A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS

Jean Sibelius

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December 8, 1865: 12:30 Johan Christian Julius Sibelius is born at Hallituskatu 11 in Tavastehus (Hämeenlinna), Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire, 130 km north of Helsinki, second of three children born to Christian Gustaf Sibelius, a physician and surgeon, and Maria Charlotta Borg, daughter of a Lutheran minister.
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May 15, 1885: Johan Sibelius (19) passes his studentexamen allowing him to enter Helsinki University as a law student.
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September 15, 1885: Johan Sibelius (19) enters the Music Institute in Helsinki, studying principally the violin.
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December 14, 1885: Johan Sibelius (20) appears in public, probably for the first time, at a concert of the Helsinki Music Institute. There are no reviews of the event since all the critics attend the local premiere of Tchaikovsky’s (45) First Piano Concerto.
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April 9, 1888: Incidental music to Wennerberg’s play Näcken (The Water Sprite) by Jean Sibelius (22) and his teacher Martin Wegelius is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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May 31, 1888: Theme and Variations for string quartet by Jean Sibelius (22) is performed for the first time, at Helsinki Conservatory.
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April 13, 1889: Suite for string trio by Jean Sibelius (23) is performed for the first time, in the Helsinki Music Institute.
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May 5, 1889: The first and third movements of a Quintet for piano and strings in g minor by Jean Sibelius (23) are performed for the first time, at the Helsinki Music Institute.
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May 29, 1889: String Quartet in a minor by Jean Sibelius (23) is performed for the first time, in a student concert at the Helsinki Music Institute.
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May 30, 1889: The Finnish press announces travel awards from the Senate of the Grand Duchy, including 2,000 marks for music student Jean Sibelius (23).
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May 31, 1889: Jean Sibelius (23) completes his studies at the Helsinki Music Institute.
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July 16, 1889: A Sonata for violin and piano by Jean Sibelius (23) is performed for the first time, by the composer in Loviisa, northeast of Helsinki.
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August 19, 1889: Tempo di valse (Lulu Waltz) for cello and piano by Jean Sibelius (23) is performed for the first time, in Loviisa.
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September 7, 1889: Jean Sibelius (23) sails from Helsinki for Lübeck and his first trip to Germany.
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May 5, 1890: The first and third movements of a String Quintet by Jean Sibelius (24) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki. The second movement is cut due to a lack of rehearsal time. See 11 October 1890.
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September 29, 1890: After a concert at the Helsinki Music Institute, Jean Sibelius asks for the hand of Aino Järnefelt in marriage. She accepts. She is the sister of his close friend Armas Järnefelt and the daughter of a general. They have known each other for three years.
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October 11, 1890: A String Quintet by Jean Sibelius (24) is performed completely for the first time, in Turku. See 5 May 1890.
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October 13, 1890: String Quartet op.4 by Jean Sibelius (24) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 19, 1890: Jean Sibelius (24) departs Helsinki for Vienna.
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November 12, 1890: Karl Goldmark agrees to teach Jean Sibelius (24), in Vienna.
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November 21, 1890: Jean Sibelius (24) witnesses a production of Tristan und Isolde in Vienna, “staged...in so brilliant a fashion I could not have believed it possible.”
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December 21, 1890: The third version of Symphony no.3 by Anton Bruckner (66) is performed for the first time, in Vienna. The composer is both booed and cheered by an audience which contains a greatly impressed Jean Sibelius (25). Outside the theatre, Sibelius gets into a fight with some Brahms (57) supporters and injures his foot. See 16 December 1887.
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January 9, 1891: Jean Sibelius (25) auditions to be a violinist in the Vienna Philharmonic. He is encumbered by stage fright and does not receive the position.
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February 5, 1891: A Brass Septet by Jean Sibelius (25) is performed for the first time, in Loviisa.
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March 14, 1891: After writing to his fiancee from Berlin that he has had an operation to remove a kidney stone, Jean Sibelius (25) reveals to his friend Robert Kajanus that he is suffering from venereal disease.
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April 23, 1891: Overture in E by Jean Sibelius (25) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 28, 1891: Scène de ballet for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (25) was performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 19, 1891: Three songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (25) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: The Heart’s Morning op.13/3 and The Dream op.13/5 to words of Runeberg, and Enticement op.17/3 to words of Tavaststjerna.
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November 24, 1891: Jean Sibelius (25) appears for the first time as conductor, in Helsinki.
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February 5, 1892: March of the Björneborgers for small orchestra by Jean Sibelius (26) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 4 July 1900.
