January 1, 1807: The lease of the Burgtheater and the Kärntnertortheater held by Baron Peter von Braun, is turned over to a group of noblemen including the Princes Esterházy, Schwarzenberg, and Lobkowitz and the Counts Palffy, Zichy, Lodron, and Franz Nicholaus Esterházy.
January 1, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The Royal Navy captures Curaçao from the Dutch.
January 1, 1807: After King Giuseppe Napoleone gathers all Neapolitan music students into the Santa Maria della Pièta dei Turchini, he turns it into a school exclusively for the study of music. He renames it the Collegio Reale di Musica.
January 7, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Great Britain declares a counter-blockade against France and its allies.
January 12, 1807: A ship carrying 17,760 kg of gunpowder explodes in Leiden, the Netherlands. 151 people are killed and around 2,000 injured. Over 200 houses are destroyed and every structure in the city sustains some damage.
January 13, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Under constant attack from local guerrillas, the British abandon their base at Maldonado (Uruguay).
January 14, 1807: Tsar Alyeksandr of Russia forms a committee for internal security to keep watch on suspicious persons and societies.
January 14, 1807: Emperor Napoléon creates a directorate of five Poles to administer the area of Poland under French control.
January 16, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The British begin landing troops ten km east of Montevideo.
January 19, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Spanish defenders of Montevideo assault the British advancing on them but are forced back inside the city.
January 20, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A second Spanish attack out of Montevideo goes badly for them and they are forced to retire. The British attempt to besiege the city.
January 23, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: British heavy artillery begins to bombard Montevideo.
January 27, 1807: The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld is occupied by French troops.
January 28, 1807: Publication of the Piano Sonata op.20, the Piano Trio op.22, Twelve Dances for piano op.24 and the Twelve Dances for piano op.25 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (28) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
January 28, 1807: Pall Mall in London becomes the first public area to be lit by gaslight.
January 29, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The Ottoman Empire extends its declaration of war on Russia to include Great Britain.
February 3, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: British forces assault and capture Montevideo.
February 3, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The French army attempts to trap the Russian army at Jonkowo in East Prussia. They defeat the Russians but, during the night, the Tsar’s forces escape.
February 5, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: French forces catch up to the Russian rear guard at Hoff (near Górowo Ilaweckie), 63 km south of Königsberg (Kaliningrad) causing 4,200 total casualties. The Russians retreat to Eylau (Bagrationovsk), 14 km to the northeast.
February 7, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A skirmish between French and Russian outposts escalates into a major engagement at Eylau (Bagrationovsk), 37 km south of Könisgsberg (Kaliningrad). After eight hours of heavy fighting and 8,000 casualties, the forces part for the night.
February 8, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Dawn on the second day at Eylau (Bagrationovsk) finds bitter cold and constant snow. Russian advances are countered by French cavalry which in turn are countered by the arrival of the last Prussian troops which are in turn stalemated by French reinforcements. After two days of fighting, no strategic result is produced. Casualties are unknown but could be as high as 40,000. Russia quits the field.
February 9, 1807: The assembly of Jewish notables, convened by Emperor Napoléon, meets again in Paris to discuss refinements to the Jewish equality law of 1802. They become known as the Sanhedrin.
February 14, 1807: Fire breaks out aboard HMS Ajax at anchor off Tenedos (Bozcaada) near the Dardenelles. 380 men are able to successfully abandon ship but 250 are lost. Ajax will explode and sink tomorrow morning.
February 17, 1807: Joseph, a drame mêlé de chants by Étienne Nicolas Méhul (43) to words of Duval after the Bible, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris. It will be performed 50 times during the composer’s life, and revived for the next 100 years.
February 19, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Attempting to bring Turkey into the alliance against France, a British fleet forces the Dardanelles and sinks five Turkish ships.
February 19, 1807: Former US Vice President Aaron Burr is arrested near Wakefield, Mississippi Territory (now in Washington County, Alabama) for treason.
February 21, 1807: Publication of the Piano Sonata “Appassionata” op.57 by Ludwig van Beethoven (36) is announced.
