police.
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December 2, 1814: Donatien-Alphonse-François, the Comte de Sade (aka the Marquis de Sade) dies in the asylum of Charenton at the age of 74.
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December 5, 1814: A rebel army engages royalists at Urica, Venezuela and is totally defeated, but the Spanish commander is killed.
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December 7, 1814: British forces evacuate Guadeloupe, having held it for over four years.
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December 7, 1814: Luigi Cherubini (54) is named a Chévalier of the Legion of Honor by King Louis XVIII.
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December 10, 1814: At the Congress of Vienna, a committee of the Eight Powers is constituted to investigate the total abolition of slavery.
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December 11, 1814: The overture to Louis Spohr’s (30) unperformed opera Faust is performed for the first time, in Vienna. See 1 September 1816.
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December 15, 1814: The Hartford Convention meets in the chamber of the State House. It includes official and unofficial delegations from the New England States to discuss separatism.
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December 15, 1814: War of 1812: British forces begin to assemble on Isle aux Pois, northeast of New Orleans.
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December 22, 1814: Christian missionaries arrive at the Bay of Islands New Zealand and set up a mission.
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December 22, 1814: War of 1812: The advance of the British invasion force land east of New Orleans.
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December 23, 1814: War of 1812: American forces attack the British advance guard at New Orleans but are unable to dislodge them in confused fighting.
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December 24, 1814: Muzio Clementi (62) is elected to the Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm.
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December 24, 1814: Meanwhile, a convention of New England states meeting in Hartford calls for changes in defense and federal taxation and issues a list of proposed constitutional amendments.
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December 24, 1814: The territorial government in Kaskaskia (Illinois) authorizes a prize of $50 for every male Indian killed or female or child captured.
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December 24, 1814: War of 1812: A treaty ending war between the United Kingdom and the United States is signed in Ghent. Almost all territory is returned status quo ante. Other issues are put off or ignored. All POWs and impressed seamen are to be returned.
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December 26, 1814: King Friedrich I of Württemberg departs Vienna, deciding to boycott the negotiations as Germany heads towards some kind of union.
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December 26, 1814: Gioachino Rossini’s (22) dramma Sigismondo to words of Foppa is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice. It is greeted with mass yawning.
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December 28, 1814: The Royal Philharmonic Society of London votes to commission Luigi Cherubini (54) for a symphony, an overture and an Italian vocal piece.
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December 31, 1814: During a dinner in honor of Tsar Alyeksandr, with 700 guests, the Vienna palace of Russian ambassador Count Andrei Kyrillovich Razumovsky is destroyed by fire. Hundreds of art works, meticulously collected by him, are forever lost. Two people, trying to save embassy documents, are killed. The count will return to Russia, thus depriving Ludwig van Beethoven (44) of one of his most important patrons.