A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1813 – December 31, 1813

Event icon
January 1, 1813: Russian troops cross the Nieman in pursuit of the French.
Performance icon
January 1, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber’s (26) cantata In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra to words of Rochlitz is performed for the first time, in Leipzig.
Event icon
January 3, 1813: Allied troops retreating from Riga reach the comparative safety of Königsberg (Kaliningrad).
Event icon
January 3, 1813: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (21) departs Munich for Stuttgart to produce Wirth und Gast.
Event icon
January 4, 1813: Peninsular War: Emperor Napoléon orders King José (Bonaparte) of Spain to evacuate Madrid and move north to Valladolid.
Event icon
January 6, 1813: French troops begin to evacuate the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
Performance icon
January 6, 1813: Wirth und Gast, oder Aus Scherz Ernst, a Lustspiel by Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (21) to words of Wohlbrück, is performed for the first time, in the Court Theatre, Stuttgart. The presence of the composer doesn’t help the poor preparations and the opera does not fare well with the audience.
Event icon
January 8, 1813: Three Luddites convicted of the murder of mill owner William Horsfall are hanged at York.
Event icon
January 11, 1813: Emperor Napoléon calls for 100,000 new troops.
Event icon
January 12, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber (26) arrives in Prague from Leipzig to find that he is offered the post of Director of the Opera. He will eventually sign a three-year contract with unlimited powers.
Event icon
January 13, 1813: Russian forces cross the Vistula and enter Pomerania.
Event icon
January 16, 1813: 14 more Luddites are hanged at York.
Event icon
January 18, 1813: Peninsular War: US forces capture Frenchtown (Monroe, Michigan).
Event icon
January 21, 1813: After a trip of 55 days, Lowell Mason (21) arrives in Savannah, Georgia from his home in Medfield, Massachusetts.
Event icon
January 22, 1813: King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia moves his court from Berlin, with its French troops, to Breslau (Wroclaw).
Event icon
January 22, 1813: The Spanish Cortes abolishes the Inquisition.
Event icon
January 22, 1813: War of 1812: British, colonials, and Shawnee attack the U.S. garrison at Frenchtown on the River Raisin (Monroe County, Michigan). 400 Americans are killed, 500 captured. Only 100 escape.
Event icon
January 24, 1813: Thirty of London’s most eminent musicians, including Muzio Clementi (61) and Henry R. Bishop (26), join to form the Philharmonic Society.
Event icon
January 25, 1813: Pope Pius VII is forced to sign the Concordat of Fontainebleau, making important concessions to Napoléon.
Performance icon
January 27, 1813: Il signor Bruschino, ossia Il figlio per azzardo, a farsa giocosa by Gioachino Rossini (20) to words of Foppa after de Chazet and Ourry, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Moisè, Venice.
Event icon
January 29, 1813: Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is published in London.
Event icon
January 31, 1813: A constituent assembly, known as the Assembly of the year XIII for the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, is inaugurated in Buenos Aires. They intend to declare independence and draft a constitution.
Performance icon
February 3, 1813: Poor Vulcan, a burletta/extravaganza with two songs by Henry R. Bishop (26) to words of Dibdin, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
February 3, 1813: Brothers John and Leigh Hunt are convicted and sentenced to a fine of £500 and two years in prison for publishing criticism of the Prince-Regent in the Examiner.
Performance icon
February 6, 1813: Gioachino Rossini’s (20) melodramma eroico Tancredi to words of Rossi and Lechi after Voltaire is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice. Due to the illness of the two leading ladies, the performance is stopped in the middle of Act II. It will not be performed all the way through until 12 February.
Event icon
February 6, 1813: Those who met on 24 January meet again in London and sign a manifesto and a set of laws for a “Philharmonic Society.” Signers include Muzio Clementi (61), Henry R. Bishop (26), Thomas Attwood, Vincent Novello, Johann Peter Salomon, and George Smart.
Event icon
February 7, 1813: Russian forces occupy Warsaw.
Event icon
February 8, 1813: Less than three weeks after his arrival in town, Lowell Mason (21) begins organizing a singing school in Savannah.
Event icon
February 9, 1813: King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia ends all deferments from military service.
Event icon
February 12, 1813: Ludwig van Beethoven (42) petitions the estate of Prince Kinsky for a second time, to be paid his stipend at the revalued rate the Prince agreed to before he died.
Event icon
February 12, 1813: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (21) learns that he has been appointed court composer to Grand Duke Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt. The post has been secured for him by Georg Joseph Vogler (63).
Birth icon
February 14, 1813: Alyeksandr Sergeyevich Dargomizhsky is born in Troitskoye, Tula District, Russian Empire, south of Moscow, son of Sergey Nikolayevich Dargomizhsky, a wealthy landowner, himself the illegitimate son of a nobleman, and Princess Maria Kozlovskaya, a poet.
Performance icon
February 17, 1813: Le séjour militaire, an opéra comique by Daniel Auber (31) to words of Bouilly and Mercier-Dupaty, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
Event icon
February 18, 1813: General Belgrano’s Argentine rebel army assaults the royalists at Salta. The entire royalist army is either killed, wounded, or captured.
Performance icon
February 19, 1813: Andante e Rondo Ungarese for bassoon J.158 by Carl Maria von Weber (26), a reworking of a piece for viola, J.79, is performed for the first time, in Prague.
Performance icon
February 21, 1813: La rosa bianca e la rosa rossa, a melodramma eroico by Simon Mayr (49) to words of Romani after de Pixérécourt, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Agostino, Genoa.
Event icon
February 22, 1813: War of 1812: British and colonials capture Ogdensburg, New York across the St. Lawrence.
Event icon
February 28, 1813: By the Treaty of Kalisch (Kalisz), Russia and Prussia ally themselves against France and the Rhenish Confederation.
Event icon
March 3, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: An alliance between Britain and Sweden is signed in Stockholm. The treaty provides for a Swedish army to be sent to Germany in return for certain territorial considerations.
Event icon
March 4, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces evacuate Berlin.
Event icon
March 6, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: After abandoning Berlin, French forces reach Wittenberg, 87 km to the southwest.
Performance icon
March 6, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber (26) gives his first performance in Prague since becoming opera director. He enjoys a good success, but is not without enemies.
Event icon
March 7, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The Russian army begins crossing the Elbe, moving slowly to the west.
Event icon
March 8, 1813: A fourth regency is set up in Spain under Luis de Borbón y Villabriga, Cardenal de Toledo to rule for King Fernando VII in opposition to the French.
Event icon
March 8, 1813: The first concert of the Philharmonic Society takes place in Argyll Rooms, Regent St., London. Johann Peter Salomon is the “leader” with Muzio Clementi (61) at the piano.
Event icon
March 10, 1813: On his way from Bavaria to Vienna, Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (21) unexpectedly meets his old teacher Georg Joseph Vogler (63) in Linz. Vogler tells him that Grand Duke Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt has appointed Meyerbeer Court and Chamber Music composer.
Event icon
March 12, 1813: Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (21) arrives in Vienna from Bavaria.
Event icon
March 12, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces evacuate Hamburg.
Event icon
March 16, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussia declares war on France.
Performance icon
March 17, 1813: Samuel Wesley’s (47) Organ Concerto in B flat is performed for the first time, in London, the composer at the keyboard.
Event icon
March 17, 1813: Peninsular War: King José I of Spain (Joseph Bonaparte) departs Madrid for the last time.
Event icon
March 17, 1813: King Friedrich Wilhelm III calls on all Prussians to unite and finally put an end to Napoléon.
Event icon
March 18, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Russian troops occupy Hamburg. The independence of the city is restored.
Event icon
March 19, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: A convention is signed by Russia and Prussia at Breslau (Wroclaw). It calls for the expulsion of France from Germany, the destruction of the Confederation of the Rhine and the call of all German princes to join them. King Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia creates the Iron Cross to be awarded to deserving Germans who gain merit from their actions in this campaign.
Event icon
March 21, 1813: In Palermo, King Ferdinando IV of Sicily is required by the British to renounce all of his authority except his title.  He refuses, even though the house is surrounded by British troops.  A deal is worked out where the King once again turns over power to his son and promises not to resume power without British consent.
Event icon
March 23, 1813: Peninsular War: French forces retreat to Valladolid.
Event icon
March 24, 1813: Pope Pius VII openly opposes the concordat he signed on 25 January. He refuses to crown Empress Marie Louise and Napoléon’s son as the King of Rome.
Event icon
March 25, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: At Kalisch (Kalisz), Russian General Kutuzov, in the name of Tsar Alyeksandr and King Friedrich Wilhelm, calls on all Germans to rise against the French.
Performance icon
March 26, 1813: A Triumphal March for Kuffner’s play Tarpeja by Ludwig van Beethoven (42) is performed for the first time.
Event icon
March 27, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber (26) arrives in Vienna to search for musicians and music for the Prague opera.
Event icon
March 27, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: A combined Russian-Prussian force occupies Dresden after it is evacuated by the French and King Friedrich August I of Saxony.

