A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1809 – December 31, 1809

Event icon
January 5, 1809: Through the good offices of Austria the nominal state of war between Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire ends with the Treaty of the Dardanelles.
Event icon
January 5, 1809: Martin de Garay Perales replaces Pedro Cevallos Guerra as First Secretary of State of the resistance government of Spain.
Event icon
January 7, 1809: Ludwig van Beethoven (38) accepts the offer of King Jerome Bonaparte of Westphalia to be Kapellmeister at Kassel.
Event icon
January 9, 1809: Following the report of last 22 November, that the Embargo Act of 1807 has had the opposite effect of the one intended, the US government decides to enforce the act more vigorously. The predictable effect is more damage to the US economy.
Event icon
January 11, 1809: Peninsular War: British forces reach La Coruña but find no transports to evacuate them.
Event icon
January 12, 1809: British and Portuguese troops capture Cayenne, French Guiana. French Guiana is occupied by Portuguese forces from Brazil.
Event icon
January 13, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces attack the Spanish at Uclés, forcing many to flee in panic.
Event icon
January 14, 1809: Peninsular War: An alliance is signed in London between Great Britain and the Spanish junta. Spain is forbidden to sign a separate peace with France. Britain is required to give all assistance to the defeat of the French in Iberia.

British transports reach La Coruña and immediately begin evacuating the army.

Event icon
January 16, 1809: Peninsular War: French troops attack the British at La Coruña but are repulsed. The fight results in 2,300 casualties, including the death of the British commander Sir John Moore.
Event icon
January 18, 1809: Peninsular War: The British successfully complete their evacuation from La Coruña, thus ending this phase of the peninsular war.
Event icon
January 19, 1809: The Bath Chronicle announces that Samuel Wesley (42) is in town and is waiting for an invitation to give an organ concert.
Event icon
January 22, 1809: Two British ships run aground in separate incidents at Falmouth in a blizzard. HMS Primrose goes down with her entire complement, save one boy. The troop transport Dispatch, carrying 100 soldiers home from Spain, is also wrecked. Only seven are rescued.
Event icon
January 23, 1809: Emperor Napoléon returns to Paris and moves his headquarters from the Tuileries to the Elysée Palace.
Event icon
January 27, 1809: Peninsular War: After a siege of five weeks, French troops storm Zaragoza and advance into the city where brutal street fighting ensues.
Event icon
January 30, 1809: Fromental Halévy (9) enters the Paris Conservatoire.
Event icon
January 30, 1809: British forces land on Martinique.
Performance icon
February 1, 1809: Kanatate zum Geburtstag von Amalia Beer by Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (17) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
Event icon
February 1, 1809: French troops abandon Fort de France, Martinique and concentrate within Fort Bourbon in the face of the British invasion.
Performance icon
February 3, 1809: Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s (56) Bradamante to words of von Collin is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
Birth icon
February 3, 1809: Felix Mendelssohn is born in Hamburg (currently occupied by France), the second of four children born to Abraham Mendelssohn, a banker, himself the son of the Enlightenment philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, and Lea Solomon, daughter of the Prussian court jeweler and granddaughter of Daniel Itzig, a financial advisor to King Friedrich II of Prussia and one of the most affluent citizens of Berlin.
Event icon
February 4, 1809: British forces on Martinique begin a siege of the French inside Fort Bourbon.
Event icon
February 8, 1809: Fearful of an attack by Napoléon, Emperor Franz of Austria and the Imperial Council decide to resume war against France.
Event icon
February 10, 1809: Peninsular War: Brutal street fighting having gone on for two weeks in Zaragoza, the French explode a 3,000 pound mine under the Spanish stronghold in the convent of San Francisco and launch a desperate assault.
Event icon
February 11, 1809: Robert Fulton receives a US patent for his steamboat.
Event icon
February 18, 1809: Peninsular War: French attackers at Zaragoza finally gain the upper hand against the Spanish.
Event icon
February 19, 1809: The Spanish junta orders that all weapons in the hands of civilians must be surrendered immediately.
