A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

January 1, 1805 – December 31, 1805

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January 4, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: France and Spain sign a mutual defense treaty in Paris.
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January 8, 1805: Eraldo ed Emma, a dramma eroico per musica by Simon Mayr (41) to words of Rossi, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
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January 12, 1805: The Lay of the Last Minstrel by Walter Scott is published in Edinburgh.
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January 15, 1805: Louise-Angélique Bertin is born at the estate of Les Roches, near Bièvres, Seine-et-Oise, Republic of France, third of three children born to Louis-François Bertin, editor and part owner of the Journal des débats, and Geneviève-Victoire-Aimée Boutard. In adult life, Louise Bertin will always walk with great difficulty and with the need for support. This condition began sometime in childhood, perhaps at birth, but the exact cause is unknown.
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January 17, 1805: Kharkov (Kharkiv) University opens, the first university in Ukraine.
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January 18, 1805: Spanish troops assault a Navajo stronghold (at Canyon de Chelly, Arizona) killing 115 men, women and children and taking 33 prisoner. After the battle the Spaniards kill 350 sheep belonging to the Navajo.
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January 21, 1805: The borders of Livorno are opened after the passing of the Yellow Fever epidemic.
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January 22, 1805: Nicolò Paganini (22) renews his contract with Cappella Nazionale del Potere Executivo, Lucca.
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January 23, 1805: Publication of the Piano Sonata op.13 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (26) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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January 31, 1805: British explorer Mungo Park departs Portsmouth for Gambia to find the source of the Niger River.
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February 5, 1805: The East Indiaman Earl of Abergavanney strikes ground at Portland Bill, Dorset and goes down off Weymouth taking with her 263 passengers and crew. 139 are rescued.
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February 15, 1805: In Butler County, Pennsylvania, newly arrived German immigrants George Rapp, his son John, and Frederick Reichardt form the Christian esoterical Harmony Society. All of their goods are placed in common.
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February 23, 1805: Publication of the Twelve Dances for piano op.16 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (26) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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March 3, 1805: Louis Spohr (20) gives his first concert in Berlin. He asks the young virtuoso Jacob Meyer Beer (Giacomo Meyerbeer) (13) to take part, thus swelling the audience with interested Jews.
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March 4, 1805: The name of the Benefit fund for the widows and orphans of musicians is changed to the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society. Its aim is to grow the audience for choral and symphonic music in Russia.
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March 8, 1805: The High Police Court of Vienna issues a further finding in the case of Beethoven and Artaria. Beethoven (34) must publish a retraction of his offending announcement of 22 January 1803 to Artaria and Co. See 9 September 1805.
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March 8, 1805: Haitian troops lay siege to a French garrison at Santo Domingo. They will leave at the appearance of French warships and run amok in the interior.
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March 12, 1805: A new music school, Le Lezioni Caritatevoli, is founded in Bergamo, led by Johann Simon Mayr (41).
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March 12, 1805: Julie, ou Le pot de fleurs, a comédie en prose, mêlée de chants by Gaspare Spontini (30) to words of Jars, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris.
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March 18, 1805: The Kingdom of Italy is created by the union of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Venetia. Emperor Napoléon I is proclaimed King of Italy. Piombino is attached to Lucca.
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March 24, 1805: Prince Alois I of Liechtenstein dies, succeeded by his son, Johann I.
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March 30, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: A French fleet under Villeneuve slips out of Toulon heading west.
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April 7, 1805: Fleeing debts, Lorenzo da Ponte boards ship in London bound for America.
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April 7, 1805: After wintering at Fort Mandan (North Dakota) the Lewis and Clark expedition sends about twelve men back with various natural, agricultural and anthropological artifacts. The rest of the team heads west.
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April 7, 1805: Ludwig van Beethoven’s (34) Symphony no.3 “Eroica” is performed publicly for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna. It was performed privately last summer at the residence of the dedicatee, Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz. The work leaves the critics confused.
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April 11, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: A treaty of alliance between Great Britain and Russia to oppose France is signed in St. Petersburg.