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April 28, 1892: Kullervo, a symphony for soprano, baritone, male chorus, and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (26) to words from the Kalevala, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, conducted by the composer. It is a great success and puts Sibelius at the head of a new generation of Finnish nationalist art. The success allows him to marry his fiancee, Aino Järnefelt, because it proves to her family that he can support her through composing.
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June 10, 1892: Jean Sibelius (26) marries Aino Järnefelt, the daughter of a general, at the Järnefelt home, Tottesund, near Vaasa.
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December 16, 1892: Two songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (27) to words of Runeberg, are performed for the first time: Beneath the Fir Trees op.13/1, and To Frigga op.13/6.
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February 5, 1893: Melodrama from Nights of Jealousy for narrator, soprano, and piano trio by Jean Sibelius (27) to words of Runeberg is performed for the first time, at the Helsinki Music Institute.
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February 16, 1893: En Saga, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (27), is performed for the first time, in Helsinki conducted by the composer.
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April 6, 1893: The Boat Journey op.18/3 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (27) to words of the Kalevala, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 5, 1893: Some of the Six Impromptus op.5 for piano by Jean Sibelius (27) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 13, 1893: Music to accompany a set of historical tableaux by Jean Sibelius (27) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 17 November 1893.
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November 19, 1893: An overture and six numbers from the historical tableaux by Jean Sibelius (27), presented on 13 November, are performed for the first time as the Karelia Suite, in Helsinki, conducted by the composer.
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February 17, 1894: Two works for strings by Jean Sibelius (28) are performed for the first time, in Turku, directed by the composer: Impromptu and Scherzo.
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March 10, 1894: Rondo op.2 for viola and piano by Jean Sibelius (28) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 28, 1894: The Lover for male choir by Jean Sibelius (28) to words of Kanteletar is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. It has won second prize in a choral composition competition.
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May 31, 1894: Cantata for the University Ceremonies of 1894 for chorus and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (28) to words of Leino is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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June 21, 1894: Song of Spring, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (28), is performed for the first time, as Impromptu for Orchestra, in Vaasa, conducted by the composer.
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August 22, 1894: After seeing a performance of Die Meistersinger, and several other Wagner (†11) music-dramas, Jean Sibelius (28) writes to his wife from Germany, “I am no longer a Wagnerite.” He likes Wagner, but sees Franz Liszt (†8) and the tone poem as his true calling.
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October 23, 1894: A Menuett for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (28) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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March 9, 1895: The Wood Nymph for reciter, piano, two horns, and strings by Jean Sibelius (29) to words of Rydberg is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 17 April 1895
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April 17, 1895: Three works by Jean Sibelius (29) are performed for the first time, in an all-Sibelius concert in Helsinki: The Wood Nymph, a tone poem, Serenade for baritone and orchestra to words of Stagnelius, these two conducted by the composer, and Sonata for piano op.12. See 10 March 1895.
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December 7, 1895: Two works for male chorus by Jean Sibelius are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Fire on the Island op.18/4 and The Power of the Song, on the eve of the composer’s 30th birthday.
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April 13, 1896: The Lemminkäinen Suite by Jean Sibelius (30) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki the composer conducting. The work includes four distinct sections: Lemminkäinen and the Maidens, Lemminkäinen in Tuonela, The Swan of Tuonela and The Return of Lemminkäinen. The public loves it. Critics are mixed.
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May 25, 1896: 25.V.1896 op.21 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (30) to words of Gustafsson is performed for the first time, in Helsinki at the unveiling of a memorial to Josef A.J. Pippingsköld, conducted by the composer.
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September 14, 1896: Jean Sibelius (30) begins teaching at Helsinki University.
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November 2, 1896: Cantata for the Coronation of Nicholas II for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (30) to words of Cajander is performed for the first time, at Helsinki University. The Tsar and Tsarina, unable to attend their coronation as King and Queen of Finland, are represented by plaster figures.
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November 7, 1896: The Maiden in the Tower, an opera by Jean Sibelius (30) to words of Hertzberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 26, 1896: As part of his application for a permanent teaching position at Helsinki University, Jean Sibelius (30) delivers a lecture on folk music in art music.
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December 12, 1896: A Song for Lemminkäinen for male chorus and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (30) to words of Veijola is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, directed by the composer.
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May 30, 1897: Cantata for the Helsinki University ceremonies of 1897 by Jean Sibelius (31) to words of Koskimies is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 1, 1897: The Ferryman’s Brides for solo voice and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (31) to words of Oksanen is performed for the first time, in Helsinki conducted by the composer.
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January 8, 1898: The Finnish Senate is informed that Tsar Nikolay II has agreed to a stipend for Jean Sibelius (32) which the Senate requested.
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February 24, 1898: Incidental music to Paul’s play Kung Kristian II by Jean Sibelius (32) is performed for the first time, in the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki.