Event icon
February 20, 1809: Peninsular War: After two months of siege and battle, the starving and decimated Spanish defenders of Zaragoza surrender. Approximately 54,000 people, soldiers and civilians, died in the siege and fighting.
Performance icon
February 23, 1809: The Circassian Bride, an opera by Henry R. Bishop (22) to words of Ward, is performed for the first time, in the Drury Lane Theatre, London. Unfortunately, the theatre will burn down tomorrow, taking the score with it.
Event icon
February 24, 1809: While enjoying a drink at a nearby London coffee house, Richard Brinsley Sheridan witnesses his new Drury Lane Theatre burn to the ground. He reportedly remarks, “A man may surely be allowed to take a glass of wine by his own fireside.”
Event icon
February 25, 1809: The Spanish junta rules that all money or property taken from the French will belong to those who took them.
Event icon
February 25, 1809: The French garrison on Martinique surrenders to invading British.
Event icon
February 25, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces defeat the Spanish northwest of Valls in Catalonia.
Event icon
February 28, 1809: Great Britain and Portugal conclude a treaty of alliance and trade.
Event icon
March 1, 1809: Three days before he leaves office, US President Thomas Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act. It repeals the widely unpopular Embargo Acts of 1807 and 1808 and limits the embargo to trade with Great Britain and France.
Event icon
March 1, 1809: Lord Byron’s satire English Bards and Scotch Reviewers is published anonymously this month.
Event icon
March 1, 1809: After learning that Beethoven (38) has accepted an offer in Kassel, three young Viennese aristocrats, Prince Joseph Lobkowitz, Prince Ferdinand Johann Nepomuk Kinsky, and Archduke Rudolph, agree to pay the composer an annuity for life in return for a promise to remain in Vienna.
Event icon
March 3, 1809: Napoléon creates his elder sister, Princess Elise, as Grand Duchess of Tuscany and annexes Lucca to Tuscany. He also creates five-year-old Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte Grand Duke of Berg under his own regency.
Event icon
March 4, 1809: James Madison replaces Thomas Jefferson as President of the United States.
Performance icon
March 5, 1809: The Cello Sonata op.69 by Ludwig van Beethoven (38) is performed publicly for the first time, in Vienna.
Death icon
March 7, 1809: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger dies in Vienna, Austrian Empire, of kidney stones, aged 73 years, one month, and four days. His mortal remains will be laid to rest in St. Marx Cemetery, Vienna.
Event icon
March 9, 1809: Peninsular War: French troops cross from Spain into Portugal, behind schedule.
Event icon
March 10, 1809: Samuel Wesley (43) begins a series of lectures on a variety of musical subjects at the Royal Institution, London.
Event icon
March 13, 1809: King Gustaf IV Adolf of Sweden is arrested by his nobles and liberal army officers after he insists on pressing a war against Russia. His uncle Carl becomes the de facto regent.
Event icon
March 17, 1809: The House of Commons votes 279-193 to exonerate the Duke of York of any wrongdoing stemming from the charges brought against him by his mistress Mary Anne Clarke. But because the vote against him is so high, he will resign as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army tomorrow.
Event icon
March 20, 1809: Peninsular War: A hastily assembled Portuguese force trying to stop the French advance on Oporto is easily broken up by the French at Braga.
Event icon
March 25, 1809: The Duke of York resigns as commander-in-chief of the British Army.
Event icon
March 27, 1809: Tsar Alyeksandr addresses the elected Finnish Diet at Borgå. From now on, Finland and Russia are united only through the person of the Tsar.
Event icon
March 27, 1809: Peninsular War: With the help of cannon from British ships, Galician rebels are able to retake Vigo from the French.
Event icon
March 29, 1809: King Gustaf IV Adolf of Sweden formally abdicates his throne.
Event icon
March 29, 1809: In the State Hall at Porvoo, the four Finnish estates swear allegiance to Tsar Alyeksandr as Grand Prince of Finland. The Tsar pledges to respect the Finnish constitution and form of government.
