January 1, 1800: The Dutch East India Company, having gone bankrupt, ceases to exist. Its property reverts to the government of the Netherlands.
January 1, 1800: About this date, Robert Owen takes over management of the cotton mills and village of New Lanark, Scotland. He will turn them into a “model community” for the industrial revolution.
January 1, 1800: Traité sur les membranes by Marie François Xavier Bichat is published this month in France. Bichat identifies 21 different tissues of the human body. It is seen as the beginning of modern histology.
January 1, 1800: Castle Rackrent by Maria Edgeworth is published this month.
January 8, 1800: Victor of Aveyron, aged approximately twelve years, departs the woods near Saint-Sernin-Sur-Rance, France. He has apparently lived in the wild for at least six years. Victor will be the subject of study by scientists of different disciplines for some time.
January 9, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French troops occupy Lucca for a second time.
January 16, 1800: Les deux journées, ou Le porteur d’eau, a comédie lyrique by Luigi Cherubini (39) to words of Bouilly, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Feydeau, Paris. It is an enormous success with press and public.
January 17, 1800: Leaders of the Vendée revolt submit to the rule of Napoléon in the Treaty of Montluçon.
January 17, 1800: Maximilian Christoph von Rodt, Prince-Bishop of Constance, dies in Meersburg and is succeeded by Karl Theodor Anton Maria Freiherr von Dalberg.
January 18, 1800: First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte creates the Banque de France to deal with the post-revolutionary recession.
January 25, 1800: A setting of Veni sancte spiritus by Antonio Salieri (49) is performed for the first time, in Vienna.
January 28, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French commander in Egypt, Louis Desaix, surrenders his army to British Commodore Sir William Sydney Smith at el-Arish. Smith allows the French to retain their arms and return to France. But these terms will be overruled by Lord Keith, commander of the Mediterranean Fleet. Fighting will resume.
February 7, 1800: A plebiscite in France overwhelmingly supports (or so it is reported) a new constitution for France. It places most powers in the hands of the First Consul.
February 9, 1800: Napoléon Bonaparte orders ten days of mourning in the French army for the death of George Washington.
February 11, 1800: William Herschel discovers infrared radiation at his residence in Slough.
February 17, 1800: A special prefecture of police is created in Paris.
February 19, 1800: Napoléon Bonaparte establishes himself as First Consul in the Tuileries. The entire government, including cabinet ministers and the Council of State, is transferred from the Luxembourg Palace, the home of the Directory, to the Tuileries Palace. There is an enormous procession of bureaucrats accompanied by 3,000 troops.
February 22, 1800: Lorenzo da Ponte, partner in a publishing firm with Jan Ladislav Dussek (40) and Domenico Corri, goes bankrupt in London.
February 24, 1800: Jan Ladislav Dussek (40) makes his first performance on the continent since fleeing his English creditors last autumn, at Eimbeck House, Hamburg.
March 14, 1800: Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti becomes Pope Pius VII in Venice.
March 14, 1800: Epicure, an opéra composed by Luigi Cherubini (39) and Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (36) to words of Demoustier, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris. The hostility of the audience is heard even before the final curtain. The poetry is found faulty, the music praised.
March 17, 1800: On her way from Livorno to Cabrera, the flagship of the British Mediterranean fleet, HMS Queen Charlotte catches fire. Despite the best efforts of the crew, the fire reaches the magazine and the ship explodes. 673 of the 840 officers and men are killed, including the captain.
March 20, 1800: Alessandro Volta reports his invention of the electric battery to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society in London.
March 20, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces defeat Turks and Mamelukes at Heliopolis (Masr el Gedîda), opening their advance on Cairo.
March 20, 1800: Maria Anna Aloysia Apollonia Keller, estranged wife of Joseph Haydn (67), dies in Baden, attended by her husband.
March 21, 1800: Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti is crowned Pope Pius VII in Venice. A fake tiara has to be used. The real one is currently in the hands of the French.
March 22, 1800: The Royal College of Surgeons is granted a charter.
March 24, 1800: Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes replaces Demetros Arqedewos as Emperor of Ethiopia.
