A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

Iannis Xenakis

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May 29, 1922: Iannis Xenakis is born in Bráila, Kingdom of Romania, eldest of three children born to Clearchos Xenakis, a prosperous shipping agent for a British import-export business, and Photini Pavlou, a pianist and daughter of a mill owner.
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October 28, 1940: Iannis Xenakis (18) passes his entrance examination to the Polytechnic School in Athens.
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October 28, 1941: World War II: German forces capture Volokolansk, 120 km northwest of Moscow, but the German offensive is starting to bog down. A German bomb lands on the Bolshoy Theatre in Moscow damaging the lobby.

The first organized mass action against the occupation of Greece takes place in Athens, commemorating the first anniversary of the Italian invasion. Members of the resistance groups take part in a major demonstration. Among them is Iannis Xenakis (19).

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March 25, 1942: Iannis Xenakis (19) takes part in a march in which students from Athens University parade through the capital to celebrate Greek independence day.
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October 12, 1944: World War II: Soviet forces take Oradea, Romania. Soviets and Yugoslav partisans take Subotica near the Hungarian border.

The three-year-old blackout restrictions in Leningrad are lifted.

British paratroopers land at Megara airfield, 15 km from Athens as the Germans evacuate Piraeus. The British also land on Corfu. Vasilis Zannos, a minister in the National Liberation Front, together with Mikis Theodorakis (19) disarm the staff of the Luftwaffe. The weapons are handed over to the Lord Byron student group, whose members include Iannis Xenakis (22).

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December 31, 1944: While taking part in street battles by leftists resisting the British occupation of Athens, Iannis Xenakis (22) receives shrapnel in the face from an exploding shell. “My palate was pierced, there were bits of teeth, flesh, blood, holes. My jawbone was broken. My left eye had burst.” He is brought to a makeshift field hospital and left to die.
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January 1, 1945: After a harrowing night through which he is watched over by his girlfriend, Iannis Xenakis (22) is captured by the British and taken to the central hospital in Athens where he will eventually undergo three operations to reconstruct his face.
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January 16, 1947: Iannis Xenakis (24) defends his thesis at the Polytechnic School in Athens. The subject is reinforced concrete.
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November 11, 1947: Fleeing persecution in right-wing Greece, Iannis Xenakis (25) arrives in Paris after having been spirited across the Italy-France border at Vintimille by Communist Party members.
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December 3, 1953: Iannis Xenakis (31) marries Françoise Gargouil in a civil ceremony in Paris.
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July 6, 1954: Iannis Xenakis (32) attends a class given by Olivier Messiaen (45) for the last time.
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September 23, 1954: Through the intercession of Olivier Messiaen (45), Iannis Xenakis (32) meets Pierre Schaeffer (44) in Paris.
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October 16, 1955: Metastaseis for 61 instruments, the third part of Anastenaria by Iannis Xenakis (33), is performed for the first time, in Donaueschingen. Also premiered is An Mathilde, a cantata for female voice and orchestra by Luigi Dallapiccola (51) to words of Heine. See 15 December 2000.
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June 12, 1956: Le Corbusier writes to Edgar Varèse (72) suggesting a collaboration on the Philips Pavilion at the upcoming Brussels World’s Fair. He mentions that the actual design for the building is being made by Iannis Xenakis (34). Varèse immediately accepts.
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March 8, 1957: Pithoprakta for 50 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (34) is performed for the first time, in Munich. The orchestra is hostile, the audience is in an uproar.
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May 6, 1957: The cornerstone of the Philips Pavilion at the Brussels World’s Fair is laid in the presence of the architect, Le Courbusier, and his colleague and collaborator, Iannis Xenakis (34).
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July 20, 1958: Achorripsis for 21 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (36) is performed for the first time, in Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires.
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October 5, 1958: On the tenth anniversary of his first Concert de bruit, Pierre Schaeffer’s (48) Étude aux allures and Étude aux sons animés for tape are performed for the first time, at the Brussels International Exposition. Also premiered is Diamorphoses for two-track tape by Iannis Xenakis (36).
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September 1, 1959: Le Corbusier ends the employment of Iannis Xenakis (37) with his firm.
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February 2, 1962: Herma for piano by Iannis Xenakis (39) is performed for the first time, in Tokyo by Yuji Takahashi (23).
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June 28, 1962: Atrées for eleven musicians by Iannis Xenakis (40) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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October 25, 1962: Two new works are performed for the first time in the Beethovensaal der Stuttgarter Liederhalle: Polla ta dhina for children’s chorus, wind, and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (40) to words of Sophocles and Nach wie vor der Reihe nach for orchestra by Ernst Krenek (62).
