Believing a French invasion to be imminent, the Neapolitan government signs a secret treaty with Russia, largely favoring Russia.
The British troop ship Aeneas strikes ground near Cape Ray, Newfoundland and breaks up. 312 people are lost while 35 make it to shore. Of these, only eight will survive the winter and make their way to Quebec.
In violation of the 22 September neutrality agreement between France and Naples, Russian naval vessels enter the Gulf of Naples, invited by the Neapolitan government.