January 1, 1801: The Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland goes into effect. Hereafter, the nation shall be styled The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the three-cross Union Jack its symbol.
January 1, 1801: In his Palermo observatory, Giuseppe Piazzi becomes the first human being to discover an asteroid, Ceres. Ceres was a Roman goddess associated with Sicily.
January 4, 1801: Claiming that they were involved in the plot of last 24 December, Napoléon exiles 130 Jacobins from France. The bombing was carried out by royalists. No Jacobins were involved.
January 8, 1801: In Washington, before an audience that includes President John Adams and Vice-President Thomas Jefferson, Eli Whitney demonstrates how he can assemble a musket using only a screwdriver. Everyone present is impressed.
January 9, 1801: Four Jacobins are condemned to death for plotting to kill Napoléon, sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi, Deputy Joseph Antoine Aréna, painter François Topino-Lebrun, and Dominiqu Demerville, formerly a clerk for the Committee of Public Safety.
January 11, 1801: A Jacobin chemist named Chevalier is executed for making the bomb which exploded last 24 December. Chevalier probably made bombs designed to kill Napoleon, but not that one.
January 11, 1801: 14:00 Domenico Cimarosa dies in Albergo della Tre Stella in the Palazzo Duodo at Campo Sant'Angelo, Venice, in the Austrian Duchy of Venice, aged 51 years, 25 days. The cause of death is probably stomach cancer, although rumor has it that he was poisoned by agents of Queen Maria Carolina of Naples. See 5 April 1801.
January 12, 1801: A requiem mass in honor of Domenico Cimarosa takes place in Chiesa di Sant’Angelo, Venice after which his mortal remains are laid to rest in the church. The music is provided free by the Venetian musicians. (Since the demolition of the church in 1837, the exact burial place is unknown.
January 14, 1801: The British government orders an embargo on Denmark, Russia and Sweden.
January 15, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Austria and France conclude an armistice at Treviso, 25 km north of Venice.
January 17, 1801: Seven days after his death, Domenico Cimarosa’s dramma tragico per musica Artemisia to words of Jamejo (pseud. of Colloredo), is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice. It was left unfinished at his death.
January 20, 1801: Stepan Alyeksyevich Kolychev is named acting State Chancellor of Russia.
January 20, 1801: A fire breaks out in the Treasury building near the White House in Washington. It is put out by a bucket brigade of citizens, including one John Adams, President of the United States.
January 25, 1801: The King and Queen of Naples depart Palermo to return to Naples for the first time in two years. They fled the oncoming French in December 1798.
January 27, 1801: Toussaint L’Ouverture enters Santo Domingo at the head of his army, thus unifying Hispaniola under his command. Santo Domingo was ceded by Spain to France in 1795 but the terms of the treaty have not, until now, been executed.
January 29, 1801: France and Spain demand that Portugal close its ports to British vessels. The Portuguese ignore the ultimatum.
January 30, 1801: The four Jacobins condemned on 9 January are executed for the attempted murder of First Consul Bonaparte.
January 31, 1801: The Neapolitan royal family returns to Naples amidst much joy and celebration. They fled the French in 1798.
February 3, 1801: In the face of a threatened assault by French troops from the sea, the rebel commander of Le Cap (Cap-Haïtien) sets the town alight and withdraws.
February 6, 1801: Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s (48) tragedia per musica Rosmonda to words of Filistri is performed for the first time, at the Nationaltheater, Berlin.
February 9, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Peace between France and Austria is signed today in Lunéville, 24 km east of Nancy. France receives the left bank of the Rhine. Tuscany becomes the Kingdom of Etruria. Recognition is given to the Batavian, Cisalpine, Helvetian, and Ligurian Republics. The act virtually destroys the Holy Roman Empire.
February 11, 1801: The votes of the presidential electoral college are opened in Washington. They show a tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
February 17, 1801: L’irato, ou l’emporté, a comédie-parade by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (37) to words of Marsollier des Vivetières, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris. It is extremely popular and will receive over 100 performances during the composer’s life.
February 17, 1801: After seven days and 36 ballots, the United States House of Representatives elects Thomas Jefferson to the office of President of the United States.
February 17, 1801: King Ferdinando of Naples orders an amnesty for all Neapolitan Jacobins. Exiles are to be allowed to return.
February 24, 1801: Das Pfauenfest, a singspiel by Johann Rudolph Zumsteeg (41) to words of Werthes, is performed for the first time, in Stuttgart.
February 27, 1801: The War of the Oranges begins when Spain declares war on Portugal.
February 27, 1801: Due to the embargo announced 14 January, Denmark joins Russia and Sweden in the Northern Confederacy against Britain.
March 3, 1801: Prussia joins Russia, Sweden, and Denmark in the Northern Confederacy against Britain.