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December 15, 1962: Bohor for four-track tape by Iannis Xenakis (40) is performed for the first time, in Paris. Although the work is dedicated to Pierre Schaeffer (52), this will cause a break between the two.
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December 16, 1962: Morsima-Amorsima for piano, violin, cello, and double bass by Iannis Xenakis (40) is performed for the first time, in Athens, conducted by Lukas Foss (40).
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April 25, 1963: Stratégie for two orchestras by Iannis Xenakis (40) is performed for the first time, in Venice.
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June 30, 1963: Iannis Xenakis (41) begins teaching at the Tanglewood Festival in Lenox, Massachusetts.
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August 26, 1963: The Tanglewood Festival ends and Iannis Xenakis (41) goes to New York.
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December 16, 1964: Eonta for two trumpets, three trombones and piano by Iannis Xenakis (42) is performed for the first time, in Paris, conducted by Pierre Boulez (39) with the participation of Yuji Takahashi (26).
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April 3, 1966: Terrêtektorh, for 88 players seated in the audience by Iannis Xenakis (43), is performed for the first time, in Royan, France.
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May 5, 1966: Nomos alpha for cello by Iannis Xenakis (43) is performed for the first time, in Bremen.
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June 14, 1966: Oresteïa for chorus and twelve instruments by Iannis Xenakis (44) to words of Aeschylus, is performed for the first time, in Ypsilanti, Michigan.
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June 28, 1966: Akrata for 16 winds by Iannis Xenakis (44) is performed for the first time, in St. Catherine College Hall, Oxford.
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December 20, 1966: L’Equipe de Mathématique et Automatique Musicales is founded by Iannis Xenakis (44) and others at Boosey and Hawkes, Paris.
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March 29, 1967: Incidental music to Seneca’s play Medea by Iannis Xenakis (44) is performed for the first time, in Théâtre de l'Odéon, Paris.
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September 20, 1967: Iannis Xenakis (45) arrives in Bloomington, Indiana to teach at Indiana University.
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November 10, 1967: The Center for Mathematical and Automated Music of Iannis Xenakis (45) is confirmed by Dean Wilfred Bain at Indiana University.
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March 11, 1968: Invited by Lukas Foss (45), Iannis Xenakis (45) gives a lecture at the University of Buffalo.
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April 7, 1968: Nuits for twelve voices by Iannis Xenakis (45) is performed for the first time, in Royan.
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October 21, 1968: ST/48 for 48 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (46) is performed for the first time, in Paris, conducted by Lukas Foss (46).
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April 4, 1969: Nomos gamma for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (46) is performed for the first time, in Royan, France. Also premiered is Quadrivium for orchestra by Bruno Maderna (48).
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May 20, 1969: Syrmos for 18 strings by Iannis Xenakis (46) is performed for the first time, in Salle Gaveau, Paris.
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June 2, 1969: Kraanerg, a ballet for orchestra and tape by Iannis Xenakis (47), commissioned for the opening of the Canadian National Arts Center, is performed for the first time, at the inauguration of the National Arts Center, Ottawa.
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July 3, 1969: Anaktoria for eight winds and strings by Iannis Xenakis (47) is performed for the first time, in Avignon.
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September 9, 1969: Persephassa for six percussionists by Iannis Xenakis (47) is performed for the first time, in Persepolis, Iran.
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April 6, 1971: Two works by Iannis Xenakis (48) are performed for the first time, in Royan, France: Synaphaï for piano and orchestra and Charisma for clarinet and cello. Also premiered is Remember for english horn or viola and cello by Betsy Jolas (44).
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August 24, 1971: Aroura for twelve string instruments by Iannis Xenakis (49) is performed for the first time, in Lucerne.
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August 26, 1971: Persepolis for eight-track tape by Iannis Xenakis (49) is performed for the first time, at the Ruins of Persepolis, Iran.
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August 30, 1971: Yuji Takahashi (32) is named assistant director of the Center for Mathematical and Automated Music at Indiana University, under Iannis Xenakis (49).
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October 18, 1971: Duel for two small orchestras by Iannis Xenakis (49) is performed for the first time, in Hilversum, Netherlands.
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April 26, 1972: Linaia-Agon for horn, trombone, and tuba by Iannis Xenakis (49) is performed for the first time, in London.
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May 17, 1972: Iannis Xenakis (49) resigns his teaching position at Indiana University.
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October 13, 1972: Polytope de Cluny for eight-track tape and lights by Iannis Xenakis (50) opens in Musée de Cluny, Paris.