March 28, 1800: Both houses of the Irish Parliament approve the Act of Union.
March 28, 1800: Franz Joseph Haydn’s (67) Trumpet Concerto is performed for the first time, in the Vienna Burgtheater, by Anton Weidinger, inventor of the “organisierte Trompete”, for whom Haydn composed the work.
March 31, 1800: Johann Friedrich Reichardt’s (47) liederspiel Lieb’ und Treue to his own words is performed for the first time, in the Nationaltheater, Berlin.
April 2, 1800: Ludwig van Beethoven (29) gives the first public concert for his benefit, at the Burgtheater, Vienna. The program includes a Mozart (†8) symphony, an aria and duet from Haydn’s (68) The Creation, a piano concerto and improvisations by Beethoven, and the first performance of the Septet op.20 and the Symphony no.1. The Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung calls it “the most interesting concert in a long time.”
April 6, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: Austrian forces begin a major offensive, driving towards Savona and splitting the French in two.
April 7, 1800: Publication of the second set of the String Quartets op.76 by Joseph Haydn (68) is advertised in The Oracle and Daily Advertiser, London.
April 8, 1800: Publication of Jan Ladislav Dussek’s (40) piano sonatas C.177-8 is announced in the Morning Post, London.
April 15, 1800: Domenico Corri, father-in-law to Jan Ladislav Dussek (40) and partner with Dussek and Lorenzo da Ponte in a publishing firm, goes bankrupt. Dussek already fled England in 1799 to escape his creditors. There is no evidence that he will ever see his wife or daughter again.
April 18, 1800: Sonata for french horn and piano op.17 by Ludwig van Beethoven (29) is performed for the first time, in the Hofburgtheater, Vienna, the composer at the keyboard. The applause is so great that the entire work is repeated.
April 21, 1800: Samuel Wesley (34) is soloist in one of his own organ concertos played between sections of an early London presentation of Haydn’s (68) The Creation. It is probably the Organ Concerto in D.
April 24, 1800: The Library of Congress is founded in Washington.
April 28, 1800: Three Grand Sonatas for piano accompanied by violin and cello by Leopold Kozeluch (52) are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
April 29, 1800: The French restore the Cisalpine Republic in Lombardy.
May 1, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: The French Army of the Rhine routs Austrian forces at Stockach, 100 km south of Stuttgart.
May 2, 1800: English chemist William Nicholson builds one of the first batteries, based on the work of Alessandro Volta. He is the first to attach wires to the battery’s poles and place the wires in water. Bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen are released--electrolysis. This proves that electricity can cause a chemical reaction.
May 4, 1800: Caty Mason has all four of her children baptized by Rev. Dr. Thomas Prentiss, in the Medfield (MA) Congregational Church, including the eldest, Lowell (8).
May 4, 1800: Ich freue mich for chorus and strings by Johannes Herbst (64) is performed for the first time.
May 5, 1800: First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte departs Paris to join his troops in his first offensive as leader of the country.
May 7, 1800: Vito Niccolò Marcello Antonio Giacomo Piccinni dies in Passy, near Paris, French Republic, aged 72 years, three months and 21 days. He was in Passy in a vain attempt to recover his health. His mortal remains are laid to rest there.
May 9, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces defeat Austrians at Biberach, 90 km southeast of Stuttgart.
May 14, 1800: The publication of Muzio Clementi’s (48) op.39, consisting of 12 waltzes for piano, tambourine and triangle, is announced in the Morning Herald, London.
May 14, 1800: The US Congress meets in Philadelphia for the last time.
May 15, 1800: Bullets are fired at King George III of Great Britain on two separate occasions today. One shot intended for him in Hyde Park hits a man standing beside him. Two shots fired at him in Drury Lane Theatre miss. The assailant will be judged insane.
May 16, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: After a forced march over the Alps, French troops capture Aosta.
May 17, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French troops force the Austrians out of Châtillon.
May 27, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces reach Vercelli and in two days will cross the River Sesia.
May 28, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French troops reach the River Po at Chivasso and find Austrians occupying the far bank.