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December 1, 1898: Song of My Heart op.18/6 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (32) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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December 5, 1898: An orchestral suite from the incidental music to Kung Kristian II by Jean Sibelius (32) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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March 12, 1899: Song of the Atheneans for boys chorus, male chorus, winds, and percussion by Jean Sibelius (33) to words of Rydberg, is performed for the first time (unofficially), in Kaivopuisto park, Helsinki.  Although not his best work, it becomes wildly popular due to the theme of protest against the integration of Finland into Russia.  The official premiere will come on 26 April.
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April 21, 1899: The Broken Voice op.18/1 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (33) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 26, 1899: Two works by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time, in Festival Hall of Imperial Alexander University (University of Helsinki), Helsinki, conducted by the composer: the Symphony no.1, and Song of the Atheneans for boys chorus, male chorus, winds, and percussion to words of Rydberg. The second work is a protest against the February manifesto which denudes the autonomy of the Finnish Parliament.  See 12 March 1899.
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September 21, 1899: Two works for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time: Black Roses op.36/1 to words of Josephson, and But My Bird is Long in Homing op.36/2 to words of Runeberg.
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October 21, 1899: The Breaking of the Ice on the Oulu River for reciter, male chorus, and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (33) to words of Topelius is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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November 4, 1899: Scènes historiques I including Finlandia by Jean Sibelius (33) are performed for the first time, in the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki. Both are from a larger collection of incidental music to accompany a set of historical tableaux on Finnish themes. These are the “Press Pension Celebrations”, to raise money ostensibly for pension funds for newspapermen but in reality they give support to the Finnish press who are battling Tsarist censorship.
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March 12, 1900: Malinconia op.20 for cello and piano by Jean Sibelius (34) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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March 16, 1900: Sandels for male chorus and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (34) to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. The work celebrates Swedish General Johan Sandels and his defeat of the Russians north of Iisalmi, Finland in 1808.
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April 4, 1900: The Woodman’s Song op.18/5 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (34) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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June 20, 1900: To My Country for chorus by Jean Sibelius (34) to words of Cajander is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. Also performed, perhaps for the first time, are Sibelius’ Tiera, a tone poem for brass septet and percussion, and Preludio for winds.
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July 2, 1900: The tone poem Finlandia by Jean Sibelius (34) is performed separately for the first time, in Helsinki, in the Finland province of the Russian Empire. This is the first time it is heard in its final form, but it is presented under the name Suomi (Finland). See 4 November 1899.
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July 3, 1900: The Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra leaves on a European tour, heavily laden with the music of Jean Sibelius (34). The tour will introduce Sibelius’ music to the world.
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July 4, 1900: March of the Björneborgers for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (34) is performed for the first time, in Stockholm. See 5 February 1892.
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July 30, 1900: The Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra performs at the Trocadéro in Paris, including the Symphony no.1 of Jean Sibelius (34). Although the hall is only one-third full, the work is enthusiastically received.
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October 20, 1900: The improvisation Snöfrid for reciter, male chorus, and orchestra, with words by Rydberg and music by Jean Sibelius (34), is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 24, 1900: Tennis at Trianon, op.36/3, a song by Jean Sibelius (34) to words of Fröding, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 27, 1900: Jean Sibelius (34) and his family depart Helsinki for Berlin where he hopes to spread his reputation over the next few months.
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November 22, 1900: The First Kiss op.37/1, a song by Jean Sibelius (34) to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, at Helsinki University.
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February 8, 1901: The Diamond on the March Snow op.36/6, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (35) to words of Wecksell, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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May 30, 1901: Hail! Moon op.18/2 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (35) to words of the Kalevala is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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March 8, 1902: Three works by Jean Sibelius (36), the Symphony no.2, Overture in a minor, and a work for female chorus and orchestra entitled Impromptu op.19 to words of Rydberg, are performed for the first time, in Helsinki under the baton of the composer. The symphony receives a triumphant success.
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April 9, 1902: The Origin of Fire, for baritone, male chorus, and orchestra, words from the Kalevala and music by Jean Sibelius (36), is performed for the first time, under the direction of the composer, for the inauguration of the new Finnish National Theatre in Helsinki.
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October 8, 1902: Little Lasse op.37/2, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (36) to words of Topelius, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 10, 1902: Two songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (36) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Sunrise op.37/3 to words of Hedberg, and Was it a Dream op.37/4, to words of Wecksell.
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October 25, 1902: Den 25 oktober 1902. Till Thérèse Hahl for chorus by Jean Sibelius (36) to words of Wasastjerna is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. Thérèse Hahl is an important leader of Finnish choral music and the work is in honor of her 60th birthday.