February 24, 1807: 17 people are killed, 15 are injured in the crush of thousands gathering to witness the hanging of convicted murderers John Holloway, Owen Haggerty, and Elizabeth Godfrey at Newgate Prison.
March 2, 1807: US President Thomas Jefferson signs a bill banning the slave trade as of next 1 January.
March 3, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A British fleet again forces the Dardanelles hoping to intimidate Turkey into the war. The Turks, their defenses newly strengthened, sink two ships and kill 600 men. They are not intimidated.
March 11, 1807: Three Piano Sonatas op.51 by Leopold Kozeluch (59) are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
March 16, 1807: Publication of Prelude and Air for the Piano Forte by William Crotch is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
March 18, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: French troops begin to surround Danzig (Gdansk).
5,000 British troops land in Egypt, intent for a third time on intimidating the Ottoman Sultan Selim III. They capture Alexandria (El Iskandariya) but nothing else.
March 19, 1807: An epilogue for Simon Mayr’s (43) farsa Elisa by Giovanni Paisiello (66) is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Carlo, Naples, for the name day of King Giuseppe Napoleone (Joseph Bonaparte).
March 23, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: French siege guns open fire on the Prussians and Russians in Danzig.
March 25, 1807: The Slave Trade Act receives royal assent. It outlaws the slave trade in the British Empire.
March 25, 1807: A horse leads a carriage along rails from Swansea to Mumbles in Wales. The people on board become the first railway passengers in history.
March 29, 1807: German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Obers discovers the only asteroid visible with the naked eye, Vesta. It is the fourth asteroid to be viewed from Earth.
March 29, 1807: Responses to the Litany for chorus by Samuel Wesley (41) is performed for the first time, in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London. They were intended for last Christmas but were postponed until Easter, today.
March 31, 1807: Because Lord Grenville’s government will not desist from furthering the assimilation of Catholics into British society, King George asks for their resignation. William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, Duke of Portland replaces William Wyndham Grenville, Baron Grenville as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
April 11, 1807: Spanish soprano Isabella Angela Colbran (22) performs in Bologna. It is the first time that Gioachino Rossini (15) sets eyes on his future mistress and wife.
April 18, 1807: The Principality of Anhalt-Dessau becomes the Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau. Prince Leopold III becomes Duke Leopold III. The County of Schaumburg-Lippe becomes a principality under Prince Georg I Wilhelm.
April 26, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Russia and Prussia sign a treaty of alliance at Bartenstein, Prussia (Bartoszyce, Poland) against France.
April 27, 1807: On the Feast of Peregrino Laziosi, Franz Joseph Haydn (75) is carried to the Servite Monastery, Vienna. There is a chapel in the monastery dedicated to that saint, and the composer is hoping for a cure for his swollen legs.
April 28, 1807: Prince Ludwig Friedrich II of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt dies in Rudolstadt and is succeeded by his 14-year-old son Friedrich Günther.
April 29, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The French complete their fortifications surrounding Danzig (Gdansk).
May 4, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A treaty signed in Finckenstein Palace, East Prussia (near Elblag, Poland) requires Persia to join France in war on Great Britain.
May 10, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Russian troops disembark at Neufahrwasser (Sopot) to reinforce the defenders at Danzig (Gdansk).
May 15, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Russian troops attempt to break through to the defenders of Danzig (Gdansk) but are beaten back with heavy casualties.
May 22, 1807: Grand Jury proceedings involving former Vice President Aaron Burr begin in US district court in Richmond, Virginia.
May 22, 1807: French police arrest ringleaders of a royalist plot in Naples. Twelve of them will be hanged.
May 27, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Prussia surrenders Danzig (Gdansk) to the encircling French.
May 29, 1807: The Ottoman Sultan Selim III is deposed by Mustafa IV, son of Abdulhamid I.
June 1, 1807: The Principality of Anhalt-Köthen becomes the Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen. Prince August Christian Friedrich becomes Duke August Christian Friedrich.
June 2, 1807: Royalist Marchese Palmieri is hanged by the French in Naples touching off a riot among the citizens. Soldiers fire into the crowds and charge with swords and bayonets. Eight people are killed, over 40 injured.