The Prussian ambassador in Paris delivers the declaration of war on France.

Event icon
March 28, 1813: An army of Texas insurgents, Americans, and Indians quickly defeats a royalist force at Rosillo, southeast of San Antonio.
Event icon
April 2, 1813: Mexican insurgents occupy San Antonio.
Event icon
April 3, 1813: Emperor Napoléon orders the conscription of 170,000 more men.
Event icon
April 3, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops attack the Russians near Möckern, 32 km east of Magdeburg, but are beaten off.
Event icon
April 3, 1813: The royalist government and military commanders at San Antonio, Texas are executed by Mexican insurgents.
Performance icon
April 6, 1813: Les abenceráges, ou L’étendard de Grenade, an opéra lyrique by Luigi Cherubini (52) to words of Jouy after Florian, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. The premiere is attended by the Emperor with his wife, shortly before departing for the east. It is moderately successful.
Event icon
April 6, 1813: Insurgents in control of San Antonio, Texas proclaim a República del Norte.
Event icon
April 12, 1813: Caspar Carl Beethoven, seriously ill with tuberculosis, signs a document appointing his brother Ludwig (42) guardian over his son Karl, in the event of his death.
Event icon
April 15, 1813: Emperor Napoléon departs Paris for the front.
Event icon
April 15, 1813: The United States occupies the eastern part of West Florida including Mobile.
Event icon
April 25, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Emperor Napoléon joins his army at Erfurt.

The Bavarian government announces its neutrality.