March 4, 1801: Prince Alyeksandr Borisovich Kurakin replaces Stepan Alyeksyevich Kolychev as State Chancellor of Russia.
March 4, 1801: Thomas Jefferson replaces John Adams as President of the United States. Eight hours earlier, at 04:00, Adams departed Washington, with two assistants, by public conveyance. The Seventh Congress of the United States convenes with an increase of 22 seats for President Jefferson’s Republicans and a majority in the House of Representatives. Republicans also hold a thin majority in the Senate.
March 7, 1801: The first edition of the Leeds Mercury under the direction of Edward Baines is issued. Under the leadership of Baines, the Mercury will become an important force in Liberal politics and social and political reform.
March 8, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: A British expeditionary force lands at Abukir Bay, Egypt.
March 9, 1801: The Duchies of Jülich and Kleve, the Archbishopric of Cologne, The Duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, the Seigneury of Freudenberg, parts of Mainz and Trier, and the County of Birkenfeld are annexed by France.
March 10, 1801: The first modern census in Great Britain takes place.
March 14, 1801: King George III of Great Britain refuses to assent to the emancipation of Roman Catholics in his realm, causing Prime Minister William Pitt to resign after 17 years in power.
March 16, 1801: HMS Invincible strikes a sandbar near Happisburgh, Norfolk and begins to break up.
March 17, 1801: Henry Addington replaces William Pitt as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
March 17, 1801: HMS Invincible slides off the sandbar it hit yesterday and sinks. Over 400 of the crew are lost, 195 are saved.
March 20, 1801: War of the Second Coaltion: The Royal Navy takes the Swedish colony of Saint Bartholomew in the Caribbean.
March 21, 1801: The Treaty of Aranjuez is concluded between France and Spain. Elba is ceded to France.
March 21, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: British forces defeat the French near Alexandria (El Iskandariya).
March 24, 1801: The Royal Navy takes the Swedish colony of Saint Martin in the Caribbean.
March 25, 1801: The publication of three piano sonatas op.1 by John Field (18) is advertised in the London Morning Post.
March 28, 1801: A British invasion force lands on the Danish island of St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands.
March 28, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: The Peace of Florence is signed between France and Naples. Naples agrees to bar British ships from its ports and gives up all claim to Piombino and Elba. They must also withdraw from the Papal States, allow stationing of French troops on Neapolitan soil for one year, release all prisoners, and grant amnesty to Neapolitan Jacobins.
March 29, 1801: Denmark closes its ports to British ships while Danish forces enter Hamburg to close the Elbe.
March 29, 1801: The Royal Navy captures the Danish islands of Saint Thomas and Saint John (US Virgin Islands).
March 30, 1801: Jery und Bätely, a singspiel by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (48) to words of Goethe, is performed for the first time, at the Nationaltheater, Berlin.
March 31, 1801: Danish authorities on Saint Croix (US Virgin Islands) surrender to the invading British.
April 2, 1801: A British fleet under Lord Nelson defeats a Danish fleet off Copenhagen.
April 3, 1801: Prussian forces overrun Hannover in support of their Scandinavian allies.
April 4, 1801: Believing Tsar Pavel to be mad (with some justification), conspirators led by Count Peter von Pahlen, with the consent of the heir-apparent, Grand Duke Alyeksandr, overthrow the Tsar of all the Russias, strangling him to death in the process.
April 5, 1801: The Venetian government publishes a medical report that asserts that Domenico Cimarosa died of cancer, not poison as has been rumored. See 11 January 1801.
April 8, 1801: Citizens of Bucharest carry out a pogrom on the Jewish district, killing or injuring 128 Jews and ransacking their homes.
April 9, 1801: Denmark consents to a truce with Great Britain. The Danes are required to remove themselves from the Northern Confederacy against Britain.
April 12, 1801: The Théâtre Feydeau, Paris ceases operations.
April 12, 1801: News reaches Paris of the death of Tsar Pavel eight days ago. He was a close ally of France.
April 14, 1801: Great Britain suspends the Habeas Corpus Act in order to detain political suspects without trial for the duration of the present war.
April 16, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: British forces take the French islands of Sint Eustatius and Sabá in the Caribbean.
April 19, 1801: The French département of Guadeloupe is made a French colony.
April 19, 1801: A dramma serio eroico per musica, Ginevra di Scozia, with music by Simon Mayr (37) to words of Rossi after Ariosto, is performed for the first time, in Trieste, at the inauguration of the Teatro Nuovo.
April 21, 1801: Royalists Pierre Robinault de Saint-Régeant and François-Joseph Carbon are executed at the Place de Grève, Paris for their part in the plot of last 24 December.