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April 16, 1805: Eight months after reaching Nagasaki, Russian envoy Nikolai Rezanov meets with representatives of the Japanese government who rebuff his request for relations.
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April 25, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The French ambassador in Lisbon present the Portuguese regent Dom João with the demand that Portugal declare war on Great Britain.
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April 27, 1805: In the dispute between the United States and the Barbary States, United States forces capture the port of Derna (Darnah) on the Tripoli coast.
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April 29, 1805: France transforms the Batavian Republic (Netherlands) into the Batavian Commonwealth.
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April 30, 1805: La jeune femme colère, an opéra comique by Adrien Boieldieu (29) to words of Claparède after Étienne, is performed for the first time, in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
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May 1, 1805: Duke Wilhelm IX of Hesse-Cassel becomes Elector Wilhelm I.
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May 9, 1805: Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller dies in Weimar at the age of 45.
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May 9, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The Portuguese regent Dom João rejects the French ultimatum of 25 April and redeclares his country’s neutrality.
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May 11, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Lord Nelson decides to sail west across the Atlantic in search of the French-Spanish fleet.
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May 15, 1805: Publication of the Romance op.50 and Piano Sonata “Waldstein” op.53 by Ludwig van Beethoven (34) is announced.
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May 20, 1805: Publication of Familiar Airs, in Various Styles, for the Piano Forte no.3 by John Crotch and William Crotch (28) is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
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May 21, 1805: In Paderborn, in Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner first crystallizes morphine from opium. He calls it morphium from the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. It is the first time a medicinal plant is broken down to its active ingredient.
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May 26, 1805: Emperor Napoléon I is crowned King of Italy in Milan Cathedral. Some of the music is the first performance of a Te Deum by Johann Simon Mayr (41) for vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra.
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May 26, 1805: The Lewis and Clark expedition see the Rocky Mountains for the first time.
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May 28, 1805: Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini dies at his home at número 5 (probably no.6 today) de la calle Jesús y María in Madrid, Kingdom of Spain, of a “respiratory complaint” (probably tuberculosis), aged 62 years, three months and nine days. His earthly remains will be laid to rest in the crypt of San Justo, Madrid.  In 1929 his remains will be moved to the Church of San Francisco della Pace, Lucca.
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May 31, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French forces land on Diamond Rock, just southwest of Martinique, and engage the British garrison.
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June 2, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Their ammunition having run out, the British garrison on Diamond Rock, southwest of Martinique, surrenders to the French.
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June 3, 1805: Lorenzo da Ponte arrives in Philadelphia from London.
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June 4, 1805: France annexes the Ligurian Republic which includes Genoa.
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June 4, 1805: The British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom is founded in a London tavern. It is a private group assembled to exhibit art.
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June 5, 1805: Simon Mayr’s (41) farsa Di locanda in locanda e sempre in sala to words of Buonavoglia is performed for the first time.
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June 10, 1805: Fould, the largest foreign exchange dealer in Paris, collapses in ruin.
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June 10, 1805: A peace agreement is signed between the United States and the Sultan Yusuf Pasha of Tripoli.
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June 11, 1805: The city of Detroit (pop.600) is destroyed by a great fire. No one is killed.
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June 13, 1805: Il fonte prodigioso di Orebbe, a cantata by Giovanni Paisiello (65) to words of Rota, is performed for the first time, in Piazza del Pendio, Naples.
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June 13, 1805: The Lewis and Clark expedition reach the Great Falls of the Missouri (in present Montana).
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June 24, 1805: Napoléon makes Lucca a principality and his elder sister Elise Baciocchi is named Princess. She rules along with her husband, Felice Baciocchi.
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June 25, 1805: Concerto for Organ no.3 by William Crotch (29) is performed for the first time, in Oxford.
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June 26, 1805: The Paris Conservatoire grants its membership diploma to Franz Joseph Haydn (73). In late July, Luigi Cherubini (44) will carry this, a membership medal and a letter from L’Institut National to Haydn in Vienna. Cherubini and his wife depart Paris today to produce two operas in Vienna.