Event icon
April 27, 1813: War of 1812: United States forces under General Zebulon Pike capture York (Toronto). Pike is killed in the battle.
Death icon
April 28, 1813: Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, commander of the Russian armies in Europe, dies of natural causes in Bünzlau (Boleslawiec, Poland).
Event icon
April 29, 1813: Jacob Frederick Hummel of Philadelphia receives a patent for a “varnish of elastic gum to render water-proof” shoes and other things. It is the first US patent for a rubber product.
Event icon
May 1, 1813: This month, Queen Mab; A Philosophical Poem; With Notes by Percy Shelley is published privately by the author. Only 250 copies are produced in the original printing.
Event icon
May 1, 1813: War of 1812: After looting and burning much of York (Toronto), US forces depart for Niagara.
Event icon
May 2, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Russian and Prussian troops attack the French at Lützen, 19 km southwest of Leipzig. The battle is a limited success for Napoléon but costs 30,000-40,000 lives.
Performance icon
May 4, 1813: The Piano Concerto by Samuel Wesley (47) is performed for the first time, at his benefit in London.
Event icon
May 5, 1813: War of 1812: An attempt by Kentucky militia to relieve besieged US troops at Fort Meigs (Perrysburg, Ohio) has mixed results but the fort is reinforced.
Event icon
May 8, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops enter Dresden.
Event icon
May 9, 1813: War of 1812: British and colonials around Fort Meigs (Perrysburg, Ohio) abandon their siege.
Event icon
May 10, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: As the anti-French alliance gives up Dresden, King Friedrich August I of Saxony decides to place his lot with Napoléon.
Event icon
May 11, 1813: Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson, and William Charles Wentworth begin an expedition west from South Creek, New South Wales, seeking a passage through the Blue Mountains to the western plains.
Performance icon
May 12, 1813: Behold, how good and joyful for three voices and organ by Samuel Wesley (47) to words of Psalm 133 is performed for the first time, at the installation of the Duke of Sussex as the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of All England (Masonic).
Event icon
May 14, 1813: Detlev, Count Einsiedel becomes Prime Minister of Saxony.
Event icon
May 16, 1813: Lord William Bentinck, British Minister in Sicily, tells King Joachim Murat that Great Britain will favor his remaining King of Naples until another kingdom is found for him.
Event icon
May 16, 1813: Johann Nepomuk Hummel (34) marries Elisabeth Röckel, a vocalist, in Vienna.
Event icon
May 17, 1813: An army led by Simón Bolívar departs La Grita heading west to reconquer Venezuela. This will become known as “La Campaña Admirable.”
Event icon
May 20, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops attack a Russian-Prussian force near Bautzen, 50 km east of Dresden, and capture the town. Both sides lose about a quarter of their force killed or wounded.
Event icon
May 21, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: After two days of fighting at Bautzen, Russians and Prussians are forced to withdraw, but they do so in good order. The battle leaves 40,000 casualties.
Performance icon
May 22, 1813: L’italiana in Algeri, a dramma giocoso by Gioachino Rossini (21) to words of Anelli, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Benedetto, Venice. The work is met with great enthusiasm.
Event icon
May 22, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: At Bautzen, a cannonball narrowly misses Napoléon but kills General Kirgener and mortally wounds General Gérard-Christophe Duroc, the Emperor’s closest confidant. He will die tomorrow. Napoléon is so shaken that he calls off the pursuit of the Russians defeated yesterday.
Event icon
May 22, 1813: Peninsular War: British and Portuguese forces under Viscount Wellington begin their final offensive against the French.
Birth icon
May 22, 1813: Wilhelm Richard Wagner is born in the Haus zum roten und Weißen Löwen, Brühl 3 (now Brühl 20--the building no longer stands) in Leipzig, Kingdom of Saxony, the ninth child of Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Wagner, a police actuary, and Johanna Rosine Pätz, daughter of a baker. It is possible that Wagner is the illegitimate child of Ludwig Geyer, who will become the boy’s stepfather upon the death of Carl Friedrich Wagner in November 1813.
Event icon
May 23, 1813: The rebel army under Simón Bolívar enters Mérida, Venezuela in triumph.
Event icon
May 24, 1813: The 13th Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place between August 1812 and May 1813. In a house expanded after the 1810 census, the Federalists gained 32 seats while the Republicans gained seven. However, President Madison’s Republicans hold a 114-68 seat advantage. In the Senate their advantage is 28-8.
Performance icon
May 24, 1813: Le prince troubadour, ou Le grand trompeur de dames, an opéra comique by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (49) to words of Duval, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
Event icon
May 25, 1813: War of 1812: American gunboats begin bombarding Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario).
Event icon
May 27, 1813: War of 1812: United States land and naval forces combine to capture Queenstown Heights and Ft. George (Niagara-on-the-Lake), Upper Canada (Ontario), 15 km north of Niagara Falls, causing the British to abandon the Niagara frontier.
Event icon
May 29, 1813: France annexes Hamburg again.
Performance icon
May 29, 1813: The Brazen Bust, a melodrama with music by Henry R. Bishop (26) to words of Kemble, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
May 29, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: News of the French victory at Bautzen reaches Vienna. Count von Metternich persuades Emperor Franz to move to the castle at Gitschin (Jicin) roughly halfway between Emperors Napoléon and Alyeksandr.
Event icon
May 29, 1813: War of 1812: United States forces repel a British and colonial attack at Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario near Watertown, New York.
Event icon
May 31, 1813: The expedition of Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson, and William Charles Wentworth reaches the summit of a high hill (Mount Blaxland), about 90 km northwest of Sydney, and views the western plain.
Event icon
June 1, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops occupy Breslau (Wroclaw) and Katzbach (Kaczawa).
Event icon
June 1, 1813: War of 1812: HMS Shannon captures USS Chesapeake about 30 km off Boston.
Event icon
June 1, 1813: Austrian Emperor Franz and Count von Metternich, on their way from Vienna to Gitschin (Jicín), run into the Russian Count Nesselrode looking for them. The Russians want Austria to commit to their cause. Franz tells him that he will side with Russia in the absence of a favorable peace agreement with Napoléon.
Event icon
June 2, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Emperors Napoléon and Alyeksandr agree to a cease fire.
Event icon
June 4, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The opposing armies in Germany agree to an armistice at Pleiswitz which will be extended to 10 August.
Event icon
June 5, 1813: The Giaour: a Fragment of a Turkish Tale by George Gordon, Lord Byron, is published.
Event icon
June 6, 1813: War of 1812: British forces take Sackets Harbor, New York capturing 50 American soldiers and 400 Indians.