May 30, 1800: King Ferdinando IV of Naples declares a general amnesty for those involved with the Parthenopean Republic. Fugitives, those previously condemned, and security risks are excluded from the amnesty.
June 2, 1800: Cesare in Farmacusa, a dramma eroicomico by Antonio Salieri (49) to words of Defranceschi, is performed for the first time, in the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna. It is well received.
June 2, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French troops capture Milan, to the general rejoicing of the population.
June 2, 1800: The first vaccination against smallpox in North America takes place in Trinity, Newfoundland, performed by Dr. John Clinch.
June 3, 1800: John Adams becomes the first US President to reside in the District of Columbia when he visits to inspect how construction is proceeding. He will lodge at Tunnicliffe's City Hotel for ten days.
June 4, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: After a siege of six weeks, the French garrison in Genoa capitulates to the Austrians.
June 6, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: Austrian and British forces enter Genoa. The Most Serene Republic of Genoa is reestablished.
June 7, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces cross the River Po and capture Piacenza from the Austrians.
June 8, 1800: Béniowski, ou Les exilés du Kamtchatka, an opéra-comique by Adrien Boieldieu (24) to words of Duval after Kotzebue, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris.
June 10, 1800: Johann Abraham Peter Schulz dies in Schwedt an der Oder, Kingdom of Prussia, aged 53 years, two months and ten days.
June 14, 1800: Lord Nelson arrives in Livorno and will stay until 10 July.
June 14, 1800: Jean-Baptiste Kléber, commander of French forces in Egypt, is stabbed to death in Cairo by a Turkish fanatic.
June 14, 1800: After the defeat of the Austrians at Marengo, Giuseppe Rossini, father of Gioachino (8), is freed from prison in Pesaro.
June 14, 1800: La dansomanie, a ballet-pantomime by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (36) to a scenario by Gardel, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra.
June 14, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: At the Battle of Marengo, French forces seem to be losing but then break through and send the Austrians in headlong flight towards Alessandria. There are 21,000 total casualties. Austria signs the Convention of Alessandria this night, agreeing to withdraw east of Ticino and to surrender all holdings in Piedmont and Lombardy, and to cease all military operations while considering Napoléon’s peace offer.
June 14, 1800: Friedrich Schiller’s play Maria Stuart is performed for the first time, in Weimar.
June 17, 1800: First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte leaves his army in northern Italy and returns to Paris.
June 19, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces defeat Austrians at Höchstädt, 35 km northwest of Augsburg.
June 21, 1800: Der Jubel oder Juchhei, a liederspiel by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (47) to his own words is performed for the first time, in the Nationaltheater, Berlin.
June 23, 1800: The Papal States are reconstituted. The temporal power of the Pope is restored.
June 24, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: The French reenter Genoa and reestablish the Ligurian Republic.
June 25, 1800: Humphry Davy signs the introduction to his book Researches, Chemical and Philosophical; Chiefly Concerning Nitrous Oxide or Dephlogisticated Nitrous Air and its Respiration. He suggests the use of nitrous oxide as an anaesthetic in surgery.
June 28, 1800: Il carretto del venditore d’aceto, a farsa by Simon Mayr (37) to words of Foppa, is performed for the first time, at the Teatro San Angelo, Venice.
July 2, 1800: First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte arrives back in Paris to great acclaim after his Italian victories over the Austrians.
July 3, 1800: Brought by an Austrian ship, the new Pope Pius VII makes a joyous and triumphant entry into Rome.
July 8, 1800: Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse of the Harvard Medical School inoculates his five-year-old son and a servant against smallpox with materials he received from Edward Jenner. It is the first cowpox vaccination in the United States.
July 9, 1800: The Republic of Lucca is reestablished by the French. Modena and Reggio are attached to the Cisalpine Republic.
August 1, 1800: Royal Assent is granted to the Act of Union creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland next 1 January.
August 2, 1800: The Irish Parliament meets for the last time before union.
August 8, 1800: The frigate USS Insurgent, ordered to patrol the waters between the West Indies and the US coast, departs Hampton Roads. It will never be seen again.
