December 13, 2008: Hymn to the Spirit of Fire for chorus and organ by Peter Maxwell Davies (74) to words of Hildegard von Bingen (†829) is performed for the first time, in Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral.
1850: John Glanton and his gang of professional scalphunters are surrounded and killed by Yumas (Yuma County, Arizona). Over the last two years, Glanton’s gang killed 1,000 Indians earning $100,000 in selling scalps to the Mexican government. Since they also sell Mexican and anglo scalps as Indian, the United States posted a $75,000 reward for their capture. The Yumas receive no reward but Fort Yuma is named in their honor.