January 3, 1810: The Prussian royal family returns to Berlin for the first time since the French occupation of 1806.
January 4, 1810: Australian sealer Frederick Hasselborough discovers Campbell Island.
January 4, 1810: Louis Spohr’s (25) concert tonight in Berlin attracts a large audience once it becomes known that the recently returned Queen of Prussia has requested tickets.
January 6, 1810: By terms of the Treaty of Paris, Sweden joins the Continental System while France recognizes Sweden’s sovereignty over Pomerania.
January 12, 1810: The Tribunal of the Officiality of Paris annuls the imperial marriage of Napoléon and Josephine.
January 13, 1810: An advisory body of elder statesmen, the Council of State, is formally opened by Tsar Alyeksandr.
January 19, 1810: Peninsular War: 60,000 French troops begin a major invasion of Andalucia.
January 23, 1810: Peninsular War: In the face of the French offensive, the Spanish junta abandons Seville for Cádiz.
January 27, 1810: Publication of the Variations for piano op.34 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (31) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
January 28, 1810: A British invasion force lands on Guadeloupe.
January 28, 1810: Peninsular War: Most of the Spanish junta reaches Cádiz and is able to set up a government.
January 29, 1810: Peninsular War: The Spanish junta in Cádiz gives power to a five-man regency council.
January 30, 1810: Archduke Rudolph returns to Vienna. Ludwig van Beethoven (39) composes the third movement of his Piano Sonata op.81a “Les Adieux” entitled Das Wiedersehen at the occasion.
January 30, 1810: A plan by administrator of the Russian Imperial Kapella Dmitry Stepanovich Bortnyansky (59) to expand the choristers’ education beyond violin to viola, cello, and double bass goes into effect.
January 31, 1810: A Supreme Council of Regency is set up in Spain to rule for King Fernando VII in opposition to the French. Nicolá Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcún, marques de las Hormazas replaces Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis as First Secretary of State.
February 1, 1810: Peninsular War: French forces capture Seville without a fight.
February 2, 1810: Emperor Napoléon and his Privy Council agree that he should marry the daughter of Emperor Franz of Austria, Marie Louise.
February 3, 1810: Peninsular War: Spanish forces reach Cádiz in time to protect it from the advancing French.
February 6, 1810: Napoléon announces that he will marry Austrian Archduchess Marie Louise.
February 6, 1810: After a campaign of a week, French forces on Guadeloupe surrender to invading British.
February 8, 1810: Napoléon places Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, and the Basque country under military rule.
February 9, 1810: While conducting rehearsals for Silvanna in Stuttgart, Carl Maria von Weber (23) is arrested by the police along with his father. He will be held incommunicado in an inn for 16 days under three charges: 1. theft of silver articles, 2. embezzlement of Duke Ludwig’s money (actually done by his father--the amount was repaid but with borrowed money and the lender is demanding his money back) and 3. bribery and “association with plots for military exemption.”
February 10, 1810: King Friedrich of Württemberg dismisses criminal charges against Carl Maria von Weber (23) and his father. The case is referred to a civil court where Weber’s creditors wait.
February 16, 1810: The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt (Main) is created, under French control. Prince-Archbishop Karl Theodor Anton Maria, Baron von Dalberg of Regensburg becomes Grand Duke of Frankfurt.
February 16, 1810: An earthquake centered in Candia (Heraklion), Crete, in the Ottoman Empire, kills about 2,000 people.
February 17, 1810: Rome is formally annexed to the French Empire.
February 18, 1810: King Friedrich of Württemberg is about to banish Carl Maria von Weber (23) for theft when 42 creditors press their cases against him, causing the duke to re-arrest the composer at the expense of the creditors. He will finish Silvana during his imprisonment.
February 20, 1810: Andreas Hofer, who lead the Tyrol in uprising against France and Bavaria, is executed in Mantua (Mantova).
February 22, 1810: The Dutch garrison of Sint Eustasius surrenders to the Royal Navy.
February 22, 1810: In Stuttgart, it is determined that Carl Maria von Weber (23) owes three times his assets. Weber agrees to a debt payment arrangement to placate the creditors. They petition for his release.