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November 3, 1902: The revised version of En Saga, a symphonic poem by Jean Sibelius (36) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, under the direction of the composer.
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September 12, 1903: Autumn Night op.38/1, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (37) to words of Rydberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 16, 1903: Two songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (37) to words of Rydberg, are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: On a Balcony by the Sea op.38/2, and In the Night op.38/3.
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December 2, 1903: Incidental music to Järnefelt’s play Kuolema by Jean Sibelius (37) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. The music contains the famous Valse triste.
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February 8, 1904: Two works for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (38) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki, conducted by the composer: the Violin Concerto and Cassazione. Also premiered is Sibelius’ Have You Courage? op.31/2 for male chorus and orchestra to words of Wecksell.
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March 5, 1904: Tanssi-Intermezzo op.45/2 for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (38) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, the composer conducting.
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March 26, 1904: Romance in C op.42 for strings by Jean Sibelius (38) is performed for the first time, in Turku, conducted by the composer.
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April 25, 1904: The chamber orchestra setting of Valse Triste, by Jean Sibelius (38), is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 2 December 1903.
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September 9, 1904: The Harper and His Son op.38/4, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (38) to words of Rydberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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September 24, 1904: Jean Sibelius (38) and his family move into a new villa, Ainola, near Tuomala.
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October 12, 1904: I Would I Were Dwelling op.38/5, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (38) to words of Frödling, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 10, 1904: A Dragonfly op.17/5, a song by Jean Sibelius (38) to words of Levertin, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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December 2, 1904: My Brother is Abroad for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (38) to words of Aho is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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January 5, 1905: Jean Sibelius (39) arrives in Berlin at the invitation of Ferruccio Busoni (38).
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February 22, 1905: Desiring more income from his published works, Jean Sibelius (39) leaves Breitkopf & Härtel and signs a contract with Robert Lienau, head of Schlesingerische Buch- und Musikhandlung. He must compose four major works per year and will receive a minimum of 8,000 Reichsmarks.
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March 17, 1905: Incidental music to Maeterlinck’s (tr. Gripenberg) play Pelléas et Mélisande by Jean Sibelius (39) is performed for the first time, at the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki, directed by the composer.
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April 30, 1905: Cortège for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (39) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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August 24, 1905: With No Dirges for chorus by Jean Sibelius (39) to words of Runeberg is performed for the first time, at the funeral of the composer’s friend, the painter Albert Edelfelt, in Helsinki.
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October 19, 1905: Richard Strauss (41) conducts the premiere of the revised version of Jean Sibelius’ (39) Violin Concerto, in Berlin.
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November 29, 1905: When Jean Sibelius (39) arrives at Dover, officials of His Majesty’s Customs and Immigration fine him £2 6s. for smuggling cigars.
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December 2, 1905: On his first visit to Britain, at the invitation of Granville Bantock (37), Jean Sibelius (39) conducts his Symphony no.1 and Finlandia in Liverpool.
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March 24, 1906: Jean Sibelius' (40) dance intermezzo Pan och Echo is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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May 12, 1906: The Captive Queen op.48, a cantata by Jean Sibelius (40) to words of Cajander, for mixed chorus and orchestra, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki for the centenary of the birth of Finnish philosopher Johan Snellman.
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August 9, 1906: Jean Sibelius (40) writes from Helsinki to his wife: “Here it is-and has been-very calm on the surface, but it strikes me as being very much the ‘calm before the storm.’ Feelings run so high that I have difficulty in recalling such strong class hatred. Eyes literally blaze.”
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October 11, 1906: Two songs by Jean Sibelius (40) to words of Dehmel are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Aus banger Brust op.50/4 and Die stille Stadt op.50/5.
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October 26, 1906: Four songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (40) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Sehnsucht op.50/2 to words of Weiss, Im Feld ein Mädchen singt op.50/3 to words of Susman, Rosenlied op.50/6 to words of Ritter, and Hertig Magnus op.57/6 to words of Josephson.
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November 7, 1906: Incidental music to Procopé’s play Belshazzar’s Feast by Jean Sibelius (40) is performed for the first time, at the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki, the composer conducting. The press is not positive.
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December 29, 1906: Pohjola’s Daughter, a symphonic poem by Jean Sibelius (41), is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg, conducted by the composer. He is called back several times by the audience.
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January 5, 1907: The Countess’ Portrait, for reciter and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (41) to words of Topelius, is performed for the first time, in Vaasa.
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September 25, 1907: A suite from Belshazzar’s Feast by Jean Sibelius (41) is performed for the first time, under the composer’s direction, in Helsinki.