August 28, 1800: Gli Elisi delusi, a melodramma buffo by Gaspare Spontini (25) to words of Monti, is performed for the first time, in the Teatro Santa Cecilia, Palermo.
August 30, 1800: A massive slave revolt in Virginia, led by a slave named Gabriel, timed for today must be postponed due to torrential rains. Two slaves, party to the conspiracy, divulge the plan to their masters under severe questioning before it can be hatched tomorrow.
August 31, 1800: Governor James Monroe of Virginia calls out the militia to root out Gabriel’s slave rebellion.
September 5, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: British forces capture Valetta, the last French garrison on Malta.
September 6, 1800: Lord Nelson begins a four-day visit to Eisenstadt. Among his party is Sir William Hamilton and his wife, Lady Hamilton, who is a particular admirer of Haydn (68). During the stay, Lady Hamilton will sing Haydn’s cantata Arianna a Naxos and The Battle of the Nile accompanied by the composer at the piano.
September 8, 1800: Duke Ernst Friedrich of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld dies in Coburg and is succeeded by his son Franz Friedrich Anton.
September 9, 1800: Sieber announces the publication of Sonate à quatre mains pour le clavecin ou forte-piano, oeuvre VI par Louis Vanbee-Thoven. It is the first extant mention of Beethoven (29) in the French press.
September 9, 1800: By this day, about 30 slaves are in custody in Virginia for being part of Gabriel’s revolt.
September 11, 1800: By order of King Ferdinando IV, Luisa Sanfelice is publicly executed in Naples for her part in the Parthenopean Republic. When a soldier's gun accidently fires, the executioner drops the axe on her shoulders. He is required to complete the task with a knife.
September 13, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: British forces occupy Curaçao.
September 15, 1800: The Commune of Lucca is restored by the Austrians, overthrowing the republic.
September 16, 1800: Le calife de Bagdad, an opéra-comique by Adrien Boieldieu (24) to words of Saint-Just, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre Favart, Paris.
September 19, 1800: Les amours de Flore et de Zéphire, a ballet anacréontique by Giuseppe Sarti (70) to a story by Chevalier, is performed for the first time, at Gatchina Palace, south of St. Petersburg.
September 26, 1800: William Billings dies in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, aged 53 years, eleven months, and 19 days.
September 28, 1800: The earthly remains of William Billings are laid to rest in Boston in an unmarked grave, usually reserved for paupers or social outcasts.
September 30, 1800: France and the United States conclude a treaty averting war at the Chateau Mortefontaine, north of Paris. Two days ago, unknown to the American negotiators, Spain agreed to cede Louisiana to France.
October 1, 1800: By a secret Treaty of San Ildefonso between France and Spain, Louisiana is transferred to France. In return, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany is made into the Kingdom of Etruria and the throne is given to Duke Ludovico of Parma, the son-in-law of King Carlos IV.
October 4, 1800: Christian Heinrich, Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, Lord of Vallendar und Neumagen dies and is succeeded by his son Friedrich Albrecht Ludwig Ferdinand.
October 6, 1800: Publication of the glee Methinks I hear the full celestial Choir by William Crotch (25) to words of Thomson is entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
October 8, 1800: Ludwig van Beethoven (29) receives 200 florins from Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz for the String Quartets op.18/4-6.
October 9, 1800: The Republic of Lucca is reestablished by the French.
October 9, 1800: A plot to kill First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte, set to go off tomorrow, is foiled by police and the conspirators arrested. Known as the conspirateurs des poignards, they will be executed next January.
October 10, 1800: Gabriel, leader of the Virginia slave revolt of last August, is hanged in Norfolk. Over the next months, Virginia will execute 26 slaves.
October 16, 1800: Tamerlan, a tragedy by Johann Friedrich Reichardt (47) to words of Mandenville (translated by Schaum), is performed for the first time, in the Königlichestheater, Berlin. It was intended for production in Paris in 1786 but the composer was forced to return to Berlin on the death of King Friedrich II.
October 22, 1800: Antonio Salieri’s (50) opera buffa L’Angiolina ossia Il matrimonio per sussurro, to words of Defranceschi after Jonson, is performed for the first time, at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna.