June 3, 1807: Çelebi Mustafa Pasha replaces Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
June 6, 1807: Envoys from the rebel Spanish government in Asturias land in England requesting assistance.
June 7, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: British marching west from Colonia de Sacramento (Uruguay) encounter a superior Spanish force at San Pedro and subdue it.
June 9, 1807: A month of voting in the British general election concludes with a strengthening of the Tory ministry of the Duke of Portland.
June 10, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: French forces attack the Russians at Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warminski) but are repulsed with heavy losses. Total casualties are 18,000 people.
June 11, 1807: Bayreuth passes from French to Austrian administration.
June 12, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: As the Russian army retreats, the French take control of the field at Heilsberg.
June 14, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A combined force of French, Poles, Saxons, Dutch, and Italians attacks the Russian defenders of Friedland (Pravdinsk), 43 km southeast of Kaliningrad (Königsberg) with disastrous and costly consequences for the Russians. Total casualties number 26,000 to 28,000.
June 15, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Cheered by the news from Spain, Foreign Secretary George Canning tells the House of Commons that “any nation in Europe that starts up with a determination to oppose…the common enemy…becomes instantly our essential ally.”
June 17, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: With a treaty signed in London, Great Britain adheres to the Convention of Bartenstein, joining Russia, Prussia, and Sweden against France.
June 19, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Russian ships attack a Turkish fleet chasing them near Mount Athos in Greece. Seven Turkish ships are sunk or grounded. The rest flee to the Dardanelles.
June 22, 1807: HMS Leopard demands the return of four British “deserters” off the USS Chesapeake, 16 km off the Virginia coast. When the Chesapeake refuses, Leopard opens fire, killing three people, wounding 18 and thereupon kidnaps the four sailors. The act almost leads to war between Great Britain and the United States.
June 23, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: An armistice between France and Russia goes into effect.
June 24, 1807: The Théâtre des Variétés opens in boulevard Montmartre, Paris.
June 24, 1807: A federal grand jury in Richmond, Virginia issues indictments against Aaron Burr for treason and high misdemeanor.
June 25, 1807: Emperor Napoléon and Tsar Alyeksandr meet for the first time on a raft in the River Nieman (Nemunas) at Tilsit (Sovetsk, Russia), 100 km northeast of Königsberg (Kaliningrad).
June 26, 1807: Lightning strikes a magazine at the fortress of Luxembourg. The explosion kills over 200 people.
June 28, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A British force from Montevideo is landed at Ensenada de Barragán, southeast of Buenos Aires.
July 1, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: Russian ships catch up to three Turkish ships fleeing the Battle of Athos and run them aground.
July 2, 1807: After the events of 22 June, US President Thomas Jefferson institutes punitive measures against Great Britain. He orders all British ships out of US waters and sends a ship to England to demand satisfaction.
July 5, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The British landing force assaults Buenos Aires. In street by street fighting they are defeated by Spanish regulars and local militia.
July 7, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: The Peace of Tilsit (Sovetsk) is signed by the Emperors Napoléon and Alyeksandr on a raft in the Neman River. In secret agreements, Russia is given a free hand against European Turkey and Finland. Russia joins the Continental System against Britain and pledges support of France against Gibraltar.
July 9, 1807: War of the Fourth Coalition: A treaty is signed between France and Prussia at Tilsit (Sovetsk). Prussia is restored to its 1772 borders but Hesse-Kassel and all Prussian possessions west of the Elbe are incorporated into the new Kingdom of Westphalia. Prussian possessions in Poland are joined into the Duchy of Warsaw in personal union with Saxony. Danzig (Gdansk) is declared a free city with a French garrison.
July 10, 1807: Serbian revolutionaries sign an alliance with Russia. They agree to support the Russians in return for money, guns, medical supplies and personnel.
July 12, 1807: The British force sent to capture Buenos Aires takes ship and sails away.
July 17, 1807: Bayreuth passes from Austrian to French administration.
July 17, 1807: Carl Maria von Weber (20) arrives in Stuttgart where a position awaits him. He has been spending the last five months since leaving Carlsruhe on an impromptu concert tour.