British forces attack an American force five times their size at Stoney Creek, Upper Canada (Ontario), inflict casualties and retreat. The US invasion force is required to withdraw.

Event icon
June 14, 1813: The first Treaty of Reichenbach is signed between Great Britain and Prussia. It calls for Britain to pay a substantial subsidy to maintain the Prussian army in return for the Principality of Hildesheim being ceded to Hanover.
Event icon
June 14, 1813: The rebel army under Simón Bolívar reaches Trujillo, Venezuela.
Event icon
June 15, 1813: The second Treaty of Reichenbach is signed between Great Britain and Russia. Britain will pay a substantial subsidy to Russia to maintain its army in Europe and a fleet.
Event icon
June 16, 1813: A new royalist army sent to subdue the Texas insurgents is set upon and destroyed at Alazán Creek, south of San Antonio.
Event icon
June 19, 1813: Count von Metternich of Austria, Baron Karl Hardenberg and Wilhelm von Humboldt of Prussia, and Count Nesselrode of Russia meet at Ratiborzitz (Ratiborice), Bohemia and in a stormy meeting, work out what will be the third Treaty of Reichenbach, signed on 27 June.
Event icon
June 21, 1813: Peninsular War: British forces under Viscount Wellington defeat a French force at Vitoria, 50 km southeast of Bilbao, forcing them to retreat in disarray over the Pyrenees. The battle will inspire Ludwig van Beethoven (42) to compose Wellington’s Victory.
Event icon
June 24, 1813: War of 1812: British forces and their Native American allies defeat United States forces at Beaver Dam, Upper Canada (Ontario).
Event icon
June 26, 1813: Austrian Count von Metternich meets with Emperor Napoléon for nine hours at the French headquarters near Dresden. He presents the four points of mediation: the dismantling of the Duchy of Warsaw, the enlargement of Prussia, the return of the Adriatic provinces to Austria, and the renewed independence of Hamburg and Lübeck. Napoléon refuses and threatens war.
Event icon
June 27, 1813: The third Treaty of Reichenbach (Dzierżoniów, Poland) is signed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Austria agrees to declare war on France by 20 July if Napoléon rejects an offer of mediation. This will later be extended to 10 August.
Event icon
June 28, 1813: King José I Napoléon (Joseph Bonaparte) of Spain, leaves Spanish soil for the last time.
Performance icon
June 29, 1813: Le nouveau seigneur de village, an opéra comique by Adrien Boieldieu (37) to words of Creuzé de Lesser and Favières, is performed for the first time, in the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris.
Event icon
June 29, 1813: Peninsular War: Allied forces close in around San Sebastián on the Bay of Biscay.
Event icon
June 30, 1813: Emperor Napoléon at Dresden agrees to Count von Metternich’s conditions: accepting the armed mediation of Austria, a meeting of all belligerents at Prague with negotiations to last not past 10 August, suspension of all military activity until 10 August.
Event icon
July 1, 1813: The trade monopoly of the British East India Company is abolished.
Performance icon
July 2, 1813: Harry-le-Roy, an heroic pastoral burletta with music by Henry R. Bishop (26) to words of Pocock after Dodsley, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
July 10, 1813: Unable to gain concessions on the status of Norway from Britain and Russia, King Frederik of Denmark renews his alliance with Napoléon.
Event icon
July 11, 1813: Antonio Cano Manuel y Ramírez de Arellano replaces Pedro Gómez-Labrador Avelo as First Secretary of State of the resistance government of Spain.
Event icon
July 11, 1813: Peninsular War: Joseph Bonaparte is removed as commander in chief of French armies in Spain.
Death icon
July 13, 1813: Shortly after playing the organ for a children’s service, Johann Friedrich Peter goes to an apothecary and tells the man he does not feel well. Peter thereupon suffers a stroke and dies in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA, aged 67 years, one month and 24 days.  His mortal remains will be laid to rest in the Moravian Cemetery of Bethlehem.
Event icon
July 21, 1813: An act to allow Unitarianism in Great Britain is granted Royal Assent.
Event icon
July 25, 1813: Peninsular War: After a siege of almost a month, British troops attack the French defenders of San Sebastián but are thrown back.
Event icon
July 27, 1813: Whites attack Creek Indians at Burnt Corn Creek, Alabama (one km south of the Conecuh County Line), in the first fighting of the Creek War. The whites are repulsed but manage to outrun their pursuers.
Event icon
July 28, 1813: Peninsular War: French troops attempting to advance towards Pamplona attack an allied (Great Britain-Portugal-Spain) army blocking its path. In bloody fighting, the French can make no headway.
Event icon
July 30, 1813: Peninsular War: The same soldiers who defeated them two days ago attack the French at Sorauren, north of Pamplona, sending them reeling.
Event icon
July 31, 1813: The rebel army led by Simón Bolívar defeats royalists at the Taguanas Plain west of Caracas.
Event icon
August 1, 1813: War of 1812: British troops attack Fort Stephenson (Fremont, Ohio) but are beaten off by the American defenders.
Event icon
August 2, 1813: The rebel army of Simón Bolívar enters Valencia, Venezuela in triumph.
Event icon
August 6, 1813: The rebel army led by Simón Bolívar enters Caracas. Widespread reprisals against royalists ensue.
Event icon
August 7, 1813: Simón Bolívar declares the Second Republic of Venezuela in Caracas.
Event icon
August 10, 1813: The Congress of Prague closes having found no basis for peace. Austria is now firmly in the allied camp.
Event icon
August 12, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: After secretly rearming, Austria declares war on France, joining the sixth coalition along with Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and the German principalities.
Event icon
August 12, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber (26) begins rehearsals for the first production in Prague with his reconstituted company: Gaspare Spontini’s (38) Fernand Cortez. It is the first of 62 operas Weber will produce in Prague.
Event icon
August 13, 1813: Austrian rule is restored in Carinthia.
Event icon
August 16, 1813: Wilhelm Richard Wagner is christened in the Thomaskirche, Leipzig.
Event icon
August 17, 1813: A royalist force destroys Texas insurgents (mostly Americans and Indians) at Atascoso.
Event icon
August 18, 1813: The royalist army captures San Antonio as the rebel leaders flee to the United States, effectively ending the Texas insurgency.
Event icon
August 20, 1813: After a siege of several months, the royalist garrison of Acapulco surrenders to a rebel army.
Death icon
August 20, 1813: Johann Baptist Vanhal dies in building no.896 (present Dom-und Blutgasse) in Vienna, Austrian Empire, aged 74 years, three months,and eight days.
Event icon
August 23, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Troops of the anti-French alliance reach the outskirts of Dresden.