February 23, 1810: King Friedrich of Württemberg orders the release of Carl Maria von Weber (23) as well as his banishment. He has worked out a debt payment agreement with his creditors.
February 24, 1810: Henry Cavendish dies in London at the age of 78.
February 26, 1810: Carl Maria von Weber (23) and his father are awakened in the morning by a police officer and escorted to the border at Fürfeld. They are banished from Württemberg forever for their enormous debts. From this day, Weber keeps a diary. On the first page he writes, “Born again for the second time.”
March 1, 1810: Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin is born in a house on the estate of the Skarbek family near Zelazowa Wola in the Duchy of Warsaw, part of the Russian Empire, 47 km west of the capital, second of four children born to Nicholas Chopin, Alsatian tutor to the children of Countess Ludvika Skarbek, and Tekla Justyna Krzyzanowska, personal attendant to the countess, the daughter of an impoverished nobleman who works as steward for the Skarbek estate.
March 1, 1810: Hannover is made part of the Kingdom of Westphalia.
March 3, 1810: France annexes Dalmatia and attaches the Tyrol to the Kingdom of Italy.
March 9, 1810: The publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (50) Three Duos concertantes for piano and harp C.234 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
March 9, 1810: Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria renounces all claims to the imperial throne and swears allegiance to France. A marriage contract is signed at Schönbrunn Palace.
March 11, 1810: Emperor Napoléon, by proxy, marries Archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of the Emperor Franz I of Austria, in Vienna.
March 11, 1810: Simon Mayr’s (46) Cantata per le nozze di Napoléone con Maria Luisa d’Austria to words of Count Carrara-Spinelli is performed for the first time, in Bergamo. Ferramondo, another cantata by Mayr to words of Carrara-Spinelli, is performed for the first time, for the marriage of Napoléon and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
March 13, 1810: The Maniac, or The Swiss Banditti, a serio-comic opera by Henry R. Bishop (23) to words of Arnold, is performed for the first time, in the Lyceum, London.
March 16, 1810: King Louis of Holland is forced to sign a treaty handing over Brabant and Zeeland and the land between the Maas and the Waal to France.
March 20, 1810: Eusebio Bardaji y Azara replaces Nicolá Ambrosio de Garro y Arizcún, marques de las Hormazas as First Secretary of State of the resistance government of Spain.
March 22, 1810: Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (50) three sets of variations for piano C.235-237 are performed for the first time, in the Théâtre de l'Odéon, Paris by the composer.
March 23, 1810: In the Rambouillet Decree, Emperor Napoléon orders the seizure of all ships of the United States entering French ports. It is made retroactive to last 20 May.
March 25, 1810: The Commercial Bank of Scotland is founded in Edinburgh.
March 26, 1810: Mathilde von Guise, an opera by Johan Nepomuk Hummel (31) after Mercier-Dupaty is performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.
March 27, 1810: Publication of three works by William Crotch (34) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London: the glees Hail all the dear Delights, on Returning to Heathfield Park, Sweet Sylvan Scenes, and the air with variations for piano Milton Oysters or, Yeo, Yeo.
April 1, 1810: Emperor Napoléon, in person, marries Archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of the Emperor Franz I of Austria, in a civil ceremony at Saint Çloud. A cantata for the occasion by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (31) is performed.
April 1, 1810: The Borough by George Crabbe is published this month.
April 2, 1810: Emperor Napoléon marries Archduchess Marie Louise, daughter of the Emperor Franz I of Austria, in a religious ceremony at the Louvre. At night, Cantate pour le mariage de l’Empereur by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (46) to words of Arnault is performed for the first time, at the Tuileries Palace in the presence of the honorees.
April 5, 1810: Francis Burdett, radical Whig MP, is ordered arrested by a vote of the House of Commons. The charge is publishing a speech in the House, but most members dislike his advocacy of liberal ideas such as reform of Parliament, prison reform and freedom of speech. The officers sent to arrest him are unable to complete their task because the streets have been flooded with his supporters.
April 6, 1810: Supporters of Francis Burdett begin rioting and attacking the residences of Prime Minister Spencer Perceval and prominent Tories.
April 8, 1810: After two days of rioting, armed troops are called in to London and Francis Burdett, MP is finally arrested and transported to the Tower. He will be released in June with no charges brought.