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June 26, 1805: L’amor coniugale, a farsa sentimentale by Simon Mayr (42) to words of Rossi after Bouilly, is performed for the first time, in Teatro Nuovo, Padua.
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July 6, 1805: Publication of the Fantasy for Piano op.18 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (26) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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July 9, 1805: The dynasty of Muhammad Ali begins in Egypt.
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July 13, 1805: Luigi Cherubini (44) reaches Berlin from Paris.
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July 18, 1805: Luigi Cherubini (44) departs Berlin for Vienna.
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July 21, 1805: The lands of Parma are ceded to France.
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July 22, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: British ships engage a combined French-Spanish fleet off El Ferrol, Spain. Two Spanish ships are lost.
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July 24, 1805: Publication of the Concerto for piano, violin and orchestra op.17 by Johann Nepomuk Hummel (26) is announced in the Wiener Zeitung.
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July 26, 1805: An earthquake in southern Italy, including Naples, kills over 20,000 people.
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July 27, 1805: The Principality of Hohenlohe-Ohringen is absorbed by Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen.
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July 27, 1805: Luigi Cherubini (44) reaches Vienna from Berlin.
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July 30, 1805: Three days after arriving in Vienna, Luigi Cherubini (44) conducts a performance of Les Deux Journées. The composer’s reputation precedes him, several of his operas having been performed in the city, and the day is a success with public and press.
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August 1, 1805: United States ships bombard Tunis.
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August 5, 1805: Louis Spohr (21) is appointed Konzertmeister in Gotha, the youngest person to hold that position in Germany.
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August 5, 1805: An inaugural concert takes place on the organ of St. Peter’s Church in Salzburg, newly rebuilt by Georg Joseph Vogler (56). Michael Haydn (67) is moved by the majestic sound.
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August 7, 1805: Adrien Boieldieu’s (29) opéra comique Abderkan to words of Dégligny is performed for the first time, in the Peterhof Palace, St. Petersburg.
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August 9, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: In reaction to Napoléon proclaiming himself King of Italy and his annexation of Genoa, Austria adheres to the Anglo-Russian alliance.
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August 12, 1805: Meriwether Lewis reaches the source of the Missouri and climbs a peak at the Continental Divide (Lemhi Pass) from which he sees more mountains.
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August 29, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Emperor Napoléon gives up the idea of invading Britain and orders the three army corps at Montreuil, St.-Omer and Bruges to march east.
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September 9, 1805: In the final resolution of the Beethoven (34)-Artaria squabble, the lawyers of the two sides sign an agreement that Beethoven will not have to publish a retraction and Artaria will publish a future quintet along with a Paris publisher. Beethoven will never compose the quintet and Artaria will take no further action against him.
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September 10, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Austria attacks Napoléon’s ally, Bavaria.

Believing a French invasion to be imminent, the Neapolitan government signs a secret treaty with Russia, largely favoring Russia.

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September 11, 1805: Russia and the Ottoman Empire conclude a treaty of alliance.
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September 15, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Lord Nelson, commanding a British fleet, sails from Portsmouth amidst much fanfare.
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September 17, 1805: Muzio Clementi’s (53) 20-year-old wife Caroline dies in Berlin, nine days after giving birth to their son.
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September 22, 1805: Representatives of the Kingdom of Naples sign a treaty with France.  France will evacuate Neapolitan territory in return for strict neutrality.
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September 23, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Emperor Napoléon announces to the French Senate that he has changed his plans. Instead of invading Britain, he will presently lead a campaign east against Austria, Russia, Great Britain and Sweden.
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September 24, 1805: Hafiz Ismail Pasha replaces Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha as Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.
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September 24, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The advance guard of the French Grand Armée cross the Rhine at Strasbourg.  Emperor Napoléon and Empress Josephine depart Paris for the front.
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October 1, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon reaches Ettingen where he meets Margrave Karl Friedrich of Baden and forces him to sign an alliance with France.
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October 2, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon reaches Louisbourg where he receives aid from his ally, the Elector of Württemberg.
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October 2, 1805: Austrian censors approve the opera Leonore by Ludwig van Beethoven (34) for production.