November 1, 1800: Thoughts and Details on Scarcity by Edmund Burke is published in Britain by his literary executors, three years after his death. It was originally a memorandum to Prime Minister Pitt in 1795.
November 1, 1800: President John Adams and two assistants arrive in Washington. He takes up residence in the uncompleted White House.
November 2, 1800: On his second day in the White House, John Adams writes to his wife, “I pray heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this house and all that shall hereafter inhabit. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.”
November 5, 1800: L’equivoco, ovvero Le bizzarie dell’amore, a dramma giocoso by Simon Mayr (37) to words of Foppa, is performed for the first time, at the Teatro alla Scala, Milan.
November 7, 1800: Russia bars British ships from its ports until Britain restores Malta to the Knights of St. John.
November 7, 1800: The first North American report of the Convention of Mortefontaine appears in a Baltimore newspaper.
November 15, 1800: A Certificate of Bankruptcy is issued for Domenico Corri, business partner of Jan Ladislav Dussek (40). Dussek is presently on the continent.
November 16, 1800: Abigail Adams arrives in Washington. She is the first First Lady to live in the White House.
November 17, 1800: The Congress of the United States convenes in Washington for the first time.
November 22, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: Backed by Great Britain, Austria resumes hostilities with France.
November 24, 1800: A marriage contract is signed by Étienne-Nicolas Méhul (37) and Marie-Madeleine-Joséphine Gastaldy, the daughter of a physician.
November 24, 1800: Das Waldmädchen, a romantic comic-opera by Carl Maria von Weber (14) to words of von Steinsberg, is performed for the first time, in the Buttermarkt, Freiberg.
November 27, 1800: English physician Thomas Young reads his paper “On the Mechanism of the Eye” to the Royal Society of London. It is the first description of astigmatism and its cause.
December 1, 1800: Two musicians, Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Ambrosius Kühnel, found a publishing firm called the Bureau de Musique (Edition Peters) in Leipzig.
December 2, 1800: Lucien Bonaparte is received at the Escorial as French ambassador to Spain. He will become a patron of Luigi Boccherini (57) over the next year.
December 3, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French forces defeat the Austrians at Hohenlinden, near Munich, and advance on Vienna.
December 9, 1800: L’imbroglione e il castiga-matti, a farsa giocosa by Johann Simon Mayr (37) to words of Foppa, is performed for the first time, in Teatro San Moisè, Venice.
December 10, 1800: Three Piano Sonatas accompanied by violin and cello op.48 by Leopold Kozeluch (53) are entered at Stationers’ Hall, London.
December 10, 1800: The Archbishop of Salzburg flees the city before the advancing French, granting three months salary to all his employees, including Michael Haydn (63).
December 13, 1800: Pedro Cevallos Guerra replaces Mariano Luis de Urquijo y Muga as First Secretary of State of Spain.
December 14, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: French troops enter Salzburg.
December 15, 1800: Two French Hussars knock on the door of Michael Haydn’s (63) house in Salzburg. As he answers, they level pistols at him and demand everything of value in the house, which they take, including his three months salary.
December 16, 1800: The Northern Confederacy is formed by Russia, Denmark, and Sweden to oppose Great Britain.
December 19, 1800: A letter is sent from the Alien Office in London to authorities in Yarmouth and Gravesend that should one John Lewis Duseck (Jan Ladislav Dussek (40)) appear, he is to be detained and any papers he carries confiscated.
December 24, 1800: 20:00 As First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte and his wife Josephine are traveling to the Opéra to hear the Paris premiere of The Creation, a carriage bomb goes off near them in the Rue Niçaise. 20 people are killed, 200 wounded but Napoléon and his wife are unhurt. Several people will be executed for the crime, among them the actual plotters.
December 25, 1800: War of the Second Coalition: The Armistice of Steyr is signed by France and Austria.
December 26, 1800: Gli sciti, a dramma per musica by Johann Simon Mayr (37) to words of Rossi after Voltaire, is performed for the first time, in Teatro La Fenice, Venice.