Event icon
March 29, 1809: Peninsular War: As the French army attacks Oporto, 12,000-15,000 civilians attempt to flee across a bridge made of boats (Ponte das Barcas). The bridge collapses, killing hundreds. The French give over to murder, looting and rape. 8,000 Portuguese men, women and children are killed.

At the same time at Medellín, Spain, the Spaniards almost gain a victory over the French but in the end are forced to flee.

Event icon
April 1, 1809: Franz Joseph Haydn (77) sells his piano in Vienna.
Event icon
April 7, 1809: An agreement is reached between British Minister to the US David Erskine and US Secretary of State Robert Smith in Washington about the outstanding issues between the two countries. Erskine promises that Britain’s policy will change by 10 June.
Event icon
April 10, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: The Austrian army crosses the River Inn at Branau into Bavaria, a French ally, without a declaration of war. Residents of the Tyrol revolt against the Bavarians.
Event icon
April 13, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: One day after learning of the Austrian advance into Bavaria, Emperor Napoléon departs Paris for the front.
Event icon
April 18, 1809: After a brief campaign, the French garrison on Île de Les Saintes surrenders to the British.
Event icon
April 19, 1809: Based on the Erskine-Smith agreement of 7 April, US President Madison resumes trade with Great Britain.
Event icon
April 19, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French and Austrian forces clash near Kelheim and Abbach on the Danube, 22 km southwest of Ratisbon (Regensburg). The French successfully defend against Austrian attacks.

Austrian forces attack Poles and Saxons at Raszyn. A long see-saw battle results in the Poles leaving the field.

Event icon
April 20, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French troops attack the Austrians between Abensberg and Eckmühl, 20 km south of Ratisbon (Regensberg). The Austrians are forced to withdraw.
Event icon
April 22, 1809: Peninsular War: British commander Arthur Wellesley lands at Lisbon at the head of a combined British-Portuguese force.
Event icon
April 22, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Austrian troops occupy Warsaw.
Event icon
April 23, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: After four days of furious fighting, Austrian forces retreat north of the Danube at Ratisbon (Regensburg). The Austrian rear guard holds the Ratisbon garrison against French attacks until evening.
Event icon
April 24, 1809: Mergentheim is attached to Frankfurt.
Event icon
April 25, 1809: A treaty of friendship is signed between Great Britain and the Sikhs in Amritsar. British influence in the region is bounded by the River Sutlej.
Event icon
April 30, 1809: Henry R. Bishop (22) marries Elizabeth Sarah Lyon, a singer at St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London.
Event icon
May 2, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Austrians hold the Ebersberg bridge over the Danube against strong French assaults but are finally dislodged.
Event icon
May 4, 1809: The Austrian royal family evacuates Vienna before the advancing French, including Beethoven’s (38) patron Archduke Rudolph. The composer pens the first movement of the piano sonata op.81a “Les adieux” at the occasion.
Event icon
May 9, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: The French army surrounds Vienna.
Event icon
May 10, 1809: Carl XIII of Sweden formally begins his reign. He has been regent since the arrest of his nephew, Gustaf IV Adolf.
Performance icon
May 11, 1809: A Missa in B flat by Antonio Salieri (58) is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
Event icon
May 11, 1809: Peninsular War: British and Portuguese troops defeat the French at Grijó.
Event icon
May 12, 1809: Peninsular War: French defenders of Oporto are defeated by the British and Portuguese, forcing them to retreat north to Léon.
Event icon
May 12, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: 21:00 French forces outside Vienna begin to bombard the city. It lasts all night. Directly in the line of fire is the house of Ludwig van Beethoven (38). Fortunately, the composer escapes the shelling, either to the house of his brother Caspar Carl or that of the poet Ignaz Franz Castelli. Four shells explode near the home of Franz Joseph Haydn (77), one blowing open the door to his bedroom. He is shocked but physically unhurt. The building housing the Imperial and Royal City Seminary is hit by a shell. Fortunately, none of the students, including Franz Schubert (12), are injured. Also in the line of fire is Maria Anna Lager, who in two years will become the mother of Franz Liszt.