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November 2, 1907: Jean Sibelius (41) goes to visit Gustav Mahler (47) at his hotel in Helsinki. The two are civil and pleasant, but Mahler will write that he has no time for this nationalism. Sibelius respects him but is not impressed by his conducting.
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April 8, 1908: Incidental music to Strindberg’s play Swan White op.54 by Jean Sibelius (42) is performed for the first time, at the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki, under the composer’s direction.
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May 12, 1908: Jean Sibelius (42) undergoes an exploratory operation for a tumor in his throat. He is advised to see a German specialist, but has no money for the trip. Sibelius and his wife (who is pregnant) will visit every bank in Helsinki for a loan without result until finally, the director of an insurance company empties the day’s take into the composer’s pockets without explanation. In Berlin, the tumor will be removed.
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September 24, 1908: Jubal op.35/1, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (42) to words of Josephson, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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January 23, 1909: Night Ride and Sunrise, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (43), is performed for the first time, in St. Petersburg. The critics are not kind, although Alyeksandr Glazunov (43) tells the composer he likes it.
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February 27, 1909: After a concert in Queen’s Hall, London wherein he conducts two of his works, Claude Debussy (45) meets Jean Sibelius (43) for the first time. The two are complimentary towards each other.
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November 12, 1909: Two songs for voice and guitar or piano by Jean Sibelius (43) to accompany a production of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night are performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 6, 1910: Incidental music to Lybeck’s play The Lizard by Jean Sibelius (44) for violin and string quintet, is performed for the first time, at the Swedish Theatre, Helsinki, directed by the composer.
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April 25, 1910: The string quartet Voces intimae op.56 by Jean Sibelius (44) is performed for the first time, in the Helsinki Music Institute.
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April 28, 1910: Idle Wishes op.61/7, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (44) to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 8, 1910: Two works for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (44) are performed for the first time, in Christiania (Oslo), conducted by the composer: In memoriam op.59, and the tone poem The Dryad. The composition of In memoriam was inspired by the assassination of the Russian governor-general of Finland in 1904. Also premiered is Sibelius’ song The Tree op.57/5 to words of Josephson.
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October 10, 1910: Primary School Children’s March for children’s chorus by Jean Sibelius (44) to words of Pekka is performed for the first time, simultaneously at several Finnish primary schools.
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November 9, 1910: Two songs for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (44) to words of Josephson are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Friendship op.57/7, and The Elfing op.57/8.
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March 8, 1911: A revised version of Järnefelt’s play Death takes place in Helsinki. Jean Sibelius’ (45) music is used with two new numbers: Canzonetta op.62a and Valse romantique op.62b.
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April 3, 1911: The Symphony no.4 by Jean Sibelius (45) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer. Reaction to the symphony is confused. There is no applause until garlands are brought on stage.
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October 10, 1911: The first five of the Ten Piano Pieces op.58 by Jean Sibelius (45) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki, along with the premiere of the Two Rondinos op.68 for piano.
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October 11, 1911: Scènes historiques Suite I by Jean Sibelius (45) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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November 11, 1911: Cantata with words by W. von Konow for women’s chorus by Jean Sibelius (45) is performed for the first time, in Turku.
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January 17, 1912: Jean Sibelius (46) is offered the position of Professor of Composition at the Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Vienna. He is their third choice after Richard Strauss (47) and Max Reger (38). Sibelius will decline.
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March 1, 1912: After long deliberation, Jean Sibelius (46) turns down an offer to teach composition at the University of Vienna.  "I cannot enslave myself again..." (Mäkelä, 72)
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March 16, 1912: The Lover op.14 for strings by Jean Sibelius (46) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, conducted by the composer.
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March 29, 1912: Scènes historiques Suite II for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (46) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 20, 1912: Song for the People of Uusimaa for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (46) to words of Terhi is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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June 30, 1912: People from Land and Sea op.65a for chorus by Jean Sibelius (46) to words of Knape, is performed for the first time, in Vaasa.
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September 23, 1912: The Spell of Springtide op.61/8, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (46) to words of Gripenberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 1, 1912: The Music Makers op.69, an ode for alto, chorus, and orchestra by Edward Elgar (55) to words of O’Shaughnessy, is performed for the first time, in Birmingham, conducted by the composer. On the same program, Jean Sibelius (46) conducts the British premiere of his Symphony no. 4.
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March 27, 1913: The Bard op.64, a symphonic poem by Jean Sibelius (47), is performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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September 10, 1913: The Spirit of Nature op.70 for soprano and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (47), to words from the Kalevala, is performed for the first time, in Shire Hall, Gloucester.
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September 18, 1913: Arioso for soprano and piano by Jean Sibelius (47) to words of Runeberg is performed for the first time, in Helsinki. See 30 March 1914.