April 17, 1810: King José I reorganizes local government in Spain along the French model.
April 18, 1810: Publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (50) Piano concerto C.238 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
April 19, 1810: Wealthy landowners in Caracas, refusing to recognize Joseph Bonaparte, overthrow the Spanish captain-general, Vicente de Emparan y Orbe, and form a junta to rule in the name of Fernando VII.
April 22, 1810: Peninsular War: The Spanish evacuate the garrison of Matagorda near Cádiz.
April 23, 1810: Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin is baptized in the parish church of St. Roch in Brochów near Sochaczew.
April 27, 1810: Ludwig van Beethoven (39) presents the Bagatelle WoO 59 “Für Elise” to Therese Malfatti as a parting gift after she refused his marriage proposal.
May 3, 1810: In emulation of Leander, George Gordon, Lord Byron swims the Hellespont.
May 8, 1810: Walter Scott’s The Lady of the Lake is published.
May 14, 1810: Peninsular War: French forces attack and capture Lérida in Catalonia.
May 16, 1810: The County of Hanau is annexed to Frankfurt.
May 17, 1810: After 16 years of occupation, Great Britain annexes the formerly French Seychelles Islands.
May 19, 1810: Two works by Samuel Wesley (44) are performed for the first time, at the Hanover Square Rooms, London: In exitu Israel for chorus and organ, and Father of Light and Life for chorus.
May 22, 1810: The Principality of Regensburg is annexed by Bavaria.
May 23, 1810: The Kingdom of Imeret’i (in Georgia) is annexed by Russia.
May 25, 1810: Following Napoléon’s conquest of Spain, an assembly in Buenos Aires votes to create “a provisional junta of the Provinces of the Rio de la Plata,” (present Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay) governing for Fernando VII. Cornelio Saavedra is named president.
May 25, 1810: Three Chilean revolutionary leaders are captured by Spanish authorities in Santiago before their plan can be hatched.
May 30, 1810: The Turkish garrison at Silistria (Silistra, Romania) surrenders to the Russians.
May 30, 1810: Variations for cello J.94 by Carl Maria von Weber (23) is performed for the first time, in Heidelberg.
May 31, 1810: John Field (27) marries Adelaide Victoria Percheron, his mistress and one of his pupils, in the French Catholic Church, Moscow. She was born in Pondicherry, the daughter of the war-commissioner of the French fleet.
June 4, 1810: Karl August von Hardenberg replaces Karl Friedrich Ferdinand Alexander, Count von Dohna-Schlobitten as Chancellor of Prussia.
June 8, 1810: 22:30 Robert Schumann is born in a house at 15 Am Markt, on the corner of Münzstraße (today Hauptmarkt 5) in Zwickau, Kingdom of Saxony, 30 km southwest of Chemnitz, fifth and last child of August Schumann, a bookseller, publisher and author, and Johanna Christiane Schnabel, daughter of the chief surgeon to the city of Zeitz.
June 9, 1810: Carl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai is born at Steindamm 277 in Königsberg (Kaliningrad), Kingdom of Prussia, the only child of the union of Carl Ernst Daniel Nicolai, a composer, and Christiane Wilhelmine Lauber, the daughter of a minister. The marriage of his parents will end in a few months owing to the physical and mental condition of his mother. He will grow up with foster parents until age 10.
June 10, 1810: Du trône ou jusqua’à Toi, a cantata by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (46) to words of Arnault, is performed for the first time, in Paris to celebrate the marriage of Emperor Napoléon to Marie-Louise of Austria.
June 12, 1810: Peninsular War: Mequínenza, southwest of Lérida, surrenders to the French.
June 15, 1810: Incidental music for Goethe’s play Egmont by Ludwig van Beethoven (39) is performed for the first time, in the Hofburgtheater, Vienna. The play was produced on 24 May but Beethoven’s music was not ready at that time.
June 21, 1810: Marianna Wolowska (20) marries Teofil Józef Szymanowski, owner of an estate in Otwock, in St. Andrew's Parish, Warsaw.
June 22, 1810: Russian forces occupy Sukumi. They declare a protectorate over Abkhazia.
June 22, 1810: The Clarinet Concerto no.2 by Louis Spohr (26) is performed for the first time, in Frankenhausen.