Prussian troops oust the French from Großbeeren, just south of Berlin.

Event icon
August 25, 1813: A hurricane strikes Dominica and Martinique killing 3,000 people.
Event icon
August 26, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoléon enters Dresden. With a 2-1 majority, the Austrian army attacks but the French successfully counterattack. The Allies make initial advances but the French eventually regain all lost territory.

French troops pursuing the Prussians over the River Katzbach (Kaczawa) are turned upon by their prey and are badly defeated.

Event icon
August 27, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoléon, newly reinforced, takes the initiative at Dresden and the Allies are forced to withdraw towards Bohemia. The Dresden fighting causes 48,000 casualties.
Event icon
August 29, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Allied troops turn on their pursuers at Priesten, Bohemia (Prestanov, Czech Republic), 45 km south of Dresden, and beat off the French.
Event icon
August 30, 1813: Creek Indians overrun Fort Mims (Baldwin County, Alabama), 65 km north of Mobile. 50 of the 500 defenders escape.
Event icon
August 30, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Quite by accident, the Allies manage to surround the French at Kulm (Chlumec) and Priesten (Prestanov), about 80 km northwest of Prague, forcing the French commander and 13,000 troops to surrender.
Event icon
August 31, 1813: Peninsular War: After a two-month siege, British and Portuguese forces assault and capture the city of San Sebastián, within 18 km of the French border. The victors run amok through the town, murdering, raping and looting, their officers powerless to stop them. The French defenders retreat to the fortress.

French troops attempting to force their way to San Sebastián are stopped by Spanish and British at the heights of San Marcial near Irun. The French retreat across the border into France.

Event icon
September 3, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Because Russia supports Sweden’s claim to Norway, Denmark declares war on Russia.
Event icon
September 5, 1813: War of 1812: USS Enterprise captures HMS Boxer off the coast of Maine.
Event icon
September 6, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Swedes and Prussians trap a French army near Dennewitz, 66 km southwest of Berlin, throwing them back with heavy losses. Total casualties number 17,000.
Event icon
September 8, 1813: Peninsular War: The French defenders of the fortress of San Sebastián surrender to the British and Porturguese after holding out for a week.
Performance icon
September 9, 1813: Carl Maria von Weber (26) conducts his first performance with the Estates Theatre in Prague with a performance of Spontini’s (38) Fernand Cortez.
Event icon
September 9, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: A treaty is signed at Töplitz, near Berlin, bringing Austria in as an equal participant with Russia and Prussia against France. All sides pledge 60,000 troops.
Death icon
September 9, 1813: Prince Georg I of Waldeck and Pyrmont dies in Rhoden, Prussia and is succeeded by his son, Georg II.
Event icon
September 10, 1813: War of 1812: In the Battle of Lake Erie, an American fleet under Commodore Oliver Perry defeats a British naval force off Put-in-Bay, 23 km north of Sandusky, Ohio.
Event icon
September 22, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Denmark declares war on Sweden over Norway.
Death icon
September 24, 1813: André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry dies at L'Ermitage in Montmorency, Seine-et-Oise in the French Empire, aged 72 years, seven months and 16 days.
Event icon
September 25, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: As Cossacks approach Kassel, King Jérôme Bonaparte of Westphalia leads a small contingent against them and manages to chase them away. But when reinforcements don’t appear, he flees.
Event icon
September 29, 1813: War of 1812: United States forces reoccupy Detroit.
Event icon
September 30, 1813: Republicans decisively defeat a royalist army at Bárbula, near Caracas.
Event icon
September 30, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Abandoned by their King Jérôme Bonaparte, Westphalian troops surrender Kassel to invading Russians. The victors dissolve the Kingdom of Westphalia and remove the absent king from power. At the same time, Jérôme reaches the Rhine.
Event icon
October 1, 1813: Royalists attack Belgrano’s Argentine army at Vilcapugio. The rebels almost achieve victory but the royalists are saved by newly arrived cavalry and the insurgents retreat.
Event icon
October 3, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussian troops inflict heavy losses on the French at Wartenburg.
Performance icon
October 4, 1813: Two works by Franz Schubert (16) are performed for the first time, at the Schubert home in Vienna for the name day of the composer’s father: Kantata zur Namensfeier des Vaters D.80 for male voices and guitar to words of the composer, and the String Quartet in D, D.74.
Event icon
October 5, 1813: Peninsular War: Viscount Wellington resigns as commander in chief of the Spanish army.
Event icon
October 5, 1813: War of 1812: In the Battle of the Thames, United States forces under General William Henry Harrison capture Ft. Malden, 38 km south of Detroit at the entrance to Lake Erie. Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, a British ally, is killed.
Event icon
October 6, 1813: The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society is founded in Leeds.
Event icon
October 7, 1813: Peninsular War: British, Portuguese, and Spanish forces, led by Viscount Wellington, cross the Bidassoa into France.
Event icon
October 8, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: By the Treaty of Ried, Bavaria leaves the Confederation of the Rhine and joins the Allies against France.
Event icon
October 10, 1813: Juan O’Donojú O’Ryan is named First Secretary of State (Prime Minister) of Spain.
Birth icon
October 10, 1813: 20:00 Giuseppe Fortunio Francesco Verdi is born in his father's inn at Le Roncale (Via della Processione, Roncole Verdi) near Busseto, Taro département, French Empire, eldest of two children born to Carlo Verdi, a tavern owner and Luigia Uttini, daughter of tavern owners. (This could be 9 October)  Unknown to a world preoccupied with the fortunes of Napoléon Bonaparte, the two giants of the 19th century musical stage have been born within the space of five months.
Event icon
October 12, 1813: By the Treaty of Gulistan, Russia acquires northern Azerbaijan from Persia.
Performance icon
October 12, 1813: A setting of Psalm 23, Gott ist mein Hirt, for solo voices and chorus by Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (22) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
Event icon
October 13, 1813: The invention of the chronometer, an early metronome, by Johann Nepomuk Maelzel is announced in the Wiener Vaterländische Blätter. It also includes endorsements of the device by several composers, including Ludwig van Beethoven (42).
Event icon
October 14, 1813: The City of Caracas names Simón Bolívar as El Libertador.
Event icon
October 14, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Bavaria declares war on France.