Event icon
May 13, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French troops occupy Vienna.
Event icon
May 17, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Emperor Napoléon signs a decree in Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna annexing the Papal States, and abolishing the temporal power of the Papacy. Pope Pius VII is confined to the Quirinal Palace.
Event icon
May 18, 1809: Peninsular War: A second French army in Portugal, pursued by the British and Portuguese, manages to straggle across the border into Galicia.
Event icon
May 19, 1809: Andrew Law (60) receives a US patent for the Art of Playing the Organ and Piano Forte.
Event icon
May 20, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces capture Oviedo in Asturias from the Spanish.
Event icon
May 21, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Austrian forces attack French troops who have just crossed to the area of Aspern and Essling, north of the Danube across from Vienna.
Event icon
May 22, 1809: The Spanish junta announces that a new Cortes will be called within a year.
Event icon
May 22, 1809: The Eleventh Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place between April 1808 and May 1809. Federalists gain 24 seats but are still in the minority to the Republicans 92-50. In the Senate, Republicans lose one seat and the parties stand at 27-7.
Event icon
May 22, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: After two days of fighting at Aspern-Essling, the French are forced to quit the field, leaving 45,000 total casualties, and much of their prestige, on the battlefield.
Event icon
May 23, 1809: Peninsular War: French attempts to dislodge the Spanish from Alcañiz in Aragon are thrown back with heavy losses and they are forced to retreat to Zaragoza.
Event icon
May 26, 1809: An officer of the French occupying forces pays a visit to Franz Joseph Haydn (77) to make his acquaintance. The two have a pleasant chat and the officer sings an aria from The Creation. The composer is emotionally uplifted by the experience, but it is the last music he will ever hear.
Event icon
May 30, 1809: British Foreign Minister George Canning disavows the Erskine-Smith agreement of 7 April.
Death icon
May 31, 1809: 00:40 Franz Joseph Haydn dies peacefully at his house in Kleine Steingasse 3,Gumpendorf, (presently 1060 Vienna, Haydngasse 19) Vienna, Austrian Empire, aged 77 years and two months.
Event icon
June 1, 1809: The earthly remains of Franz Joseph Haydn are taken in an oaken coffin to Gumpendorff Church, carried around the church three times, blessed and then taken to Hundsthurm Cemetery where they are laid to rest.
Event icon
June 1, 1809: Three Piano Sonatas op.53 by Leopold Kozeluch (61) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
Event icon
June 2, 1809: A requiem mass is said in memory of Franz Joseph Haydn in the Gumpendorf church. The music is a setting of the requiem by Michael Haydn (†2).
Event icon
June 3, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Austrian troops are forced to withdraw from Warsaw by advancing Russians and Poles.
Event icon
June 6, 1809: The Riksdag of the Estates adopts the Instrument of Government for Sweden, returning constitutional government after 37 years of absolutism.
Event icon
June 7, 1809: In London, William Crotch (33) plays a program of his own organ and piano arrangements of the music of Handel (†50) for the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the composer’s death.
Event icon
June 8, 1809: The first ocean-going steamboat, the Phoenix, leaves New York for Philadelphia.
Death icon
June 8, 1809: Thomas Paine dies in New York City at the age of 72.
Event icon
June 9, 1809: Carl Axel Trolle-Wachtmeister become Prime Minister for Justice of Sweden while Lars von Engeström becomes Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Event icon
June 10, 1809: This is the effective date of the end of British restrictions against US ships.
Event icon
June 11, 1809: Pope Pius VII excommunicates Emperor Napoléon, although not mentioning him by name.
Event icon
June 14, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French forces defeat the Austrians at Raab, 47 km west of Linz.
Performance icon
June 15, 1809: Mora’s Love, or The Enchanted Harp, a Scottish ballet by Henry R. Bishop (22) to a story by d’Egville, is performed for the first time, in the King’s Theatre in the Haymarket, London.
Event icon
June 15, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces throw the Spanish back at María, southwest of Zaragoza.