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October 27, 1972: Mikka for violin by Iannis Xenakis (50) is performed for the first time, in the Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris.
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April 13, 1973: Eridanos for eight brass players and ten string players by Iannis Xenakis (50) is performed for the first time, in La Rochelle.
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October 23, 1973: Evryali for piano by Iannis Xenakis (51) is performed for the first time, in Lincoln Center, New York.
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May 21, 1974: Erikhthon for piano and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (51) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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June 20, 1974: Cendrées for chorus and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (52) is performed for the first time, in Lisbon.
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September 21, 1974: Antikhthon, a ballet by Iannis Xenakis (52), is performed for the first time, in Bonn.
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October 16, 1974: Noomena for large orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (52) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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June 29, 1975: Empreintes for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in La Rochelle.
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January 28, 1976: Phlegra for eleven instruments by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in Queen Elizabeth Hall, London.
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February 20, 1976: Retour-Windungen for twelve cellos by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in Bonn.
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March 11, 1976: Mikka “S” for violin by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in Orléans.
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March 26, 1976: Theraps for double bass by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in Royan.
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May 1, 1976: Psappha for percussion by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in London.
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May 5, 1976: Khoaï for harpsichord by Iannis Xenakis (53) is performed for the first time, in Cologne.
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May 18, 1976: Iannis Xenakis (53) defends his doctorate at the Université de Paris. Among the jury members is Olivier Messiaen (67).
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December 9, 1976: Epeï for english horn, clarinet, trumpet, two trombones, and double bass by Iannis Xenakis (54) is performed for the first time, in Montreal.
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February 2, 1977: Dmaathen for oboe and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (54) is performed for the first time, in Carnegie Recital Hall, New York.
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June 17, 1977: Akanthos for soprano and eight players by Iannis Xenakis (55) is performed for the first time, in Strasbourg.
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June 28, 1977: Kottos for cello by Iannis Xenakis (55) is performed for the first time, in La Rochelle.
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November 19, 1977: A Colone for chorus and 18 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (55) to words of Sophocles, is performed for the first time, in Metz.
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December 21, 1977: Jonchaies for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (55) is performed for the first time, in the Salle Wagram, Paris.
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February 11, 1978: La legénde d’Eer for four- or eight-track tape by Iannis Xenakis (55) is performed for the first time, at the inauguration of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.
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April 2, 1978: Ikhoor for string trio by Iannis Xenakis (55) is performed for the first time, at the Palais Garnier in Paris.
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August 2, 1978: Mycenae alpha for two-track tape by Iannis Xenakis (56) is performed for the first time, in Mycenae.
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March 3, 1979: Palimpsest for eleven players by Iannis Xenakis (56) is performed for the first time, in Aquila, Italy.
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May 14, 1979: Pléïades for six percussionists by Iannis Xenakis (56) is performed for the first time, in Strasbourg. The movements are interspersed with the music of Giovanni Gabrieli (†356).
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June 21, 1979: Anemoessa for chorus and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (57) is performed for the first time, in the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam.
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June 4, 1980: Dikhthas for violin and piano by Iannis Xenakis (58) is performed for the first time, in Bonn.
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February 13, 1981: Aïs for solo percussion, amplified baritone, and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (58) to words of Homer and Sappho is performed for the first time, in Munich.
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March 30, 1981: Embellie for viola by Iannis Xenakis (58) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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September 6, 1981: Serment-Orkos for chorus by Iannis Xenakis (59) to words of Hippocrates is performed for the first time, in Athens.
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November 22, 1981: Thirty Pieces for Five Orchestras by John Cage (69) is performed for the first time, in Pont-à-Mousson, near Metz, France. Also premiered is Komboï for amplified harpsichord and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (59).
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March 26, 1982: Nekuïa for chorus and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (59) to words of Richter and the composer, is performed for the first time, in Cologne.
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April 23, 1982: Pour la Paix for chorus by Iannis Xenakis (59) to his own words is performed for the first time, over the airwaves of Radio France in Paris. Also premiered is Pierre réfléchies for tape by Pierre Henry (54).
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October 18, 1982: Pour Maurice for baritone and piano by Iannis Xenakis (60) is performed for the first time, in Brussels.
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February 3, 1983: Shaar for strings by Iannis Xenakis (60) is performed for the first time, in Tel Aviv.
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June 8, 1983: Tetras for string quartet by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in Lisbon.
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June 21, 1983: Chant des Soleils for chorus, brass, and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (61) to his own words is performed for the first time, simultaneously in several towns of Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France.
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July 15, 1983: Khal Perr for brass quintet and two percussionists by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in Beaune.