April 24, 1801: Franz Joseph Haydn’s (69) oratorio Die Jahreszeiten, to words of van Swieten after Thomson is performed for the first time, at the palace of Prince Schwarzenberg, Vienna, under the direction of the composer. Griesinger records that the work evoked “silent devotion, astonishment and loud enthusiasm.”
May 14, 1801: Yusuf Karamanli, Pasha of Tripoli orders the removal of the flag from the United States Consulate, precipitating war. An alliance is concluded between the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the United States of America against their common enemy, Tripoli.
May 20, 1801: War of the Oranges: Spanish troops enter Portugal and occupy Olivença.
May 21, 1801: Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho, Teixeira de Andrade, conde de Linhares replaces Luís Pinto de Sousa Coutinho, visconde de Balsemão as Secretary of State (prime minister) of Portugal.
May 29, 1801: Franz Joseph Haydn (69) directs the first public performance of his oratorio Die Jahreszeiten in the Redoutensaal, Vienna. In spite of its great success in a private performance 24 April, the hall is only half-full.
June 7, 1801: The War of the Oranges between Spain and Portugal is ended by the Treaty of Badajoz. The treaty is antedated to 6 June to make it appear that it preceded an ultimatum from Napoléon. Portugal pays an indemnity and grants commercial concessions to France, and cedes part of Guiana to Spain. Spain takes the border town of Olivença.
June 11, 1801: Proposals for constitutional reform in the Batavian Republic, similar to the recent French constitution, are defeated by the Representative Assembly.
June 13, 1801: The Theater an der Wien opens in Vienna to house the company led by Emanuel Schikeneder.
June 17, 1801: Britain, Prussia, and Russia sign a peace settlement in St. Petersburg. This effectively ends the Northern Confederation against Britain.
June 21, 1801: The County of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein becomes a principality.
June 28, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: French defenders of Cairo surrender the city to the surrounding British and Turks.
June 29, 1801: In a letter to Franz Gerhard Wegeler in Berlin, Ludwig van Beethoven (30) first mentions his deafness. “...if someone speaks in a low voice, I can barely understand; I hear the sounds but not the words. If anyone shouts it is unbearable. What is to become of me, heaven only knows...I have cursed my fate many times already...I shall, if it is at all possible, challenge my fate, although there will be moments when I shall be God’s most unhappy creature.”
June 30, 1801: Livonia, Estonia, and Courland are formally joined into one province under a single Russian governor at Riga. They are styled the Baltic Sea Provinces.
July 6, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: The Royal Navy engages French ships and Spanish shore batteries off Algeciras, Spain. The French beat off the attacking British. Over 400 people are killed.
July 7, 1801: Toussaint L’Ouverture promulgates a constitution for St. Domingue (Hispaniola). Slavery is abolished and Toussaint is named governor-general for life.
July 7, 1801: Giovanni Paisiello (61) is granted a full pardon for any part he may have played in the Parthenopaean Republic. He is reinstated to his former court posts by the King of Naples.
July 12, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: For the second time in a week, the Royal Navy engages French and Spanish forces off Algeciras. This time, the British are victorious. 2,000 allied sailors die in the battle.
July 15, 1801: A concordat is signed between France and the Papacy. French clergymen henceforth will be appointed by the government. The Pope is allowed to keep the Papal States except for Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna. Relations between the two governments are normalized.
July 18, 1801: Publication of the Sonata for clarinet and piano by Johann Baptist Vanhal (62) is advertised in the Wiener Zeitung.
July 23, 1801: João de Almeida Melo e Castro replaces Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho, Teixeira de Andrade, conde de Linhares as Secretary of State (prime minister) of Portugal.
July 24, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: British forces occupy Madeira for the next six months.
July 25, 1801: Mahmud Shah replaces Zaman Shah as King of Afghanistan.
July 26, 1801: Maximilian Franz, Archbiship-Elector of Cologne, Archduke of Austria, officially Beethoven’s (30) employer, dies in exile in Vienna.
July 27, 1801: Karl II Ludwig Johann Archduke of Austria replaces Maximilian Franz, Archduke of Austria as Prince-Grand Master of Mergentheim.
July 31, 1801: Lord Elgin begins removing sculptures from the Parthenon for transport to London. Everything he takes will be called collectively the Elgin Marbles.
August 3, 1801: Pursuant to the Peace of Lunéville, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany becomes the Kingdom of Etruria under King Ludovico I.
August 7, 1801: Anton Viktor, Archduke of Austria and son of Emperor Leopold II, becomes Elector-Archbishop of Cologne.
August 18, 1801: Le due giornate, a dramma eroicomico per musica by Simon Mayr (38) to words of Foppa after Bouilly, is performed for the first time, in Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
August 27, 1801: Domenico Corri advertises in The Morning Post and Gazetteer of London that his partnership with Jan Ladislav Dussek (41) being dissolved, and having gone through bankruptcy, he has bought the assets of Corri & Dussek and is open for business.