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October 5, 1805: Charles, Marquess Cornwallis dies in Gauspur (Ghazipur), India at the age of 66.
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October 7, 1805: The Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Clearwater River (near present Orfino, Idaho) having crossed the Continental Divide.
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October 7, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The Grand Armée crosses the Danube.
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October 8, 1805: Under threat of a French invasion, King Ferdinando IV of Naples ratifies the neutrality agreement of 22 September.
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October 11, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Austrian troops almost trap 4,000 French around the village of Albeck but they escape before superior forces.
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October 14, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French troops capture Elchingen on the Danube and establish a bridgehead across the river.
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October 14, 1805: Pursuant to their neutrality agreement with Naples, French troops begin to evacuate Taranto.
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October 16, 1805: The Lewis and Clark expedition reaches the Columbia River.
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October 16, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon orders his artillery to bombard Ulm.
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October 17, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Austrian forces in Ulm agree to surrender to the French if no help arrives by 25 October.
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October 20, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: 30,000 Austrians surrender to the French at Ulm.
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October 21, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: A British fleet under Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish force off Cape Trafalgar near Cadiz. The British sink or capture 22 ships while only 11 escape. 7,258 men are killed or wounded, including Lord Nelson who is killed in action. Vice-admiral Pierre de Villeneuve is captured and transported to Britain.
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October 22, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The French ship Redoutable, captured at the Battle of Trafalgar, goes down while being towed. 196 of her crew are lost.
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October 23, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: 23,000 Russians arrive in Braunau, Upper Austria joining 22,000 Austrians to oppose Napoléon.

The British troop ship Aeneas strikes ground near Cape Ray, Newfoundland and breaks up. 312 people are lost while 35 make it to shore. Of these, only eight will survive the winter and make their way to Quebec.

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October 24, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: After surviving the Battle of Trafalgar, the French ship Indomptable is thrown into rocks off Cadiz by a storm. It is unknown how many men are aboard but accounts put the number somewhere between 1,000 and 1,400. Of these, 150 survive the wreck.
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October 25, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The French Grand Armée crosses the Isar in Bavaria making for Vienna.
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October 26, 1805: Simon Mayr’s (42) melodramma eroicomico La roccia di Frauenstein to words of Rossi after Anelli is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice.
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October 26, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Prussian forces occupy Hannover.
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October 29, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French troops attack the Austrian defenders of Caldiero, west of Venice, but are beaten back.
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October 30, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French forces capture Salzburg.
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October 31, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Sweden declares war on France.
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November 3, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: By the Treaty of Potsdam between Prussia and Russia, Prussia agrees to end neutrality and join the coalition against France.
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November 4, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The Austrian Imperial Court evacuates Vienna before the approaching French.
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November 7, 1805: After a journey of a year and a half from St. Louis, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark reach the mouth of the Columbia River at Gray’s Bay, 30 km from the Pacific Ocean.
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November 8, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French forces defeat the Austrians at Mariazell, 90 km southwest of Vienna.
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November 9, 1805: Rumors of impending financial collapse so worry French citizens that troops are called in to keep order among investors.
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November 9, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Russian troops effect their escape across the Danube.
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November 11, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: 5,000 French troops blunder into a Russian force eight times their size at Dürenstein. The day is saved for the French by reinforcements and the Russians withdraw. The fight costs 7,000 casualties.
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November 12, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French troops reach Vienna.
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November 13, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French troops march into Vienna unopposed.
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November 14, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon enters the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna and takes up residence.
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November 14, 1805: 06:30 Fanny Mendelssohn is born at Michaelisstraße 14 in the Free Imperial City of Hamburg, the first of four children born to Abraham Mendelssohn, a banker, himself the son of the Enlightenment philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, and Lea Solomon, daughter of the Prussian court jeweler and granddaughter of Daniel Itzig, a financial advisor to King Friedrich II of Prussia and one of the most affluent citizens of Berlin.
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November 15, 1805: Meriwether Lewis stands at the shore of the Pacific Ocean (near Seaview, Washington).
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November 16, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The French vanguard defeats a section of the Russian army at Schöngrabern, near Hollabrunn, Austria.