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November 28, 1983: Saint François d’Assise: scènes franciscaines, an opera by Olivier Messiaen (74) to his own words, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. Among the glittering audience are Iannis Xenakis (61) and Betsy Jolas (57). The audience is very pleased, the critics guarded. In today’s issue, Libération quotes the composer as saying, “Twilight has arrived. I have finished. I will never compose anything else.”
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December 2, 1983: Pour les baleines for strings by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in Orléans.
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February 14, 1984: Thalleïn for 14 players by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in London.
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April 16, 1984: Lichens for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in Liège.
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May 2, 1984: Iannis Xenakis (61) is admitted to the French Académie, replacing Georges Auric. He is introduced by Olivier Messiaen (75).
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May 20, 1984: Naama for harpsichord by Iannis Xenakis (61) is performed for the first time, in Luxembourg.
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June 30, 1985: Nyûyô for shakuhachi, sangen, and two kotos by Iannis Xenakis (63) is performed for the first time, in Tokyo.
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July 24, 1985: Idmen A/Idmen B for chorus and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (63) is performed for the first time, in Strasbourg.
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September 15, 1985: Alax for three instrumental groups by Iannis Xenakis (63) is performed for the first time, over the airwaves of WDR in Cologne.
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July 4, 1986: A l'Ile de Gorée for 13 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (64) is performed for the first time, in Amsterdam.
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September 19, 1986: Keren for trombone by Iannis Xenakis (64) is performed for the first time, in Strasbourg.
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October 24, 1986: Horos for 89 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (64) is performed for the first time, for the inauguration of Suntory Hall in Tokyo.
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November 13, 1986: Keqrops for piano and 92 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (64) is performed for the first time, in Lincoln Center, New York.
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December 15, 1986: Akea for piano and string quartet by Iannis Xenakis (64) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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January 26, 1987: Petites Esquisses d’oiseaux for piano by Olivier Messiaen (78) is performed for the first time, in Théâtre de la Ville, Paris. Also premiered is Jalons for chamber ensemble by Iannis Xenakis (64), conducted by Pierre Boulez (61).
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January 30, 1987: Tattoo by Iannis Xenakis (64) and Tattoo for orchestra by David Del Tredici (49) are performed for the first time, in the Concertgebouw, Amsterdam.
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August 2, 1987: à R. for piano by Iannis Xenakis (65) is performed for the first time, in Montpellier.
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August 21, 1987: Kassandra: Oresteia II for amplified baritone, a 20-string psaltery and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (65) to words of Aeschylus is performed for the first time, in Gibellina, Italy.
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September 16, 1987: Tracées for large orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (65) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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November 17, 1987: XAS for saxophone quartet by Iannis Xenakis (65) is performed for the first time, in Lille.
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May 3, 1988: Ata for large orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (65) is performed for the first time, in Baden-Baden.
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May 6, 1988: Waarg for 13 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (65) is performed for the first time, in Queen Elizabeth Hall, London.
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July 1, 1988: Rebonds A for percussion by Iannis Xenakis (66) is performed for the first time, in Rome.
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July 13, 1988: Taurhiphanie for computer generated stereo tape by Iannis Xenakis (66) is performed for the first time, in Arles.
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April 1, 1989: Voyage absolu des Unari vers Andromede for computer-generated stereo tape by Iannis Xenakis (66) is performed for the first time, in Temple Kamejama Hontokuji, Osaka.
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April 26, 1989: Echange for 13 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (66) is performed for the first time, in Amsterdam.
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May 18, 1989: Epicycle for cello and 12 instruments by Iannis Xenakis (66) is performed for the first time, in London.
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July 24, 1989: Rebonds B for percussion by Iannis Xenakis (67) is performed for the first time, in Avignon.
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September 17, 1989: Oophaa for amplified harpsichord and percussion by Iannis Xenakis (67) is performed for the first time, in Warsaw.
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October 20, 1989: Okho for three djembes (large African drum) by Iannis Xenakis (67) is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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June 24, 1990: Knephas for chorus by Iannis Xenakis (68) is performed for the first time, in London.
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October 9, 1990: Tuorakemsu for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (68) is performed for the first time, in Suntory Hall, Tokyo for the 60th birthday of Toru Takemitsu.
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December 7, 1990: Kyania for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (68) is performed for the first time, in Montpellier.
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April 27, 1991: Tetora for string quartet by Iannis Xenakis (68) is performed for the first time, in Witten.
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October 6, 1991: Dox-Orkh for violin and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (69) is performed for the first time, in Strasbourg.
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November 17, 1991: GENDY3 for two-track Dynamic Stochastic Synthesis by Iannis Xenakis (69) is performed for the first time, in Metz.