Performance icon
June 15, 1809: A great service is held in memory of Franz Joseph Haydn in the Schottenkirche, Vienna. The Requiem of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (†17) is performed. The occupying French army sends an honor guard.
Event icon
June 26, 1809: Constanze Mozart marries Georg Nikolaus Nissen in Pressburg (Bratislava) Cathedral.
Event icon
June 26, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: A combined British and Sicilian fleet appears off Naples hoping to foment insurrection but none occurs.
Event icon
July 2, 1809: Internal government in Spain is reorganized by King José I. 38 new provinces are created.
Event icon
July 3, 1809: At the instigation of the British government, the Duke of York’s chief accuser, Gwyllym Wardle, MP, is sued by an upholsterer, Francis Wright, for non-payment. It turns out that Wardle paid to furnish the London house of Mary Anne Clarke, the former mistress of the Duke of York. In the course of the court action, it becomes evident that Wardle probably paid Clarke for her testimony against the Duke. The jury finds for Wright.
Event icon
July 4, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: Under cover of a heavy bombardment and in a violent thunderstorm, French forces attack northeast from Lobau Island across the Danube near Vienna.
Event icon
July 5, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French and Austrian forces numbering a total of 400,000 people begin a major conflict at Wagram, 50 km northwest of Vienna.
Event icon
July 6, 1809: In retaliation for the excommunication of Emperor Napoléon on 11 June, French troops arrest Pope Pius VII and convey him to Savona, near Genoa.
Event icon
July 6, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: After two days of fighting at Wagram, the Austrians are forced to retreat but the French are too exhausted to immediately pursue. The cost of the battle is 70,000 casualties or approximately one-quarter of both of the opposing armies.
Event icon
July 7, 1809: After a siege of eight months by Spanish insurgents, French forces in Santo Domingo surrender to the British ships blockading them.
Event icon
July 10, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: French troops catch up to the retreating Austrians at Znaim (Znojmo). As the battle is joined, the Austrians ask for an armistice.
Event icon
July 12, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: An armistice is signed between France and Austria at Znaim (Znojmo).
Event icon
July 12, 1809: The first of seven installments of the first biography of Franz Joseph Haydn (†0), by Georg August Griesinger, appears in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung.
Event icon
July 13, 1809: British forces occupy the French colony of Senegal. They have held Gorée (Dakar) since 1800.
Event icon
July 14, 1809: Russian forces accept the surrender of the Austrian garrison of Kraków after the Poles have reduced its defenses.
Event icon
July 16, 1809: Pedro Domingo Murillo leads a revolt by criollos and mestizos in La Paz and proclaims an independent state in Upper Peru (Bolivia) in the name of King Fernando VII.
Event icon
July 19, 1809: The Wiener Zeitung announces the rescinding of all Austrian censorship regulations by the French. New productions in Vienna will include Don Carlos, Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell and Goethe’s Egmont.
Event icon
July 22, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: British forces abandon Ischia and Procida off Naples.
Event icon
July 26, 1809: The publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (49) Three Trio Sonatas for piano four-hands C.230-232 and Notturno for piano and violin C.233 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
Event icon
July 28, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces attack the British and Spanish at Talavera, 105 km southwest of Madrid. After a furious see-saw battle, the French retreat towards the capital. Because of this victory, the British commander, Arthur Wellesley, will be created Viscount Wellington.
Event icon
July 30, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: The Royal Navy begins landing 39,000 men on Walcheren Island at the mouth of the Scheldt River.
Performance icon
August 1, 1809: The Vintagers, a musical romance by Henry R. Bishop (22) to words of Eyre, is performed for the first time, in the Little Theatre in the Haymarket, London.
Event icon
August 3, 1809: HMS Lark goes down at anchor in a gale off Santo Domingo. Only three of her 120-man crew are saved.
Event icon
August 8, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces defeat the Spanish at Puente del Arzobispo, southwest of Madrid.