Napoléon enters Leipzig at the head of 200,000 men.

Event icon
October 14, 1813: War of 1812: US General William Henry Harrison signs an armistice with Pottawatomie, Wyandotte, Miami, and Chippewa at Detroit.
Event icon
October 16, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Allied (Austria-Prussia-Russia) forces begin an attack on the French near Leipzig. Allied advances in the morning dissipate by noon, followed by a French counterattack which is checked in turn.
Event icon
October 17, 1813: Fernando de Salerna replaces Juan O’Donojú O’Ryan as First Secretary of State of Spain.
Event icon
October 17, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: In a lull at Leipzig, both sides are reinforced.
Event icon
October 18, 1813: The principal shareholders of the Boston Manufacturing Company meet for the first time. They will soon begin the industrial revolution in the United States by building the first integrated factory, in Waltham, Massachusetts.
Event icon
October 18, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Allied forces make encircling advances at Leipzig but the French hold on to increasingly untenable positions. Two Saxon units defect to the Allies.
Event icon
October 18, 1813: Publication of Leichnfeyer auf den Tod de General Moreau for piano by Jan Václav Vorísek (21) is advertised in the Prager Oberpostamtzeitung.
Event icon
October 19, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The French begin a retreat from Leipzig through the city. A rear guard holds off the advancing Allies until a nervous corporal left in charge of destroying the causeway blows it up with French troops still on it. The rear guard is trapped in the city and all will eventually surrender. Total casualties in the Battle of the Nations reach 92,000, not to mention thousands of civilians in and around Leipzig. Among those killed in action is Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski. Württemberg and the rest of the Confederation of the Rhine now join the Allies against France. Saxony is occupied. Prussian troops occupy Frankfurt-am-Main. The French empire east of the Rhine is destroyed.
Event icon
October 20, 1813: Austrian Foreign Minister Count Klemens Lothar von Metternich is given the title of Prince by Emperor Franz.
Event icon
October 20, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: King Friedrich August of Saxony is arrested in Leipzig by the allies. He will be transported to Berlin by the Prussians and interned at the castle of Friedrichsfelde.
Performance icon
October 21, 1813: The Miller and his Men, a melodrama with music by Henry R. Bishop (26) to words of Pocock, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
October 22, 1813: The Meerfeld Endowment, by Imperial decree, is awarded to Franz Schubert (16).
Performance icon
October 24, 1813: Incidental music for Das österreichische Feldlager, a play by Schmidt after Schiller, by Carl Maria von Weber (26), is performed for the first time, in Prague.
Event icon
October 26, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Austrian forces defeat the French at Valsarno, thus returning Austrian arms to Italy.
Event icon
October 26, 1813: War of 1812: British troops and their Native American allies defeat a United States force that outnumbers them 7-1 on the Chateauguay River, Quebec. The United States is forced to give up its invasion of Quebec.
Event icon
October 28, 1813: An allied administration takes over in Saxony and Stolberg-Wernigerode.
Event icon
October 28, 1813: A Prussian administration takes over in Quedlinburg.
Event icon
October 29, 1813: An allied occupation administration takes over in Hannover and Hildesheim.
Performance icon
October 29, 1813: Nicolò Paganini (31) performs for the first time in Teatro alla Scala, Milan. He presents the first performance of his Le streghe, variations on a theme from Süssmayr’s Il noce di Benevento.
Event icon
October 30, 1813: An allied occupation administration takes over in Brunswick. The Kingdom of Westphalia is dissolved. Wilhelm I resumes his throne as Landgrave of Hesse.
Event icon
October 30, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: An Austrian-Bavarian force places itself at Hanau, 17 km east of Frankfurt-am-Main, directly on the line of French retreat. The French inflict heavy losses on them.
Event icon
October 31, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops occupy Hanau.
Event icon
October 31, 1813: Peninsular War: The French garrison at Pamplona surrenders to the British and Portuguese.
Event icon
November 2, 1813: King Friedrich I of Württemberg signs a treaty with Foreign Minister Metternich of Austria at Fulda in Hesse, in which Württemberg withdraws from the Confederation of the Rhine.
Event icon
November 2, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The main French army reaches Frankfurt-am-Main and comparative safety.
Event icon
November 3, 1813: United States troops attack Tallussahatchee, a Creek village (Etowah County, Alabama). 186 men are killed, 80 women and children are imprisoned. The village and crops are burned.
Event icon
November 4, 1813: Having abandoned Napoléon in Erfurt, King Joachim Murat reaches Naples.
Event icon
November 4, 1813: War of 1812: British Foreign Minister Viscount Castlereagh writes directly to US President Madison offering peace talks. Madison will accept.
Event icon
November 5, 1813: By the Treaty of Gulestan signed today, Russia receives all Persian territory north of the Aras River. This includes Abkhazia, Dagestan, Baku and Georgia.
Event icon
November 6, 1813: The Electorate of Hannover is restored. Georg III, (King George III of England) is restored to the throne.  Bremen is returned to the status of a free city.  The Duchy of Brunswick is restored. Duke Friedrich Wilhelm is returned to his throne.  An allied occupation administration takes over in Frankfurt-am-Main.
Event icon
November 8, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: By the Frankfurt peace proposals, the Allies offer Napoléon borders on the Pyrenees and the Alps.