July 19, 1807: France demands that Portugal adhere to the continental blockade and close its ports to British ships, arrest British subjects, seize British property and declare war.
July 20, 1807: Emperor Napoléon signs a patent to Nicéphore and Claude Niépce for the Pyréolophore, the first internal combustion engine.
July 22, 1807: In the Royal Palace, Dresden, Emperor Napoléon approves the constitution for the Duchy of Warsaw.
July 23, 1807: General Bennigsen’s March for piano or harp by Leopold Kozeluch (60) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
August 1, 1807: Georg Joseph Vogler (58) is appointed Hofkapellmeister and Privy Councillor for Ecclesastical Affairs to Grand Duke Ludwig I of Hesse-Darmstadt.
August 3, 1807: The trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr begins in a federal court in Richmond, Virginia.
August 9, 1807: Robert Fulton tests his steamboat Clermont on the East River, New York.
August 12, 1807: France makes the demand of 19 July on Portugal an ultimatum. Portugal must also declare war on Great Britain, arrest all British subjects in the country and confiscate all British assets.
August 16, 1807: British troops land near Copenhagen to prevent Napoléon from taking the Danish fleet.
August 17, 1807: Carl Maria von Weber (20) is appointed “Geheimer Sekretär” to Duke Ludwig Friedrich Alexander in Württemberg, the brother of King Friedrich. He is responsible to administer the Duke’s affairs and instruct his children in music.
August 17, 1807: Nè l’un, nè l’altro, a dramma giocoso by Simon Mayr (44) to words of Anelli, is performed for the first time, at Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
August 17, 1807: Robert Fulton leaves New York aboard his steamboat Clermont. He will arrive in Albany, 240 km upstream, in 32 hours. The journey proves the practicality of motorized water transport.
August 19, 1807: Emperor Napoléon suppresses the Tribunate, making his control of policy easier.
August 24, 1807: Russia and Turkey agree to an armistice.
August 25, 1807: Nicolò Paganini’s (24) Napoleon Sonata, composed in honor of the birthday of the Emperor of the French and King of Italy (which is actually 15 August), is performed for the first time, by the composer, in Lucca.
August 28, 1807: Brunswick, Hildesheim, and Hesse are joined to become the Kingdom of Westphalia under King Jérôme Bonaparte. He will not arrive in his kingdom until 7 December. A regency council rules until then.
August 30, 1807: Theresia Helferstorfer, wife of Antonio Salieri (57) and mother of his eight children, dies in Vienna.
September 1, 1807: In a circuit court in Richmond, Virginia, former Vice-President Aaron Burr is acquitted of treason because the act could not be attested to by two witnesses. He will immediately leave for Europe to avoid prosecution for murdering Alexander Hamilton.
September 2, 1807: This day marks the first mention of Jan Ladislav Dussek (47) in the service of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.
September 2, 1807: British ships begin a bombardment of Copenhagen to preempt the use of the Danish fleet by Napoléon.
September 5, 1807: After four days bombardment of Copenhagen, a British naval force captures the Danish fleet. Most of the city is destroyed.
British forces occupy Helgoland.
September 7, 1807: Under threat from France, Swedish King Gustaf IV Adolf cedes Pomerania to the French.
September 7, 1807: After 2,000 people are killed by British bombardment in Copenhagen, Denmark surrenders to the British fleet.
September 9, 1807: Great Britain ends its eight-month occupation of Montevideo.
September 13, 1807: On the Sunday after the name day of Princess Esterházy, Ludwig van Beethoven (36) directs the first performance of his Mass in C at Eisenstadt. The music is not a success.
September 25, 1807: British forces evacuate Egypt.
October 1, 1807: When Portugal declines the French ultimatum of 12 August, the French and Spanish ambassadors are withdrawn.
October 3, 1807: Heinrich Friedrich Karl, Baron vom und zum Stein becomes Minister of State of Prussia.
October 6, 1807: 28-year-old Humphry Davy first produces and discovers potassium working in his own laboratory in the Royal Institution, London. By chance, Davy passes an electric current through molten potash. Potassium is released, contacts the air and appears as a lavender flame.
October 8, 1807: Andrew Law (58) receives a US copyright for his Choice Collection of Church Music for the Methodist Church.