Event icon
August 9, 1809: Ludwig van Beethoven (38) is nominated as a member of the Gesellschaft der Schönen Künste und Wissenschaften in Amsterdam.
Event icon
August 9, 1809: Once the British disavowal of the Erskine-Smith agreement becomes known, US President Madison orders a resumption of the embargo against Britain.
Event icon
August 9, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: British troops capture Flushing but do not advance on Antwerp.
Event icon
August 10, 1809: Citizens of Quito, opposed to Napoleonic Spain, depose the Audiencia and establish local rule.
Event icon
August 11, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces defeat the Spanish at Almonacid, south of Madrid.
Performance icon
August 15, 1809: A Mass in G by Giovanni Paisiello (69) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
Death icon
August 17, 1809: Matthew Boulton dies in Birmingham at the age of 80.
Event icon
August 18, 1809: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia decrees that higher ranks of state service be attainable only by university study or examination.
Event icon
August 18, 1809: The French government of Spain dissolves all religious orders.
Event icon
August 19, 1809: Russian forces attack the Swedes at Sävar and force them to retreat.
Event icon
August 20, 1809: The Russians catch up to the Swedes at Sävar but are cut to pieces by Swedish artillery.
Event icon
August 22, 1809: Swedish forces take ship at Sävar and depart.
Performance icon
August 25, 1809: A Sinfonia in E flat by Gioachino Rossini (17) is performed for the first time, in the Liceo Musicale, Bologna.
Event icon
September 4, 1809: British Prime Minister William Henry Cavendish, Duke of Portland resigns owing to poor health.
Event icon
September 7, 1809: Buddha Loetla (Rama II) replaces Buddha Yodfa (Rama I) as King of Krung Thep (Thailand).
Event icon
September 17, 1809: Russia and Sweden agree to peace at Fredrikshamm and to set their border at the River Torneälv/Torniojoki.
Performance icon
September 18, 1809: The Covent Garden Theatre, London reopens after the devastating fire of 1808, with a performance of Macbeth. During the evening riots break out over the ticket prices which are higher than the old theatre. The riots will last for over two months until manager John Philip Kemble rescinds the new prices and issues an apology.
Event icon
September 18, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: 3,000 Neapolitans and Corsicans under French command land on Sicily south of Messina.  They are quickly met by the British.  800 are captured and the rest retreat to the mainland.
Event icon
September 20, 1809: The Duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, in personal union since 1741, are joined to form the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Performance icon
September 20, 1809: An overture and marches for Turandot, Prinzessin von China, a play by Schiller after Gozzi, by Carl Maria von Weber (22) are performed for the first time, in Stuttgart.
Event icon
September 21, 1809: British Foreign Minister George Canning and Secretary for War Lord Castlereagh take part in a duel on Putney Heath. Canning is upset that Castlreagh took troops he intended for Portugal and used them in the Walcheren operation. Canning is hit in the thigh. Public sentiment turns against both of them.
Event icon
October 1, 1809: Adrien Boieldieu (33) is hired by Tsar Alyekandr to write and teach at the Imperial Theatre School, St. Petersburg.
Event icon
October 4, 1809: Spencer Perceval replaces William Henry Cavendish, Duke of Portland as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Event icon
October 8, 1809: Clemens Wenzel Lothar, Count Metternich-Winneburg Portella succeeds Johann Philipp Karl, Count Stadion-Warthousen as Lord Chamberlain, Minister of State and Minister of Foreign Affairs to Emperor Franz I of Austria.
Event icon
October 12, 1809: A young German named Friedrich Staps attempts to stab Napoléon at Schönbrunn Palace, but is stopped by the emperor’s aide, General Jean Rapp. Although he will be offered clemency by Napoléon in return for an apology, Stapps will refuse and be executed.
Event icon
October 13, 1809: Pedro Rivero replaces Martin de Garay Perales as First Secretary of State of the resistance government of Spain.