September 2, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: French forces surrender Alexandria (El Iskandariya) to the British, thus ending the French fiasco in Egypt. Surviving soldiers will be transported to France on British ships.
September 12, 1801: Tsar Alyeksandr I of Russia reaffirms his father’s annexation of Georgia.
September 13, 1801: Die Schöpfungsmesse by Franz Joseph Haydn (69) is performed for the first time, at Eisenstadt for the name day of Princess Maria Hermenegild.
September 14, 1801: The Directory of the Batavian Republic announces a referendum on proposed constitutional changes.
September 16, 1801: The Théâtre Feydeau, originally the Théâtre de Monsieur, merges with the Opéra Comique National, originally the Comédie-Italienne, to form the new Opéra-Comique.
September 18, 1801: The National Assembly of the Batavian Republic declares the announcement of 14 September to be illegal. It calls for a referendum on constitutional changes.
September 19, 1801: By a prearranged plan, French General Pierre Augereau closes the doors of the Batavian National Assembly and begins arresting dissidents.
September 19, 1801: The first national “exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française” opens in the courtyard of the Louvre, Paris. Among the 300 exhibitors is Joseph-Marie Jacquard, who demonstrates his new invention, an automated loom run by punch cards. It will revolutionize the textile industry and become known as the Jacquard Loom.
September 23, 1801: France officially adopts a decimal system of weights and measures.
September 29, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Peace is concluded between France and Portugal in Madrid. Portugal adheres to the Continental System and closes its ports to British ships and is charged an additional indemnity over that of the Treaty of Badajoz. Portugal gives up part of Guiana to France.
October 1, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Great Britain and France sign a preliminary peace treaty in London.
October 6, 1801: A referendum is held in the Batavian Republic on a new constitution, written under the guidance of France. Citizens who do not vote are counted as “yes”. The reported returns show that the constitution is approved overwhelmingly.
October 8, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Russia and France sign a Treaty of Peace in Paris.
October 9, 1801: War of the Second Coalition: Peace is concluded between France and Turkey in Paris. France restores Egypt to Turkish sovereignty.
October 11, 1801: Engineer Philippe Lebon demonstrates gas lighting in Paris. He illuminates a garden at the Hôtel de Seignelay in rue Saint-Dominique. Spectators report a bad odor.
October 16, 1801: The new constitution for the Batavian Republic goes into effect. Based on the French model, it gives increased powers to the executive while decreasing that of the legislature.
October 23, 1801: Denmark adheres to the Treaty of St. Petersburg with Great Britain and Russia.
October 23, 1801: Gustav Albert Lortzing is born at Breite Straße 12, Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, second of two children born to Johann Gottlob Lortzing, a hide merchant, and Charlotte Sophie Seidel.
October 26, 1801: The publication of Muzio Clementi’s (49) Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Piano Forte op.42 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
October 28, 1801: Publication of three string quartets op.18/4-6 and two violin sonatas opp.23&24 by Ludwig van Beethoven (30) is announced.
October 29, 1801: The publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (41) two piano sonatas C.184-5 is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
November 3, 1801: Gli amanti in cimento, o sia Il geloso audace, a dramma giocoso by Gaspare Spontini (26) to words perhaps by Bertati, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Valle, Rome.
November 3, 1801: Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini is born in Palazzo Gravina Cruylias in the Piazza San Francesco d’Assisi, Catania, Kingdom of Sicily, the eldest of seven children in a family of musicians. He is the son of Rosario Bellini, composer, maestro di cappella and music teacher in Catania, and Agata Ferlito, daughter of a bookkeeper.
November 7, 1801: Le casque et les colombes, an opéra-ballet by André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry (60) to words of Guillard, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra to celebrate peace with Great Britain.
November 23, 1801: Volume One of Muzio Clementi’s (49) Clementi’s Practical Harmony is published in London.
November 26, 1801: English chemist Charles Hatchett reads his paper An Analysis of a Mineral Substance from North America Containing a Metal Hitherto Unknown before the Royal Society in London. It describes a new element, Columbium, which eventually will be called Niobium.
December 12, 1801: Russia formally annexes Georgia.
December 24, 1801: Passengers are carried in a motorized vehicle for the first time. Richard Trevithick carries eight passengers up a hill in Camborne, Cornwall in his steam-powered carriage called Captain Dick’s Puffer.
December 26, 1801: I virtuosi, a farsa by Simon Mayr (38) to words of Rossi, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Luca, Venice.
December 27, 1801: Nicolò Paganini (19) is appointed first violin in the national orchestra of the Republic of Lucca.
December 28, 1801: Simon Mayr’s (38) dramma eroico per musica Argene, to words of Rossi, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro La Fenice, Venice.