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February 4, 1914: In Berlin, Jean Sibelius (48) hears Gustav Mahler’s (†2) Symphony no.5 and the Kammersymphonie of Arnold Schoenberg (39). He reports: “This is a legitimate and valid way of looking at things, I suppose. But it is certainly painful to listen to. A result achieved by excessive cerebration. People whistled and shouted.”
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February 9, 1914: In his Berlin Diary, Jean Sibelius (48) writes, “Heard Duparc’s (66) songs, Korngold’s Trio and Schoenberg’s (39) Second Quartet op.10. It gave me a lot to think about. He interests me very much.”
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March 30, 1914: Two works for soprano and strings by Jean Sibelius (48) are performed for the first time, in Turku: Arioso, to words of Runeberg, and Sunrise, to words of Hedberg. See 18 September 1913.
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April 12, 1914: At home in Finland, Jean Sibelius (48) receives an invitation from Horatio Parker (50) to conduct The Oceanides and other works in the United States for $1,200. On the same day, he learns that the University of Helsinki will confer an honorary doctorate on him.
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May 27, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) arrives in New York to attend the Norfolk Music Festival in Connecticut.
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June 4, 1914: Oceanides, a tone poem by Jean Sibelius (48), is performed for the first time, in Norfolk, Connecticut, the composer conducting. It is a great success.
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June 14, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) visits Niagara Falls.
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June 15, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) boards a steamboat to view Niagara Falls.
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June 17, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) is awarded an honorary DMus by Yale University.
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June 18, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) boards the President Grant in New York to return to Finland.
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July 10, 1914: In the midst of war fears, Jean Sibelius (48) arrives back in Finland from the United States.
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October 17, 1914: Jean Sibelius (48) withdraws from a project to turn Juhani Aho’s novel Juha into an opera. It is the closest he will ever come to writing an opera.
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April 27, 1915: Two works for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (49) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Mr. Lager and the Fair One op.84/1 to words of Fröding, and On the Mountain to words of Gripenberg.
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December 6, 1915: Sonatina op.80 for violin and piano by Jean Sibelius (49) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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December 8, 1915: Symphony no.5 by Jean Sibelius is performed for the first time, in Turku, directed by the composer on his fiftieth birthday. Also on the program is the premiere of Two Serenades for violin and orchestra.  This 50th birthday is celebrated throughout Finland.
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December 14, 1915: Eternal Eros op.84/4 for baritone and male chorus by Jean Sibelius (50) to words of Gripenberg is performed for the first time, at Helsinki University.
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February 5, 1916: Jean Sibelius (50) learns that a collection has been started to pay off his debts.
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March 30, 1916: Two Pieces for violin or cello and orchestra op.77 by Jean Sibelius (50) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki directed by the composer.
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April 11, 1916: In the Moonlight for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (50) to words of Suonio is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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April 23, 1916: The Finnish Senate awards a professorship to Jean Sibelius (50).
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October 16, 1916: Five of the Six Songs op.86 by Jean Sibelius (50) to words of Tavaststjerna, Karlfeldt, and Snoilsky, are performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 5, 1916: Incidental music to Hoffmannsthal’s play Everyman (tr. Jalkanen) by Jean Sibelius (50), for chorus, piano, organ, and orchestra, is performed for the first time, at the Finnish National Theatre, Helsinki.
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March 16, 1917: Jean Sibelius (51) writes in his diary, “Big changes afoot in Russia. Are we to be permitted to determine our own destiny? That is the big question. A heavy weight hangs over Finland.”
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April 30, 1917: At Sea op.84/5 for chorus by Jean Sibelius (51) to words of Reuter is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 26, 1917: Six Songs op.88 by Jean Sibelius (51) to words of Franzen and Runeberg are performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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January 19, 1918: March of the Finnish Jaeger Batallion op.91/1 for male chorus and brass septet by Jean Sibelius (52) to words of Nurmio is given its first public performance, in Helsinki.
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February 12, 1918: During the Finnish Civil War, Red troops search the house of Jean Sibelius (52) in Järvenpää, while the composer plays the piano to calm his children.
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February 20, 1918: Jean Sibelius (52), his wife and three of his children move by sledge from his home, Ainola, to his brother’s home at the Lapinlahti mental hospital in Helsinki.
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April 11, 1918: While staying in his brother’s quarters at Lapinlahti mental hospital to avoid the fighting, Jean Sibelius (52) records in his diary the sounds of war in the Helsinki area, “April 11 during the bombardment. Have never dreamt of anything so tremendous. Horrible, but grand! Shall I be alive tomorrow?”