Event icon
October 14, 1809: War of the Fifth Coalition: A treaty of peace is signed at the Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna. Austria gives up Trieste and Illyria to France, Galicia to Saxony and Russia, and Salzburg and the Inn District to Bavaria. Austrian lands in Poland are handed over to the Duchy of Warsaw and Austria is required to pay an indemnity of 85,000,000 francs. Southern Tirol is transferred to the Kingdom of Italy. Austria also joins the continental system against Britain.
Event icon
October 16, 1809: A decree of King José I of Spain abolishes internal customs barriers.
Performance icon
October 16, 1809: Before King Maximilian I, the Queen, and the entire court, Georg Joseph Vogler (60) gives the inaugural concert on the organ at St. Peter’s in Munich, which he recently rebuilt.
Death icon
October 17, 1809: Friedrich Staps, who attempted to kill Emperor Napoléon on 12 October, is executed by firing squad in Vienna.  Napoléon offered Staps a pardon if he asked for it, but Staps refused.
Event icon
October 18, 1809: Peninsular War: French troops attack a superior Spanish force at Tamames, southwest of Salamanca, and are thrown back with heavy losses.
Event icon
October 26, 1809: After his defeat of Austria, Emperor Napoléon arrives back in Paris.
Event icon
October 30, 1809: Francisco de Saavedra y Sangronis replaces Pedro Rivero as First Secretary of State of the resistance government of Spain.
Event icon
November 19, 1809: Peninsular War: French forces defeat Spaniards at Ocaña, opening the way to Andalusia.
Event icon
November 20, 1809: France ends its occupation of Vienna.
Event icon
November 28, 1809: Austrian Chief Minister Clemens Wenzel Lothar, Count Metternich-Winneburg Portella moves into the Ballhausplatz, his official residence in Vienna. He will not move out for almost 40 years.
Event icon
November 28, 1809: Peninsular War: Retreating Spanish troops are attacked by French cavalry at Alba de Tormes, southeast of Salamanca, and flee in great disorder.
Performance icon
November 28, 1809: Gaspare Spontini’s (35) tragédie lyrique Fernand Cortez, ou La conquête du Mexique to words of Jouy and d’Esmenard after Piron, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra in the presence of the Emperor as well as King Friedrich August I of Saxony and King Hieronymus Bonaparte of Westphalia.
Performance icon
November 30, 1809: Pimmalione, a dramma lirico by Luigi Cherubini (49) to words of Vestris after Rousseau and Sografi, is performed for the first time, privately, in the Palais des Tuileries, Paris. Legend has it that Emperor Napoléon resolves to divorce his wife during this performance.
Event icon
December 4, 1809: After four and a half months on Walcheren Island, the last British troops are removed and transported home. 4,066 men died during the operation, almost all from disease.
Event icon
December 11, 1809: The case of Gwyllyn Wardle, MP is heard in king’s bench. In an attempt to clear his name, he charges the Duke of York’s former mistress, Mary Anne Clarke, Francis Wright, and Wright’s brother Daniel of conspiring in the case decided last 3 July. The case is decided against Wardle.
Event icon
December 11, 1809: Peninsular War: After a siege of six months, the Spanish defenders of Gerona, in Catalonia, surrender to the French.
Event icon
December 15, 1809: In his office at Fontainebleau, before his brothers and sisters, Emperor Napoléon and Empress Josephine sign the act of annulment.
Event icon
December 16, 1809: By act of the French Senate, Emperor Napoléon is divorced from Empress Josephine.
Event icon
December 25, 1809: France organizes the Illyrian Provinces in the Balkans. The Province of Fiume is created.
Event icon
December 25, 1809: Dr. Ephraim McDowell performs the first successful removal of an ovarian tumor in history, in Danville, Kentucky. The patient, Jane Todd Crawford, survived the 25-minute operation without anaesthesia, and will live for 32 more years.
Event icon
December 26, 1809: King Louis of Holland arrives in Paris in an attempt to smooth over differences between him and his brother Emperor Napoléon. He will fail.
Event icon
December 30, 1809: Giovanni Paisiello (69) is nominated as one of the eight “associés étrangers” of the Fine Arts section of the French Imperial Institute.