A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF WESTERN MUSIC HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF WORLD EVENTS
January 15, 1805: Louise-Angélique Bertin is born at the estate of Les Roches, near Bièvres, Seine-et-Oise, Republic of France, third of three children born to Louis-François Bertin, editor and part owner of the Journal des débats, and Geneviève-Victoire-Aimée Boutard. In adult life, Louise Bertin will always walk with great difficulty and with the need for support. This condition began sometime in childhood, perhaps at birth, but the exact cause is unknown.
August 25, 1825: Guy Mannering, an opéra-comique by Louise Bertin (20) to her own words after Scott, is performed for the first time, in the orangerie of her parents’ chateau Les Roches, near Bièvres.
March 10, 1827: Le loup-garou, an opéra-comique by Louise Bertin (22) to words of Scribe and Mazères, is performed for the first time, at the Opéra-Comique, Paris. It is part of a benefit for the poor of Paris. Although applauded early on, by the end there are demonstrations against the work, perhaps orchestrated by opponents of the periodical owned by the composer’s father, Le Journal des débats. The press is not kind.
March 7, 1831: Fausto, an opera semisera by Louise Bertin (26) to words possibly by the composer after Goethe, is performed for the first time, at the Théâtre-Italien, Paris. The first night audience is very appreciative, the critics are positive, but it will receive only three performances.
November 14, 1836: Esmeralda, an opera by Louise Bertin (31) to words of Hugo, is performed for the first time, at the Paris Opéra. It does not succeed. Critics are widely mixed.
April 26, 1877: Louise-Angélique Bertin dies at her home at 15 Quai Conti, Paris, Republic of France, aged 72 years, three months, and eleven days.
April 28, 1877: After a funeral, the mortal remains of Louise Bertin are laid to rest in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris. The spot will be unmarked until 1985.
1914:World War I: After successes and failures on both sides, the series of engagements over the last four days around Gumbinnen (Gusev), 110 km east of Königsberg (Kaliningrad) result in, on the whole, a Russian victory. But the Russians do not press their advantage.
The Battle of the Jadar concludes with Austrian troops fleeing under Serbian bombardment. The invading Austrians are ordered to retreat across the Sava.
In Lorraine, the invading French are cut to pieces by the Germans at Sarrebourg and are forced to retreat.
The German First Army enters Brussels, marching through the streets. A governor-general is installed.