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May 9, 1918: The Kiss op.72/3, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (52) to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 24, 1918: Oma Maa (Our Native Land), a cantata by Jean Sibelius (52) to words of Kallio, is performed for the first time, in Kansalliskuoro, as part of a concert organized for the German army. The piece was written to honor Gösta Schybergson, a medical student killed by communists on 2 February.
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April 5, 1919: Outside, the Storm is Raging for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (53) to words of Schybergson is performed for the first time, in Viipuri.
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May 31, 1919: Academic March for orchestra by Jean Sibelius (53) is performed for the first time, at Helsinki University.
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October 4, 1919: Summer Night op.90/5, a song for voice and piano by Jean Sibelius (53) to words of Runeberg, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 11, 1919: Song of the Earth, a cantata by Jean Sibelius (53) to words of Hemmer, is performed for the first time, in Turku, directed by the composer.
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November 24, 1919: The definitive version of the Symphony no.5 by Jean Sibelius (53) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki in the presence of President Kaarlo Ståhlberg, the composer conducting. He also directs the premiere of his Six Humoresques for violin and orchestra opp.87&89. The newly revised symphony is highly lauded.
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December 1, 1919: Autrefois for two sopranos and small orchestra by Jean Sibelius (53) to words of Procopé is performed for the first time, at the opening of the Gösta Stenman gallery in Helsinki.
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April 4, 1920: Hymn of the Earth op.95, a cantata by Jean Sibelius (54) to words of Leino, for chorus and orchestra, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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January 3, 1921: Jean Sibelius (55) sends a telegram from Helsinki accepting a professorship at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York.
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February 10, 1921: At a reception in London, Jean Sibelius (55) meets Ralph Vaughan Williams (48) for the first time.
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March 19, 1921: Surging the Wave Rushes Forward for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (55) to words of Schybergson is performed for the first time, in Turku.
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May 2, 1921: Honor March of the Singing Brothers of Viipuri for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (55) to words of Eerola is performed for the first time, in Viipuri.
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May 9, 1921: After accepting, withdrawing, and then accepting a position at the Eastman School of Music, Jean Sibelius (55) finally turns down the offer.
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July 21, 1921: Friedrich Koch writes to Jean Sibelius (55) telling him that Sibelius has been named an honorary fellow of the Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin.
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April 6, 1922: Two orchestrations of piano pieces by Jean Sibelius (56) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Valse lyrique and Suite mignonne for two flutes and strings.
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May 12, 1922: Knudsen’s tragic pantomime Scaramouche, with music by Jean Sibelius (56), is performed for the first time, at the Royal Theatre, Copenhagen.
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December 28, 1922: Andante festivo for string quartet by Jean Sibelius (57) is performed for the first time.
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February 19, 1923: Symphony no.6 by Jean Sibelius (57) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, the composer conducting. Also premiered are three orchestrations of piano pieces: Valse chevaleresque, Suite champêtre, and Suite caractéristique.
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November 6, 1923: Jean Sibelius (57) is awarded a 100,000 mark scholarship from the Kordelin Foundation in Helsinki, for his promotion and diffusion of Finnish music.
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March 24, 1924: Symphony no.7 by Jean Sibelius (58) is performed for the first time, in Stockholm, the composer conducting. It is presented under the name Fantasia sinfonica.
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March 9, 1925: Morceau romantique sur un motif de M. Jacob de Julin by Jean Sibelius (59) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki, directed by the composer.
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August 22, 1925: Intrada op.111/1 for organ by Jean Sibelius (59) is performed for the first time, at a church service during a state visit to Helsinki by King Gustaf V of Sweden.
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December 8, 1925: President Lauri Relander presents Jean Sibelius with the Order of the White Rose of Finland on the composer’s 60th birthday.
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March 13, 1926: Alikeness for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (60) to words of Runeberg is performed for the first time, in Turku.
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March 16, 1926: Incidental music to Shakespeare’s play The Tempest (tr. Lembcke) op.109 by Jean Sibelius (60) is performed for the first time, in Copenhagen.
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March 23, 1926: Two works for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (60) are performed for the first time, in Helsinki: Humoresque op.108/1, and Wanderers on the Long Way.
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June 28, 1926: Väinö’s Song, a cantata for chorus and orchestra by Jean Sibelius (60) to words from the Kalevala, is performed for the first time, in Sortavala.
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December 26, 1926: Tapiola, a symponic poem by Jean Sibelius (61), is performed for the first time, in the Mecca Temple, New York.
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January 12, 1927: Musique religieuse op.113 by Jean Sibelius (61) for the Freemasons is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 22, 1928: The Guardian of the Bridge for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (62) to words of Sola is performed for the first time, in New York.
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July 7, 1930: About 12,000 people of the ultranationalist, anti-communist Lapua Movement march in Helsinki in a show of force. The government outlaws communist newspapers.  Among those attending are Jean Sibelius (64) and his wife.