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November 19, 1805: Archchancellor Jean-Jacques-Regis de Cambacérès writes to Emperor Napoléon in Vienna that the Récamier Bank and the Swiss Deville Bank have recently failed. Many prominent Frenchmen, including members of the Bonaparte family, entrusted their savings to the former.
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November 19, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: French forces occupy Istria.

In violation of the 22 September neutrality agreement between France and Naples, Russian naval vessels enter the Gulf of Naples, invited by the Neapolitan government.

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November 20, 1805: Leonore (Fidelio), an opera by Ludwig van Beethoven (34) to words of Sonnleithner after Bouilly, is performed for the first time, in the Theater an der Wien, Vienna with the Leonore Overture no.2 . Those few who review the work are unimpressed. The hall includes some French officers. Many of the Viennese aristocrats, traditional supporters of the composer, have fled the city. As a result, the work is not a success and enjoys only two more performances. One interested audience member is Luigi Cherubini (45). See 29 March 1806 and 23 May 1814.
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November 23, 1805: A treaty of peace is concluded between Sindhia and the East India Company.
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November 26, 1805: The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is officially opened in Wales. Designed by Thomas Telford, it is 300 meters long and 38 meters high.
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December 2, 1805: The Ninth Congress of the United States convenes in Washington. Voting for the House of Representatives took place between April 1804 and August 1805. President Jefferson’s Republican Party gains eleven seats, giving it 114 to 28 for the Federalists. In the Senate the Republicans increase by two seats to 27 out of 34.
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December 2, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The French Grand Armée defeats a combined Russian and Austrian force at Austerlitz (Slavkov) just east of Brunn (Brno). The defeated flee in panic so fast, Tsar Alyeksandr is almost captured. 16,300 people are killed.
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December 3, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The Emperor Franz I of Austria calls on Napoléon to sue for peace.
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December 4, 1805: A private performance in honor of Napoléon is given at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna directed by Luigi Cherubini (45). 300 political and military men of Napoléon’s staff and government attend. At the conclusion, Napoléon rises and leaves without applauding or acknowledging the music.
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December 4, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: The body of Lord Nelson arrives in England aboard HMS Victory .
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December 6, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: An armistice is concluded between France and Austria.
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December 7, 1805: Ludwig van Beethoven (34) writes a testimonial for his student Carl Czerny (14), saying “he has made such extraordinary progress on the pianoforte, exceeding his age of 14 years; in view of this fact, and also because of his admirable memory, he is deemed worthy of all possible assistance.”
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December 11, 1805: News of the victory at Austerlitz reaches Paris. The financial markets, so recently desperate, begin to turn around.
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December 15, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: A treaty of alliance is signed in Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna between France and Prussia. Prussia gives up Cleves, Neuchâtel and Ansbach in return for Hanover.
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December 25, 1805: Johann Philipp Karl, Count Stadion-Warthausen is named Lord Chamberlain and Chancellor to Emperor Franz I of Austria.
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December 26, 1805: By edict of King Friedrich Wilhelm III, all internal customs in Prussia are abolished.
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December 26, 1805: Gli americani, a melodramma eroico by Johann Simon Mayr (42) to words of Rossi, is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice.
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December 26, 1805: At Independence Hall, Philadelphia, 71 gentlemen sign the charter of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Among the founders are Charles Willson Peale, Rembrandt Peale, and William Rush.
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December 26, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: A treaty of peace between France and Austria is signed at Pressburg (Bratislava). Austria cedes Dalmatia and Venetia to the Kingdom of Italy. Tyrol, Voralburg and other Alpine lands go to Bavaria, a French ally, and Swabia is ceded to Württemberg. Bavaria and Württemberg are made kingdoms while Baden is created a Grand Duchy. Würzburg is made an electorate under Ferdinand Joseph Johann Baptist of Austria.
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December 28, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon leaves Vienna.
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December 31, 1805: War of the Third Coalition: Napoléon takes up residence in Munich.
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December 31, 1805: By decree of Emperor Napoléon I, the Revolutionary calendar adopted in 1793 goes out of use, effective tomorrow.