June 23, 1810: John Jacob Astor founds the Pacific Fur Company to begin to exploit the Pacific coast.
June 25, 1810: Fredrik Gyllenborg replaces Carl Axel Trolle-Wachtmeister as Prime Minister for Justice of Sweden.
June 25, 1810: Peninsular War: French forces laying siege to Ciudad Rodrigo in León begin a bombardment of the town.
June 30, 1810: Bayreuth is annexed by Bavaria.
July 1, 1810: Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, abdicates his throne in favor of either of his sons, Napoléon Louis or Louis Napoléon and protests actions by the Emperor. This night he flees to Germany, making for Austria.
July 4, 1810: In his critique of Beethoven’s (39) Symphony no.5 in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, ETA Hoffmann says that Beethoven’s instrumental music “opens up to us the kingdom of the gigantic and the immeasurable. Glowing beams shoot through this kingdom’s deep night, and we become aware of gigantic shadows that surge up and down, enclosing us more and more narrowly and annihilating everything within us, leaving only the pain of that interminable longing, in which every pleasure that had quickly arisen with sounds of rejoicing sinks away and founders, and we live on, rapturously beholding the spirits themselves, only in this pain, which, consuming love, hope, and joy within itself, seeks to burst our breast asunder with a full voiced consonance of all the passions.”
July 8, 1810: Johanna Mockel (Kinkel) is born in Bonn, French Empire, the daughter of Joseph Mockel, headmaster of a French lyceum, and Marianna Lamm, a food canner.
July 9, 1810: Emperor Napoléon annexes Holland to France, along with its overseas colonies.
July 9, 1810: Peninsular War: The Spanish defenders of Ciudad Rodrigo in León surrender to the besieging French.
July 10, 1810: British forces capture Réunion and Mauritius.
July 11, 1810: Australian sealer Frederick Hasselborough discovers Macquarie Island and claims it for Great Britain.
July 11, 1810: The populace of Santiago, Chile rises in armed revolt against the Spanish governor who ordered the exile of the three revolutionary leaders captured 25 May.
July 16, 1810: The Governor of Chile, Francisco Antonio García Carrasco, resigns his post.
July 19, 1810: The 34-year-old Queen Louise of Prussia dies at her father’s estate near Strelitz, attended by her husband King Friedrich Wilhelm III.
July 20, 1810: Anti-royalist mobs begin an uprising in Bogotá, surround troops in their barracks, and force the signature of Viceroy Antonio José de Amar y Borbón Arguedas y Vallejo de Santacruz on a document allowing a governing council to be set up.
July 21, 1810: Peninsular War: French troops once again cross from Spain into Portugal, making for Almeida.
July 24, 1810: Peninsular War: At the Bridge of Côa, near Almeida, British and Portuguese troops delay the French advance into Portugal, causing heavy casualties.
August 5, 1810: Napoléon announces the Trianon Decree, placing heavy tariffs on colonial materials.
August 14, 1810: Samuel Sebastian Wesley is born at No.1 Great Woodstock Street in London, United Kingdom, first of seven illegitimate children born to Samuel Wesley (44), musician and composer, and his housekeeper, Sarah Suter. Wesley also has three legitimate children by Charlotte Louisa Martin from whom he is now estranged.
August 15, 1810: King Carl XIII of Sweden adopts the Frenchman Jean Bernadotte as his heir.
August 15, 1810: Peninsular War: French forces lay siege to Almeida, Portugal.
August 20, 1810: British and French ships engage off Grand Port, Mauritius.
August 21, 1810: The Riksdag of the Estates elects Marshal of France Jean Baptiste Bernadotte as Crown Prince of Sweden. He takes the name Carl Johan.
August 22, 1810: Publication of the Violin Sonata op.37a by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (31) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
August 24, 1810: Two works for wind band by Ludwig van Beethoven (39) are performed for the first time, in Vienna: Marsch für böhmische Landwehr and Marsch für Erzherzog Anton.
August 26, 1810: Leaders of a counterrevolutionary group, including former Viceroy Santiago Antonio María de Liniers y Bremont, are executed by firing squad at Cabeza de Tigre in Córdoba (Argentina).