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September 7, 1930: Karelia’s Fate for male chorus and piano by Jean Sibelius (64) to words of Nurminen is performed for the first time, in Sortavala.  The work will soon be identified by radical nationalists.
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March 19, 1931: Funeral Music op.111/2 for organ by Jean Sibelius (65) is performed for the first time, for the funeral of Akseli Gallén-Kallela in Helsinki.
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July 2, 1932: Arnold Bax (48) arrives in Helsinki from Stockholm for five days in Finland. During this time, he visits Jean Sibelius (66) at Järvenpäa.
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June 1, 1935: Jean Sibelius (69) is awarded the Brahms Medal of the City of Hamburg in absentia.
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November 26, 1935: Adolf Hitler signs the document awarding the Goethe Medal to Jean Sibelius (69).
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April 4, 1938: Finlandia Hymn op.113/12 for male chorus and harmonium by Jean Sibelius (72) to words of Sola is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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December 16, 1938: Samuel Barber (28) takes two recent recordings by Arturo Toscanini of Adagio for Strings and First Essay for orchestra and sends them to Jean Sibelius (73) with a letter. “Your music means so much to us who are trying once again to compose...after the years of post-war experimentation into which we were born--your example as an artist is so beautiful and encouraging: so I have always wanted to meet you...”
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December 7, 1940: Finlandia Hymn op.26/7 for male chorus by Jean Sibelius to words of Koskenniemi is performed for the first time, in Helsinki on the eve of the composer’s 75th birthday.
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June 12, 1941: Jean Sibelius (75), his wife and their grandchildren are evacuated from Helsinki and return to Järvenpää.
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July 4, 1941: Jean Sibelius (75) makes an appeal to the government and people of the United States for aid in fighting invading Soviets.
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July 12, 1941: Through the Associated Press, Jean Sibelius (75) appeals to the world for understanding in Finland’s alliance with Germany and war against the Soviet Union.
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October 24, 1946: Ode to Fraternity for chorus and harmonium by Jean Sibelius (80) to words of Sario, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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September 6, 1947: Hymn of Praise op.113/9 for solo voice, male chorus, and harmonium by Jean Sibelius (81) to words of Sario is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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November 17, 1951: President Truman allows Jean Sibelius (85) to renew US copyrights on his music which lapsed during World War II.
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September 20, 1957: Around 21:00 Jean Christian Julius Sibelius dies of a cerebral hemorrhage at his home Ainola in Järvenpää, Republic of Finland, aged 91 years, nine months, and twelve days.
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September 21, 1957: President Urho Kekkonen goes on Finnish National Radio to speak to the nation on the death of Jean Sibelius yesterday.
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September 30, 1957: After a state funeral in the Nicholas Church, Helsinki, the earthly remains of Jean Sibelius are interred in the garden of his home Ainola, in Järvenpää. Among the mourners is Finnish President Urho Kekkonen.
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March 18, 1961: Cease your Raging, Waterfall for male chorus by Jean Sibelius (†3) to words of the Kalevala, completed by Bergman, is performed for the first time, in Helsinki.
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March 22, 1964: An arrangement of the music of Jean Sibelius (†6) by Igor Stravinsky (81) called Canzonetta, done in gratitude for his winning the Wihuri-Sibelius Prize in 1963, is performed for the first time, over the airwaves of the Finnish Broadcasting Company.
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September 7, 1967: President Urho Kekkonen unveils Passio Musicæ, a sculpture by Eila Hiltunen in honor of Jean Sibelius (†9), in Helsinki.
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September 21, 1983: A “Wedding March” composed by Jean Sibelius (†26) for Adolf Paul’s play Die Sprache der Vögel is performed for probably the first time, in Helsinki.
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October 9, 1983: Krzysztof Penderecki (49) receives the Sibelius Prize in Helsinki from the Wihuri Foundation. Previous winners include Jean Sibelius (†26), Igor Stravinsky (†12), Paul Hindemith (†19), Dmitri Shostakovich (†8), Olivier Messiaen (74), Witold Lutoslawski (70), and Benjamin Britten (†6).
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December 8, 1990: Suite in d minor op.117 for violin and strings by Jean Sibelius (†33) is performed for the first time, on the 125th anniversary of the composer’s birth and 61 years after it was composed.
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July 11, 2001: Two works for solo kantele by Jean Sibelius (†43), Dolcissimo and Moderato, are performed for the first time, in Nurmes, Finland.
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November 26, 2010: Tocar for violin and piano by Kaija Saariaho (58) is performed for the first time, in Helsinki as part of the Jean Sibelius violin competition.