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March 24, 1992: Roáï for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (69) is performed for the first time, in Berlin.
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May 3, 1992: La déesse Athéna for baritone and twelve instruments by Iannis Xenakis (69) to words of Aeschylus is performed for the first time, in Athens.
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December 5, 1992: Pu wijnuej we fyp for children’s choir by Iannis Xenakis (70) to words of Rimbaud, is performed for the first time, in Paris.
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December 14, 1992: Paille in the wind for cello and piano by Iannis Xenakis (70) is performed for the first time, in Milan.
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March 26, 1993: Troorkh for trombone and orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (70) is performed for the first time, in Berwald Hall, Stockholm.
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April 23, 1993: Plektó (Flechte) for flute, clarinet, percussion, piano, violin, and cello by Iannis Xenakis (70) is performed for the first time, in Witten.
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July 23, 1993: Mosaïques for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (71) is performed for the first time, in Marseille.
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September 1, 1993: The Bacchae for baritone, female chorus, and nine instrumentalists by Iannis Xenakis (71) to words of Euripides, is performed for the first time, in London.
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April 5, 1994: Zyia for soprano, male chorus, flute, and piano by Iannis Xenakis (71) is performed for the first time, in Evreux, 42 years after it was composed.
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April 24, 1994: Plektó for flute, clarinet, percussion, piano, violin, and cello by Iannis Xenakis (71) is performed for the first time, in Witten.
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June 9, 1994: Dämmerschein for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (72) is performed for the first time, in Lisbon.
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September 16, 1994: Sea-Nymphs for chorus by Iannis Xenakis (72) is performed for the first time, in London.
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September 21, 1994: In the “Hommage à Witold Lutoslawski (†0)” concert in Warsaw, new works are performed for the first time: In Memory of Witold Lutoslawski for two horns and two trumpets by Iannis Xenakis (72) and Paths--In memoriam Witold Lutoslawski for trumpet by Toru Takemitsu (63).
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December 2, 1994: S709 for two-track Dynamic Stochastic Synthesis by Iannis Xenakis (72) is performed for the first time, in Salle Olivier Messiaen of Radio France, Paris.  Also premiered is Ariadne’s Thread for string quartet and electronic sound generators by Roger Reynolds (60).
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December 17, 1994: Ergma for string quartet by Iannis Xenakis (72) is performed for the first time, at The Hague.
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November 12, 1995: Kaï for nine instrumentalists by Iannis Xenakis (73) is performed for the first time, in Oldenburg.
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November 16, 1995: Voile for strings by Iannis Xenakis (73) is performed for the first time, in the Herkulessaal, Munich.
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March 1, 1996: Koïranoï for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (73) is performed for the first time, in Hamburg.
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June 10, 1996: Kuïlenn for flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, and two french horns by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in Amsterdam.
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August 9, 1996: Hunem-Iduhey for violin and cello by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in Avery Fisher Hall, New York.
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October 4, 1996: Ittidra for string sextet by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in the Alte Oper, Frankfurt-am-Main.
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October 20, 1996: Ioolkos for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in Donaueschingen.
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December 6, 1996: Roscobeck for cello and double bass by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in the WDR Konzertsaal, Cologne.
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February 4, 1997: Iannis Xenakis (74) is awarded the Kyoto Prize.
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April 10, 1997: Zythos for trombone and six percussionists by Iannis Xenakis (74) is performed for the first time, in Birmingham.
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July 23, 1997: Sea-Change for orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (75) is performed for the first time, in Royal Albert Hall, London.
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November 30, 1997: O-Mega for percussion and chamber orchestra by Iannis Xenakis (75) is performed for the first time, in Huddersfield, Great Britain.
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June 20, 2000: Dhipli Zyia for violin and cello by Iannis Xenakis (78) is performed for the first time, in Triskell, 48 years after it was composed.
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September 15, 2000: Anastenaria, Procession aux Eaux claires for chorus and chamber ensemble by Iannis Xenakis (78) is performed for the first time, in Herkulessall der Residenz, Munich, 47 years after it was composed.
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September 23, 2000: Six Chansons for piano by Iannis Xenakis (78) are performed for the first time, in Triskell, 50 years after they were composed.
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December 15, 2000: The first two parts of Anastenaria, Procession aux eaux claires for chorus, men’s chorus, and orchestra, and Le Sacrifice for orchestra, by Iannis Xenakis (78) are performed for the first time, in Munich. See 16 October 1955.
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February 4, 2001: 05:00  Iannis Xenakis dies at his home in Paris, Republic of France, aged 78 years, eight months, and six days.