August 26, 1810: Peninsular War: Besieging French begin to bombard the fortress of Almeida, Portugal.
August 27, 1810: Peninsular War: In the midst of the French bombardment, the main powder magazine of Almeida explodes, killing 500 Portuguese soldiers.
August 28, 1810: Remaining Royal Navy forces surrender to the French off Grand Port, Mauritius. In eight days, the British lose four ships. 140 men were killed in the fighting with 280 wounded. Surviving British sailors are imprisoned.
August 28, 1810: Peninsular War: The British and Portuguese defenders of Almeida are forced to surrender to the French.
September 1, 1810: Le crescendo, an opéra bouffon by Luigi Cherubini (49) to words of Sewrin (pseud. of de Bassompierre), is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris. It is not well received due to the libretto.
September 12, 1810: The Duchy of Salzburg is incorporated into Bavaria.
September 13, 1810: Grand Duchess Elise suppresses over 100 religious houses in Tuscany.
September 16, 1810: Silvana, a romantic opera by Carl Maria von Weber (23) to words of Heimer after Steinsberg, is performed for the first time, in Frankfurt-am-Main, conducted by the composer. The work is a moderate success but is overshadowed by a balloon ascent made today by Mme Madeleine-Sophie Blanchard, first female professional balloonist and widow of balloon pioneer Jean-Pierre Blanchard. Everyone at the theatre, including the singers, can talk of nothing else.
September 16, 1810: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla places himself at the head of a band of laborers, Indians, and prisoners in Dolores, 270 km northwest of Ciudad México, to resist Spanish rule in Mexico. He inspires them with the cry “Long live religion! Long live Our Lady of Guadalupe! Long live the Americas and death to the corrupt government!” The act is seen as the beginning of the Mexican Revolution.
September 17, 1810: The royal government of New Spain places a price on the head of Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and three other revolutionary leaders. On the same day, the rebels form their first rudimentary government, in San Miguel el Grande (San Miguel de Allende).
September 18, 1810: A Chilean assembly in Santiago creates a national government for the first time. This is celebrated as Chile’s independence day.
September 23, 1810: US settlers subdue the Spanish garrison at Baton Rouge, proclaiming the Republic of West Florida.
September 24, 1810: The Cortes of Cadiz meets at Isla de Léon. It recognizes Fernando VII as king and will draw up the credo of Spanish liberalism, the constitution of 1812.
September 26, 1810: Meeting in Örebro, the Riksdag of the Estates enacts a new Act of Succession for Sweden.
September 27, 1810: Peninsular War: French troops attack a combined British-Portuguese force at Buçaco but are repulsed with great losses.
September 28, 1810: Now over 20,000 strong, Padre Hidalgo and his followers reach Guanajuato and swarm through the town. Some loyal troops manage to put up a fight but are eventually overrun. All royalists in the town are killed.
October 9, 1810: Peninsular War: The British-Portuguese retreat in Portugal ends as they dig in at Torres Vedras, 43 km north of Lisbon.
October 12, 1810: Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria marries Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen in Munich. A great festival is held at the city gates to which all citizens are invited. This is seen as the first Oktoberfest.
October 14, 1810: Two vocal trios by Luigi Cherubini (50) are performed for the first time, at Chimay.
October 15, 1810: Cantate auf die Einweihung der Berliner Universität by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (57) to words of Brentano is performed for the first time, at the opening of Berlin University founded by Wilhelm von Humboldt.
October 17, 1810: Padre Hidalgo and his Mexican rebels take Valladolid (Morelia) without a fight.
October 19, 1810: Mexican revolutionary leader Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla proclaims the end of slavery in the country.
October 27, 1810: The Prussian government issues a Finanzedikt promising certain liberal reforms such as equalization of the tax burden, freedom to start businesses, tariff reform, secularization of Church lands and sale of state owned lands.
October 27, 1810: President Madison annexes the western part of West Florida (between the Perdido and Mississippi Rivers) to the United States.
October 28, 1810: A second regency is set up in Spain to rule for King Fernando VII in opposition to the French.
October 28, 1810: The first recorded performance of Polacca con variazione for violin and orchestra by Nicolò Paganini (28) takes place in the Teatro del Pubblico, Rimini, the composer as soloist.