Russian forces occupy East Frisia, Knyphausen and Jever.

Austria takes control of Venetia.

Event icon
November 9, 1813: Emperor Napoléon reaches St. Cloud from the German front.
Event icon
November 9, 1813: The allied administration in Osnabrück hands over power to an administration from Hannover.
Event icon
November 9, 1813: The Tennessee militia defeats Creek Indians at Talladega, Alabama. 300 people are killed.
Event icon
November 9, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Advance units of the Russian army cross the border into the Netherlands.
Event icon
November 10, 1813: An allied administration takes over in Berg.
Event icon
November 10, 1813: The Spanish Cortes affirms the rights of the nobility over their property, thus quashing any hope for land distribution.
Performance icon
November 10, 1813: Zur Namensfeier des Herrn Andreas Siller D.83 for solo voice, violin and harp by Franz Schubert (16) is performed for the first time, in the Vienna home of the dedicatee.
Event icon
November 11, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The French garrison at Dresden surrenders to the Allies.
Event icon
November 11, 1813: War of 1812: British and colonial troops defeat American forces at Chrysler’s Farm, near Montreal.
Event icon
November 12, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Cossacks in the Russian Army capture Zwolle, Netherlands.
Event icon
November 13, 1813: An allied occupation administration takes over in Essen.
Event icon
November 14, 1813: Emperor Napoléon informs the French Senate that the Grand Empire no longer exists.
Event icon
November 14, 1813: A royalist army under Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela y Sanchez virtually annihilates General Belgrano’s Argentine force at Ayohuma (Bolivia). Belgrano escapes but will be replaced as commander next January.
Event icon
November 15, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Cossacks of the Russian army capture Groningen, Netherlands.  Dutch citizens elsewhere rise against their French occupiers.
Event icon
November 16, 1813: War of 1812: British ships begin a blockade of Long Island Sound.
Event icon
November 17, 1813: War of 1812: The Dutch rebellion succeeds in expelling the French from their country.
Event icon
November 18, 1813: United States troops from Fort Strother raid a settlement of Hillabee Indians at Ten Islands on the Coosa River (Talladega County, Alabama). The soldiers are apparently unperturbed by the fact that the Hillabee are currently in peace negotiations with the United States. 60 people are killed, 250 captured.
Event icon
November 19, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The allies agree on the military plan for the invasion of France.
Event icon
November 20, 1813: Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano replaces Pierre Bruno, comte Daru as Secretary of State (chief minister) of France.
Event icon
November 21, 1813: A provisional government is established in the Netherlands to replace the French authority.
Event icon
November 21, 1813: King Wilhelm I of Hesse is restored to his throne.
Event icon
November 21, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: The French garrison of Stettin (Szczecin) surrenders to the allies.
Event icon
November 23, 1813: An epidemic of typhus in Leipzig, possibly caused by the dead and wounded from the Battle of Leipzig littering the streets of the city and suburbs (including the Gewandhaus), claims the life of the acting Police Commissioner, Carl Freidrich Wilhelm Wagner.
Event icon
November 24, 1813: The allied occupation administration in Bentheim is handed over to Hanover.
Performance icon
November 28, 1813: Simon Mayr’s (50) melodramma tragico Medea in Corinto to words of Romani after Euripides, is performed for the first time, at Teatro San Carlo, Naples.
Event icon
November 28, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French forces evacuate Utrecht.
Event icon
November 29, 1813: French chemist Charles-Bernard Désormes and his son-in-law Nicolas Clément announce the discovery of Iodine to a meeting of the Imperial Institute. Iodine was actually discovered by accident by Bernard Courtois, a saltpeter manufacturer, in May of 1811. Because he had no money to further investigate what he produced, Courtois gave it to Désormes and Clément, as well as Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and André-Marie Ampère. Ampère sends it to Humphry Davy.
Event icon
November 29, 1813: Whites and their Indian allies attack Autosee, a Creek settlement on the south bank of the Talapoosa River. 200 people are killed, 400 homes burned.
Event icon
November 30, 1813: Willem of Orange returns to the Netherlands after 18 years in exile.
Birth icon
November 30, 1813: Charles-Valentin Morhange is born at 1 rue de Braque, in the Third Arrondissement, Paris, French Empire, the second of six children born to Alkan Morhange, proprietor of a boarding school, and Julie Abraham. All of the children will become musicians under their father’s first name, Alkan.
Event icon
December 1, 1813: The Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg regains its independence. Part of northern Münster is attached to Oldenburg.
Event icon
December 1, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: In the Declaration of Frankfurt, the Allies resolve to invade France.
Event icon
December 2, 1813: Willem of Orange is installed as “sovereign prince” of the Netherlands.
Event icon
December 2, 1813: The County of Hanau is attached to Hesse-Kassel.
Event icon
December 3, 1813: José Luyando replaces Fernando de Salerna as First Secretary of State of Spain
Performance icon
December 8, 1813: A benefit for wounded Austrian and Bavarian soldiers at the University of Vienna features the first performance of two works by Ludwig van Beethoven (42): the Symphony no.7 and Wellington’s Victory. The works cause ecstatic applause and critical raves. The concert is so successful it will be repeated 12 December. Wellingtons’s Victory is directed by Beethoven with the assistance of Ignaz Moscheles, and Antonio Salieri (63). The violins include Louis Spohr (29), Ignaz Schuppanzigh, and Joseph Mayseder. Playing bass drum are Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (22) and Johann Nepomuk Hummel (35). Besides the Beethoven works, the concerts also include two marches, one by Jan Ladislav Dussek (†0), one by Ignace Joseph Pleyel (56), performed by Mälzel’s Mechanical Trumpeter with orchestral accompaniment.
Performance icon
December 9, 1813: A chorus for a production of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet by Carl Maria von Weber (27), is performed for the first time, in Prague.
Event icon
December 10, 1813: Humphry Davy sends a paper to the Royal Society of London describing the new substance found by Bernard Courtois and naming it Iodine after the Greek word meaning violet colored.
Event icon
December 10, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French defenders of Bayonne attack south against the British and Portuguese approaching the city. Three battalions of Germans fighting with the French go over to the allies on orders of the Duke of Nassau.