October 9, 1807: An edict by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia ends serfdom in that country.
October 12, 1807: Louis Spohr (23) is admitted to the newly reconstituted Masonic lodge “Ernst zum Kompass” in Gotha.
October 13, 1807: Humphry Davy repeats his experiment of 6 October but uses soda instead of potash. He produces Sodium.
October 18, 1807: French troops enter Spain, making for Portugal.
October 26, 1807: The Tenth Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place from April 1806 to August 1807. Republicans increase their seat total to 116 to 26 for the Federalists. In the Senate, the seats are 28-6 Republican.
October 27, 1807: France and Spain sign the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Spain agrees to cooperate with French troops in the conquest of Portugal and allow French garrisons along their supply route. France grants Spain the southern third of Portugal in return. Meanwhile, Spanish King Carlos IV and Queen María Luisa detain Prince Fernando in the royal palace and launch an investigation into his affairs fearful he is leading a plot against them.
October 29, 1807: Denmark allies with France against Britain.
November 7, 1807: Angered by the British attack on Copenhagen in September, and in accordance with the Treaty of Tilsit, Russia breaks relations with Great Britain.
November 11, 1807: The British government forbids all trade with France and orders a blockade of all French ports and the ports of those allied to France.
November 11, 1807: East Frisia, Knyphausen, and Jever are attached to the Kingdom of Holland.
November 12, 1807: Peninsular War: French troops reach Salamanca.
November 13, 1807: The Geological Society of London is founded.
November 13, 1807: Peninsular War: Emperor Napoléon orders his reserves at Bayonne, 25,000 men, to march into Spain.
November 16, 1807: Peninsular War: A British fleet arrives at the mouth of the River Tejo, Portugal.
November 17, 1807: Peninsular War: 50,000 French troops invade Portugal from Spain.
November 19, 1807: The troop ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Rochdale are blown ashore in a gale at Dún Laoghaire, south of Dublin. All 265 aboard the Rochdale, including 71 women and children, are lost. The captain of the Prince of Wales, along with eleven men and a small number of women and children, escape to shore in a lifeboat.
November 19, 1807: Humphry Davy reads his paper announcing the discovery of potassium and sodium before the Royal Society in London.
November 21, 1807: The first installment of “Perish Commerce!” by William Cobbett appears in Cobbett’s Weekly Political Register. He attacks the social cost of free trade.
November 24, 1807: Peninsular War: French forces capture Abrantes, northeast of Lisbon.
November 29, 1807: Peninsular War: The Portuguese royal family, court and government leave Lisbon for Brazil under British escort. They take with them most of the national treasury and national archives. Miguel Pereira Forjaz, conde de Feira becomes acting head of government in Lisbon.
November 30, 1807: Kunst und Liebe, a liederspiel by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (55) to his own words, is performed for the first time, at the Nationaltheater, Berlin.
November 30, 1807: Peninsular War: After a forced march of 480 km in 14 days and with less than 10% of their original number, French forces enter Lisbon. They proceed to ransack the town.
December 7, 1807: Jérôme Bonaparte arrives at Kassel to accept the throne as King Hieronymus Napoleon of Westphalia.
December 10, 1807: The Kingdom of Etruria (Tuscany) is annexed by France.
December 13, 1807: Peninsular War: Spanish troops occupy Oporto.
December 14, 1807: A great fireball sails over New England and crashes to Earth near Weston, Connecticut. The remnants will be collected and studied by Yale College.
December 15, 1807: La vestale, a tragédie lyrique by Gaspare Spontini (33) to words of Jouy, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. The performance came to fruition only through the patronage of Empress Josephine. It is an enormous success and will run 200 performances.
December 17, 1807: Napoléon issues the Milan Decrees. All neutral shipping which submits to British search or visits British ports is banned from continental ports.
December 22, 1807: The US Congress passes the Embargo Act of 1807, halting commercial shipping to any other nation without the specific authority of the president.
December 25, 1807: British forces take the Danish island of Saint Croix (US Virgin Islands).
December 26, 1807: Peninsular War: British forces occupy Madeira.