October 29, 1810: Radicals from Argentina meet royalists at Cotagaita in Upper Peru (Bolivia). The battle forces the radicals to withdraw south.
October 30, 1810: The Prussian government nationalizes both Catholic and Protestant lands and assumes control over them.
October 30, 1810: Mexican revolutionaries, now 80,000 strong, overwhelm Spanish troops at Monte de las Cruces between Toluca and Mexico City.
November 1, 1810: Nicholas Chopin begins duties as a French teacher at the Warsaw Gymnasium. To do so, he has moved his family, including Fryderyk (0), to the city.
November 1, 1810: As of this date, Napoléon’s Berlin and Milan decrees are revoked for the United States. Normal commerce between the two countries is hereby resumed.
November 2, 1810: The Prussian government issues an edict ending the restriction of certain trades to guild members.
November 2, 1810: US President Madison orders that trade with France be restored and trade with Great Britain be ended as of 2 February of next year.
November 2, 1810: Prince Hermann Friedrich Otto of Hohenzollern-Hechingen dies in Hechingen and is succeeded by his son, Friedrich Hermann Otto.
November 3, 1810: La cambiale di matrimonio, a farsa comica by Gioachino Rossini (18) to words of Rossi after Federici and Checcherini, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Moisè, Venice. It is Rossini’s first work to be staged.
November 7, 1810: Going north into Queretaro, Mexican revolutionaries meet a force of loyalists at Aculco who give battle and do great damage. Casualties favor the loyalists at a rate of 12-1.
November 7, 1810: A force of royalists catches up to the radicals retreating from Cotagaita at Suipacha (southern Bolivia). The radicals triumph. The royalist general, José de Córdoba, and two royal governors are executed after the battle.
November 13, 1810: Because of Sweden’s anemic adherence to the Continental System, Napoléon demands that they declare war on Great Britain.
November 13, 1810: The building housing the Russian Imperial Kapella is inaugurated as the House of the Kapella. It was recently bought and renovated by the Russian government under the leadership of the director of the Kapella, Dmitry Stepanovich Bortnyansky (59).
November 14, 1810: Peninsular War: French forces withdraw from Torres Vedras without attacking the British-Portuguese defenses.
November 15, 1810: Gaetano Donizetti (12) learns that he has been accepted to the Bergamo art school, Accademia Carrara. He applied because he fears he will be unsuccessful in music.
November 15, 1810: Humphry Davy informs the Royal Society that oxidized muriatic acid produced by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774 is in fact a new element which he calls Chlorine.
November 17, 1810: Pursuant to the French ultimatum of 13 November, Sweden declares war on Great Britain. However, there will never be any fighting between the two countries.
November 19, 1810: Piano Concerto no.1 by Carl Maria von Weber is performed for the first time, in Mannheim, the composer at the keyboard, on what might be his 24th birthday.
November 25, 1810: A royalist army retakes Guanajuato, Mexico from revolutionaries.
December 1, 1810: Mexican revolutionaries capture the Pacific port of San Blas.
December 10, 1810: Bentheim and Holstein-Oldenburg are annexed by France.
December 10, 1810: Lüneburg is attached to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
December 12, 1810: Lucien Bonaparte, brother of the French emperor, and his wife arrive in Plymouth, having been captured by the British trying to escape to the United States.
December 13, 1810: Napoléon annexes the north coast of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Aremberg, Münster) to France in an attempt to tighten the blockade against Britain. Parts of the Kingdom of Westphalia are annexed by France.
December 22, 1810: The frigate HMS Minotaur strikes ground in a storm on the Haak Sands at the mouth of the Texel, Netherlands. Over 100 men are able to save themselves but the Dutch authorities, being hostile to the British, refuse to send rescue craft. At least 370 die in the wreck.
December 26, 1810: Raùl di Créqui, a melodramma serio by Simon Mayr (47) to words of Romanelli, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
December 28, 1810: A royalist army retakes Valladolid (Morelia, Mexico).
December 28, 1810: The East Indiaman Elizabeth is blown ashore in a gale at Dunkirk where it breaks up. 22 men manage to make it to shore in lifeboats. The number of the dead is unknown but thought to be around 400.