British forces occupy Lucca.

Event icon
December 11, 1813: Soprano Caroline Brandt arrives in Prague. She is the first outside musician hired by Carl Maria von Weber (27) for his new company, and his future wife.
Event icon
December 11, 1813: By the Treaty of Valençay, Napoléon reinstates Fernando VII to the Spanish throne.
Event icon
December 12, 1813: Great Britain claims the District of Columbia (British Columbia) against a similar United States claim.
Event icon
December 12, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: After three days of fighting against the British and Portuguese, French forces retreat back into Bayonne.
Event icon
December 13, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: French troops attack out of Bayonne again but are routed by the allies.
Performance icon
December 15, 1813: For England, Ho!, a melodramatic opera by Henry R. Bishop (27) and Welsh to words of Pocock, is performed for the first time, in Covent Garden, London.
Event icon
December 15, 1813: An message arrives in Paris from Russia, Austria, and Great Britain offering peace if Napoléon would retire behind the “natural frontiers” of France.
Event icon
December 17, 1813: US President James Madison signs a new Embargo Act designed to halt exports, primarily with Canada. All US merchant ships and goods are forbidden from leaving port. Import of goods customarily produced in the British Empire (including rum) is banned. There is also a ban on most foreign ships in US ports.
Performance icon
December 18, 1813: The new Teatro Re in Milan opens with a performance of Tancredi by Gioachino Rossini (21).
Event icon
December 19, 1813: War of 1812: British forces capture Fort Niagara on the US side of the Niagara River.
Event icon
December 20, 1813: Hannover annexes Bentheim, Osnabrück, and Lüneburg.
Event icon
December 21, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Austrian troops occupy Basel, thus violating Swiss neutrality.
Event icon
December 22, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Austrians and Bavarians cross the Rhine and lay siege to Hunigen (Huninge).
Event icon
December 24, 1813: Royalists attack out of Valladolid, Mexico catching the surrounding insurgents by surprise. In extreme confusion, the rebels run away.
Event icon
December 25, 1813: Rev. Samuel Marsden gives the first Christian service in New Zealand, at the Bay of Islands. It is the first of seven evangelizing missions that Marsden and his fellows will make to New Zealand.
Event icon
December 26, 1813: British Foreign Secretary Viscount Castlereagh departs London for the continent.
Performance icon
December 26, 1813: Aureliano in Palmira, a dramma serio by Gioachino Rossini (21) to words of Romani after Sertor, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan. Unfortunately, the effort meets with a cool reception.
Event icon
December 26, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: A force of French, Germans, and Poles surrenders to the Allies at Torgau.
Event icon
December 28, 1813: The new Legislative Body of France demands an end to the arbitrary authority of the Emperor and the reinstitution of political freedoms.
Event icon
December 29, 1813: Pressured by the presence of Austrian troops, the Swiss Diet revokes the 1802 Act of Mediation and restores the old constitution.
Event icon
December 29, 1813: At the final vote of the General Committee of the Foundling Hospital to hire an organist, Samuel Wesley (47) finishes tied for third.
Event icon
December 29, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: After a siege of over eleven months, the French and Germans in Danzig (Gdansk) surrender to Russians and Prussians.
Event icon
December 30, 1813: Hannover annexes Hildesheim.
Event icon
December 30, 1813: War of 1812: British and Indians defeat the defenders of Buffalo, New York. They then plunder the town and burn it to the ground.
Event icon
December 31, 1813: War of the Sixth Coalition: Prussians and Russians commanded by Field Marshal Blücher cross the Rhine near Mannheim.
Event icon
December 31, 1813: War of 1812: In raids over the last week, Indians allied to the British have destroyed Buffalo and six other western New York towns.